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!i]:: " ^ ^''^A L I n^ i hr ''^^ 'NS'l fttl i"l 



THE NORTH OF KNGLAND INSTITUTE OF 

/// 

MINING AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 

/ [Founded 1852. -Incorporatkd by Rhval Charter, 1876.] 



TRANSACTIONS. 



VOL. LXVL - LY-VW 



1915-1916. -/f// 



EDITED BY THK ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 



newcastle-upon-tynp:: published by the institute. 



Printed by Andrew Reid <fe Co., Limited, Newcastle-upon-Ttnk. 

1916. -^ /^/^ 
\_All rights of puhlication or translation are reserved.] 



7/1/ 
/ 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



The Institxite is not, as a body, responsible for the statements and opinions 
advanced in the pajwrs which may be read, nor in the discussions which may 
take place at the meetings of the Institute. 




CONTENTS. iii 



CONTENTS OF VOL. LXVI. 



Advertisement ... . . ... ... ii 

Contexts ... . . . . ... ... iii 



GENERAL MEETINGS. 



1915. PAGE. 

Aug. 7. — Aumial Geueral Meeting (Nevvca.stle-iipou-Tyue) ... ... 1 

Election of Officers, 1915-1916 1 

G. C. Greenwell Medal ... . ... ... 2 

Annual Report of the Council, 1914-1915 . .. ... 2 

Annual Report of the Finance Committee, 1914-1915 6 

Account.s ... ... ... ... ... . . 7 

Election of Repre-sentatives on the Council of The In.stitution 

of Mining Engineers, 1915-1916 13 

Discussion of Mr. Samuel Dean's pajier on " Coal-mining 

in the State of Pennsylvania, United States of America "■ 13 

Discus.sion of Mr. C. W. Chafer's pai>er on " Mining in 

Burma." Part I. 14 

Discu.ssiou of Mr. H. W. G. I^albaum's paper on "The 
Winding-drums of Practice and of Theory; with Notes 
on Factors of Safety and Economy of Winding-ropes ' ' 16 

"A New Battery Signalling Bell." By W. M. Thornton .. 19 

Discussion . ... ... ... ... ... ... 26 

Oct.. 9. — General Meeting (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) ... ... ... ... 33 

Remarks on the Miner's " Safety-lamp " on the Presentation 
of Portraits of the Inventors by John Bell Simpson, 

D.C.L .33 

"Presidential Address." By T. Y. Greener 38 

" Modern American Coal-mining Methods, with Some 

Comparisons." By Samuel Dean ... .. ... . .53 

Discussion ... ... ... ... 85 

Dec. 11. — General Meeting (Newca.stle-upon-Tyne) ... ... ... 103 

Di.scussion of Mr. C. W. Chafer's pajwr on " Mining in 

Burma." Part I. 104 

Discussion of Mr. Samuel Dean's paper on " Modern 
American Coal-mining Methods, with Some Com- 
parisons" 106 

1916. 

Feb. 12. — General Meeting (Newcastle-upon-Tyne)... .. 149 

Discussion of Mr. Samuel Dean's paper on " Modem 
American Coal-mining Methods, with Some Com- 
parisons." ... ... ... ... ... 149 

"The Hirsch Portable Electric Lamp." By Hiram H. 

Hir.sch . . ... ... 175 

"The Logic of Trams." By John Gibson l86 

Discussion ... ... . . ... . . 198 



IV CONTENTS. 

ISilG. PAGE. 

April 8.— Goucial Mootiug (Newca.stle-upon-Tyne) 205 

Ui.scUhsioii of Mr. Saimiel Dfan'.s pajR-r on " Modern 
American Coal-mining MethodN, with Some Coni- 
pari.son.s " ... ... 206 

Di.sc-u.ssion of Mr. Hiram H. Hirsch'.s pai>er on "The 

Hirsch Portable Electric Lamp " 216 

Discussion of Mr. John Gibson's paper on " The Logic of 

Trams" 216 

'■ The Influence of Incombii.stihlf Substances on Coal-dust 

Explosions." By A. S. Blatchford 235 

Discussion ... ... ... ... 243 

June 3.— Greneral Meeting (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) ... 252 

Discussion of Mr. Samuel Dean's pai>er on " Modern 
American Coal-mining Methods, with Some Com- 
parisons " ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 252 

Discussion of Mr. Hiram H. Hirsch's paper on "The Hirsch 

Portable Electric Lamj) " ... ... ... ... ... 254 

Discussion of Mr. John Gibson's pa|)er on " The Logic of 

Trams " ... ... 254 

Discussion of Mr. A. S. Blatchford's paper on "The Influ- 
ence of Incombustil)le Substances on Coal-dust 
Explosions" .. ... ... ... ... ... ... 267 

" Memoir of the late George May." By Charles L. Dobson 269 



APPENDICES. 

-Notes of Papers on the Worjcing of Mines, Metallurgy, etc., from 
the Transactions of Colonial and Foreign Societies and Colonial 
and Foreign Publications ... ... ... ... ... ... 1-31 

" Prospecting for Gold in the Metalliferous Strata of the 

Black Mountain." By R. Espar.seil 1 

" List of Canadian Mineral Occurrences." By A. A. Johnston 2 

"Coalfields of British Columbia." By D. B. Bowling ... 2 

"Coalfields of the Domain of Kebao, China." By Louis 

Ranieau ... ... ... ... . . ... ... ... 3 

"Characteristics of Fossil Coal." By K. Weithofer ... 4 

" Characteristics of Coal-deposits in the Limestone Strata 

(Germany)." By E. Donath and A. Kzehak 4- 

" Mining Fields of Western Australia." By A. Gibb 

Maitland 5 

"Mining Geology of Yerilla. North Coolgardie Goldfield." 

By J. T. Jutson 5 

" Geological Ob.servations and Remarks on the Pre.sent State 

of Mining in the Districts of Moimt Magnet, Lennon- 

ville and Boogardie, Murchison Goldfield." By J. T. 

Jutspn ... . . . . ... ... ... ... . . 6 

"Coal Re.sources of Western Australia." By H. P. 

Woodward ... ... ... ... ... ... 6 

" Certain Mining Centres at the South End of the Yalgoo 

Goldfield." By H. P. Woodward 7 

" Knrnalpi. North-ea.st Coolgardie Goldfield." By J. T. 

Jutson . .. ... 7 



CONTEXTS. V 

APPENUICES.— CoH/.HHCf/. 
I. — Notes of Papers, etc. — Continued. page. 

" Report upou the Ardlethan Tiufield." By J. U. Ciodfrcy 8 

"The Mayari Ii'on-Ore Depo.sit.s, Cuba." By J. F. Kemp 8 

" Working and Concentration of the Outjmt of a Coalfield in 

Bohemia.' By L. Kir.schner ... 8 

" Method.s of Drawing Pillars in Pitching Seams." By J. 

Somerville Quigley ... ... ... ... ... ... 9 

" Condensation of Gasoline from Natural Gas." By G. A. 

Burrell, Frank M. Seiljert and G. G. Oberfell 9 

" Mine-rescue Apparatus." By Charles Graham 10 

" Studies and Investigations Relating to Various Exj)losive 

Mixtures, with Nitrate of Ammonia as the Base." By 

H. Schmerlser 11 

" Occurrence of Explosive Ga.ses in Coal-mines." By N. H. 

Darton ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ll 

" Some Remarks on Gas in Coal." By G. A. Lavoie 12 

" Limits of Intiammability of Mixtures of Methane and Air." 

By G. A. Bunell and G. G. Oberfell 12 

" Investigation of Certain Phenomena Accompanying a 

Mining (Air-blast) Accident. By F. Mrvik 14 

"Explosion in a Coal-mine near Neurode, Prussian Silesia." 

By — Warne 14 

■' Analysis of Natural Gas and Illuminating-gas by 

Fractional Distillation at Low Temi>eratures and 

Pressures." By G. A. Burrell, F. M. Seiljert and I. W. 

Robertson ... ... ... ... ... . . 15 

" Addition of Lime to Briquettes to Reduce the Sul])hur 

Percentage." By E. Donath 16 

"Utilization of Lignite or Brown Coal." By J. Huebers 16 

"Utilization of Browu-coal Dust." By — Herburg ... 17 

"Notes on the Use of Low-grade Fuel in Euroj)e." By 

R. H. Fennald ".. 17 

" DifiBculties in Firing Explosives, either Electrically or by 

Hand." By T. Blum ' .".. 18 

" Destructive Force and Speed of Explosions of Modern 

Blasting Materials." By — East 19 

"Use of Liquid Air for Blasting in Coal-mines." By M. 

Przyborski ... ... ... ... 19 

"Arrangements for Reversing the Ventilation in Mines." 

By G. Ryba 20 

"Rotating Ventilation-doors for Upcast Shafts." By G. 

Ryba 20 

" Study of Mine Ventilation : Combination of Natural and 

Artificial Ventilation." By J. Bouvat-Martin 21 

" Some Considerations in Regard to the Internal Resistance 

of Ventilators." By J. Bouvat-Martin 21 

" Irruptions of Quicksand in the Brown-coal Measures of 

North-west Bohemia." By A. Padour ... 22 

" Application of the Elmore Apparatus at the Guerrouma 

Mines." By D. Du.ssert 22 

" Coking of Coal at Low Temperatures, with Special Refer- 
ence to the Proi^erties and Composition of the Products." 

By S. W. Parr and H. L. Olin 28 



VI 



CONTENTS. 



Al'PEN DICES. —r(*»/i»i(c./. 
I. — Notes of Pajtoi-.s, etc. — Cuntinued. 

" Exin'iimout.s on Wiio Rojh's. " By J. l)ivi> 

■ Eiiiploymcnt of Mechauieal Drills in tlio Miucs of Con- 

stautiiia." By — Fortier 

•' Eloctiification of 'the Mines of the Cleveland-Clitt.- Iron 

Company." By F. C. Stanford 

"Loading of Mine Cages by Electrical Means." By — 

VVinternieyer 
•■ Modern Electrically-driven Ventilators in Mines." By 

^ VVendriner and K. RiJckert 
" Solenoid Cables with Induction-coils for Telephoning in 

Mines." By W. Sieprawski 

•• I'etrolcum and the War." By A. Gui.selin 

••Movements of Manganese Ore." By A. de Keppen 

■• Mineral Production of India during 11)13 and l'J14." By 

H. H. Hayden 

■■ Supply of Mineral Fuel to Paris Before the War : 

Importance of the Port of Rouen for the Supply of 

I'aris." By A. de Kep]>en 
" Miners' Wash-and-Change Hou.ses." By Josej)h H 

White 

" Dimensioning of Coal-mines." By — Barvik 
"Safety in Stone-quarrying." By Oliver Bf)wles ... 



PAGE. 
24 

25 
25 
26 
26 



28 
28 



29 



30 

30 
31 
31 



II. — List of Fatal and Non-fatal Explosions of Firedamp or Coal- 
dust for the Year 1915. Compiled by Percy Stmelecki 32-34 



in.— Annual fieport of the Council and Accounts for the Year 1915- 
1916; List of Council, Officers and Menilx>rs for the Year 1916- 
1917; etc 



i-lii 



Index 



1-7 



I 
II. 



List of Plates 

PAGE 

84 III. 

198 



PAGE. 

269 



THE NORTH OK ENGLAND INSTITUTE 



MINING AND JIECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING, 

Held in the Wood Memorial Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 

August 7th, 1915. 



Me. T. Y. GREENER, President, in the Chair. 



ELECTION OF OFFICEES, 1915-1916. 

The President (Mr. T. Y, Greener) appointed Messrs. N. B. 
Ridley, Jolin Simpson, W. B. Wilson, Jun., and Allan Cordner 
as Scrutineers of the balloting-papers for the election of officers 
for the year 1915-1916. 

The Scrutineers afterwards reported the result of the ballot, 
as follows ; — 

President : 
Mr. T. Y. Greener. 



Mr. J, B. Atkinson. 
Mr. Samuel Hare. 



Mr. R. S. Anderson. 
Mr. Henry Armstrong. 
Mr. Sidney Bates. 
Mr. R. W. Berkley. 
Mr. C. S. Cabnes. 
Mr. W. Cochran Carr. 



Vice-Presidents : 
Mr. T. E. Jobling. 
Mr. C. C. Leach. 

Councillors : 
Mr. Frank Coulson. 
Mr. Benjamin Dodd. 
Mr. Mark Ford. 
Mr. J. H. B. FoRSTER. 
Mr. A. M. Hedley. 
Mr. A. C. Kayll. 



Prof. Henry Louis. 
Mr. F. R. Simpson. 



Mr. John Morison. 
Mr. W. C. Mountain. 
Mr. John Simpson. 
Mr. Simon Tate. 
Mr. R. L. Weeks. 
Mr. E. Seymour Wood. 



VOL, LXtT.— 1915-1910. 



2 TRANSACTIONS— THE NORTH OV K.VCJLAXD INSTITUTE. [Vol.lxvi. 

The Secretary read the minutes of the last General Meeting, 
and repoiled the proceedings of the Council at their meetings on 
July 24th and that day. 

G. C. GEEENWELL MEDAL. 
The President (Mr. T. Y. Greener), in presenting the G. C. 
Greenwell bronze medal to Mr. Eobert Clive for his paper on 
"Stone-dusting at lientley Colliery: Eeport to the Doncaster 
Coal-owners' (Gob-fires) Committee," said that Mr. Clive had 
been associated with him for many years in one way and another, 
and therefore it was a personal gratification to him to have the 
pleasure of making the presentation. 

Mr. Eobert Clive expressed his appreciation of the high hon- 
our that had been conferred upon him by the Institute in present- 
ing him with the Greenwell medal. He had received a large 
part of his training in the IS'orth of England, and it was a par- 
ticular pleasure to him that the President of the Institute that 
year was Mr. Greener, under whom he had served a great part 
of his time. He attributed his personal success to the excellent 
training that he had obtained under that gentleman. 



The Annual Eeport of the Council was read, as follows : — 

ANNUAL EEPOET OF THE COUNCIL, 1914-1915. 

The Institute has sustained a great loss through the death of 
Mr. George May, who was elected a member in the year 1862, 
served on the Council from the year 1878, and was elected Presi- 
dent in 1896. He contributed to the Transactions, and took a 
lively interest in the aifairs of the Institute. 

The Council also deplore the deaths of Messrs. James Eobson 
Brass and Eonald Edwin White, who were killed in action in 
the Great War. 

A decrease in the membership has to be reported for the fifth 
year in succession. The additions to the register, and the losses 
by death, resignation, etc., are shown in the following table: — 

Additions 
Losses ... 
Gain 

Lo^ — 19 44 25 31 28 



1910. 


1911. 


1913. 


1913. 


1914. 


1915. 


84 


72 


61 


66 


55 


47 


81 


91 


105 


91 


86 


75 


3 


— 


— 












1915-1916.] N.E.INST. — ANNUAL REPORT OF COUNCIL, 1914-1915. 3 

It will be seeii from the table that the fall in membership this 
year is again clue to a decrease in the additions. This decrease is 
no doubt in part the result of the removal of the headquarters of 
The Institution of Mining- Engineers to London in 1909, and an 
effort must be made to increase the membership from local 
sources. Agents and managers in the district could materially 
help by inducing their officials to become members or associates 
of the Institute. 

The membership for the last six years is shown in the follow- 
ing table : — 

Year ended August 1st. 1910. 1911. 1912. 1913. 1914. 1915. 

Honorary members ... 26 27 24 23 24 25 

Members 926 921 893 874 846 824 / 

Associate members ... 106 107 101 100 97 91 

Associates 214 209 204 205 206 207 

.Students 54 43 43 38 34 31 

Subscribers 35 35 33 33 35 36 

Totals ...1,361 1,342 1,298 1,273 1,242 1,214 

The Council are compiling a list of members serving with the 
forces, of whom they have record of 100, but the list is by no 
means complete. 

The Library has been maintained in an efficient condition 
during the year; the additions, by donation, exchange, and pur- 
chase, include 600 bound volumes and 26 pamphlets, reports, 
etc. ; and the Library now contains about 15,339 volumes and 
557 unbound pamphlets. A card-catalogue of the books, etc.," 
contained in the Library renders them easily available for 
reference. 

An exchange of Transactions has been arranged, during the 
year, with the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan Geological Survey. 

The courses of lectures for colliery engineers, enginewrights, 
and apprentice mechanics arranged to take place at Armstrong 
College were suspended on account of the war. 

Mr. Thomas Douglas continues to represent the Institute as 
a Governor of Armstrong College, and Mr. John H. Merivale, in 
conjunction with the President (Mr. T. Y. Greener), represents 
the Institute on the Council of the College. 

Mr. Thomas Edgar Jobling continues to represent the Insti- 
tute upon the Board of Directors of the Institute and Coal Trade 
Chambers Company, Limited, 



4 TRAXSACTinXS -TIIK XORTIl OF KXGLAXl) INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

Tlie Pre.sideiit continues a Representative Governor ui)on the 
Court of Governors of tlie University of Durham Collef?e of 
Medicine during- lii.s term of office. 

The International (;ongres.s of Mining', Metallurgy, Applied 
Meclianics, and Economic Geology, which was to have taken 
place in London during the year 1915, was abandoned ou account 
of the war. 

Under the will of the late Mr. John Daglish, funds have 
been placed at the disposal of Armstrong- College for founding a 
Travelling Fellowship, to be called the " Daglish " Fellowship, 
candidates for which must be nominated by the Institute. Mr. 
Samuel Dean was, in January, 1915, again awarded the Fellow- 
ship, and suitable arrangements have been made for Mr. Dean to 
gain knowledge and experience abroad. 

A G. C. Greenwell bronze medal has been awarded to Mr. 
Robert Clive for his paper on " Stone-dusting at Bentley 
Colliery : Report to the Doncaster Coal-owners' "(Gob-fires) 
Committee." 

Prizes have been awarded to the writers of the following 
papers, communicated to the members during the year 
1914-1915: — 

"Coal-mining in Mexico." By Mr. Edward Otto Forster Brown, M.I.M.E. 
" Notes on Coal-mining' in the State of Illinois, United States of America." 

By Mr. Samnel Dean, M.I.M.E. 
" Hydraulic Stowing in the Gold-mines of the Witwat«rsrand." By Mr. 

Berent Conrad Gullachsen, M.I.M.E. 
" The Prevention of Overwinding and Overspeeding in Shafts." By Mr. 

Gordon George Thomas Poole, M.I.M.E. 

The papers printed in the Transactions during the year are 
as follows : — 

" The Killingworth Colliery (New South Wales) Explosion." By Mr. 

James Ashworth. 
" Coal-mining in Mexico." By Mr. Edward Otto Forster Brown, M.I.M.E. 
" The Maikop Oilfield, Soiith Eussia." By Mr. William Calder, M.I.M.E. 
" Mining in Burma." Part I. By Mr. Cecil William Chater, M.I.M.E. 
"Winding-engine Signals." By Mr. Wilfrid H. Davis. 
" Notes on Coal-mining in the State of Illinois, United States of America." 

By Mr. Samuel Dean, M.I.M.E. 
" Coal-mining in the State of Pennsylvania, United States of America." 

By Mr. Samuel Dean, M.I.M.E. 
"Hydraulic Stowing in the Gold-mines of the Witwatersrand." By Mr. 

Berent Conrad Gullachsen, M.I.M.E. 
"The Lateral Friction of Winding-ropes." By Mr. Henry Wallace 

Gregory Halbaum, M.I.M.E. 



1915-1916.1 X.E. INST.— AXxXUAL KEPOllT OF COUNCIL, 1914-1915. 5 

"The Windiug-drums of Practice and of Theory; with Notes on 

Factors of Safety aud Economy of AVindiug-ropes." By Mr. Henry 

Wallace Gregory Halbaiim, M.I.M.E. 
" The Prevention of Overwinding and Oversi^eeding in Shafts." By Mr. 

Gordon George Thomas Poole, M.I.M.E. 
"A Portable Electrical Gas-det«ctiug Device for Use with Miners' 

Lamps." By Mr. George J. Ralph. 

No excursion meetings have been held during the year. The 
Council hope to rearrange the postponed excursion to Esknieals 
on the conclusion of the war. 

During the year Mr. AV. 0. Tate presented a lamp to the 
collection which the Institute is forming to replace that 
destroyed by fire at the Brussels Exhibition. 

The rooms of the Institute have been used, during the year, by 
the Newcastle-upon-Tyne Economic Society; the North-East 
Coast Association of Chartered Secretaries; the Armstrong 
College; the Newcastle Local Section of the Institution of 
Electrical Engineers; the North of England Branch of the 
Association of Mining Electrical Engineers; the British 
Foundrymens' Association ; the Newcastle Jewish Literary and 
Social Society ; the Lawn Tennis Association ; and the North of 
England Gas Managers' Association. 

The Council beg to report that the North-Eastern Railway 
Company have, for the present, withdrawn the privilege of 
reduced railway-fares to members attending general or excursion 
meetings of the Institute. The Council hope, however, that 
if the concession should be renewed after the war it will lead to 
an increased attendance at the meetings. 

The Institution of Mining Engineers has now completed its 
twenty-sixth year, and the members are to be congratulated on 
its progress. During the year it has been granted a Royal Charter 
of Incorporation. 

The President (Mr. T. Y. Greener) moved the adoption of 
the Report, 

Mr. John H. Meeivale seconded the resolution, which was 
adopted. 



The Annual Report of the Finance Committee was read, as 
follows : — 



6 IIIANSACTIONS— THE NORTH oF EXGLAXD INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE FINANCE COMMITTEE, 

1914-1915. 

A statement of accounts for the year ended June 30tli, 
1915, duly audited, is submitted herewith by the Finance Com- 
mittee. 

The total receipts were £2,697 9s. 5d. Of this amount 
£42 8s. was paid as subscriptions in advance, leaving 
£2,055 Is. 5d. as the ordinary income of the year, as compared 
with £2,749 17s. 9d. in the previous year. The amount received 
as ordinary subscriptions for the year was £1,966 lis., and 
arrears £194 17s., as against £2,104 12s. and £249 13s. respec- 
tively in the year 1913-1914. Transactions sold realized 
£8 17s. 5d., as compared with £31 13s. 5d,, and the amount 
received for interest on investments was £396 15s., as compared 
with £398 Is. lOd. in the previous year. 

The expenditure was £2,271 Os. 5d., as against £2,752 9s. 5d. 
in the previous year. Increases are shown in rent, rates, and 
taxes, library purchases, postages, telephones, etc., and report- 
ing. Decreases are shown in the contributions to The Institu- 
tion of Mining Engineers, salaries and wages, insurance, heat- 
ing, lighting, and water,- furniture and repairs, printing and 
stationery, incidental expenses, travelling expenses, prizes for 
papers, and Library catalogue. 

The balance of income over expenditure was £426 9s., and 
if to this the amount of £674 5s. 6d. from the previous year 
be added, a credit balance remains of £1,100 14s. 6d. 

The names of 25 persons have been struck off the member- 
ship list in consequence of non-payment of subscriptions. The 
amount of subscriptions written off was £140 18s., of which £78 
was for sums due for the year 1914-1915, and £62 18s. for 
arrears. 

It IS probable that a considerable proportion of this amount 
will be recovered and credited in future years. Of the amount 
previously written off, £49 2s. was recovered during the past 
year. 

THOS. Y. GREENER, President. 
August bill, 1915. 



1915-1916.] 



X.E. IXST. ANNUAL ACCOUNTS, 1914-1915. 



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TRANSACTIONS — THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 
Db. Thb Tkkasukee in Account with Tiik Nokth of England 

FOR THE YEAK ENDINQ 



June 30th, 191 4. ^ s. d. £ 

To Balance of account at bankers ... 
in Treasurer's hands 



£ 


s. 


d. 


595 


8 


9 


78 


16 


9 



674 5 6 



June 30th, 1915. 

To Dividend of 7^ per cent, on 207 shares of £20 each in 
the Institute and Coal Trade Chambers Company, 
Limited, for the year ending June 30th, 1915 ... 310 10 

„ Interest on mortgage of £1,400 with the Institute and 

Coal Trade Chambers Company, Limited 49 

„ Dividend on £340 consolidated 5-per-ceut. preference 
stock of the Newcastle and Gateshead Water 
Company ... ... •.• ■• ■•■ ... 17 

„ Dividend on £450 ordinary stock of the Newcastle and 

Gateshead Gas Company 20 5 



396 15 



To SaXes oi Transactions 8 17 5 

Capital Fund : amount received on account of £155 15s. 3d. 

paid by the Institute last year ... ... ... 125 

To Subscriptions foe 1914-1915, as follows : — 

664 Members (® £2 28. 

76 Associate members ... ... @ £2 2s. 

158 Associates @ £1 5s. 

23 Students @ £1 5s. 

21 New members ■•. , ■•• ■•■ (S £2 2s. 
3 New associate members ... ... @ £2 2s. 

8 New associates ... ... ... (a' £1 6s. 

10 New students ... ... ... fw £\ 5s. 

1 New subscribing firm ... ... (w £2 2s. 

34 Subscribing firms... 

1,966 11 
Less, Subscriptions for current year paid in advance 

at the end of last year ... ... ... 36 19 



1,394 8 





159 12 





197 10 





28 15 





44 2 





6 6 





10 





12 10 





2 2 





1,855 5 





111 6 






1,929 12 
Add. Arrears received ... ... ... ... ... 194 17 



2.124 9 



Add, Subscriptions paid in advance during current 

year 42 8 



2,166 17 



£3,371 14 11 



1915-1916.] 



X.E. INST. — AXXUAL ACCOUKTS, 1914-1915. 



INSTIIUTE of MlNlHGt AND MkOH.\NICAL ExuiNEEliS 

JUME 30th, 1915. 



Ck. 



June 30tli, 1915. 
By Salaries and wages 
„ Insurance 
,, Rent, rates, and taxes 
„ Heating, lighting, etc. 
„ Furniture and repairs 
,, Bankers' charges ... 
„ Library 

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By The Institution of Mining Engineers : Calls, etc. 
Less, Amounts paid by authors for excerpts 



£ s. 


d. 


438 6 


7 


13 11 


3 


38 19 


7 


15 3 


7 


Q^ 3 


8 


21 





43 6 


3 


173 1 


2 


91 1 


5 


69 15 


11 


26 8 


4 


5 5 





14 14 





3 





20 16 


8 


7 10 





1 1 






1,193 10 
1 14 



1,079 4 5 



1.191 16 



By First instalment on account of £500 4^-per-cent. War 
Loan, 1925 1945 ... 

By Balance of account at bankers : deposit account ... 500 
„ ,, ,, ,, current account ... 520 3 

I, „ in Treasurer's hands ... ... ... ... 55 14 3 



2.271 5 
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1,075 14 6 



£3,371 U 11 



10 TRANSACTIONS THE NOIM'H OF I.VCJLAXJ) I.VSTlTUTE. |Vol.Ixvi. 

Du. Thk Tkbasujike of Thk Nokth of ENULANij Institute ok Mining 



£ s. d. £ • d. £ .. d. 
To 846 Members, 

52 of whom have paid life-compositions. 

794 

2 not included in printed list. 

796 @ £2 2s 1,671 12 

To 97 Associate members. 

10 of wliom have paid life-compositions. 

87 @£2 28 182 14 

To 206 Associates, 

1 of whom has paid a life-composition. 

205 

1 not included in printed list. 

206 @ £1 5s 257 10 

To 34 Students @ £1 6s 42 10 

To 35 Subscribing firms ... , 113 8 

2,267 14 

To 21 New members @ £2 2s 44 2 

To 3 New associate members @ £2 2s ... ... 6 6 

To 8 New associates @ £1 5s 10 

To 10 New students @ £1 5s 12 10 



To 1 New subscribing firm (5) £2 2s. ... ... 2 2 



To Arrears, as per balance-sheet. 1913-1914 231 14 

Add, Arrears considered irrecoverable, but since paid .,, 49 2 



75 



280 16 



To Subscriptions paid in advance during the current year ... ... ... 42 8 



£2,665 18 



1915-1916.] N.E. INST. — ANNUAL ACCOUNTS, 1914-1915. 11 

AND Mechanical Enginebes in Account with Subscriptions, 1914-1915. Cr. 



STRUCK OFF 
PAID. UNPAID. LIST. 

£ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. 



By 34 Subscribing firms, paid ... ... Ill 6 

1 „ „ unpaid 2 2 

35 

By 21 New members, paid ... @ £2 2s. 44 2 

By 3 New associate members, paid @ £2 2s. 6 6 

By 8 New associates, paid ... @ £1 5s. 10 

By 10 New students, paid ... @ £1 5s. 12 10 

By 1 New subscribing firm, paid @ £2 2s. 2 2 



By 661. Members, paid @ £2 2s. 1,394. 8 

" 106 .. unpaid ... @ £2 2s 222 12 

7 „ resigned ... @ £2 2s 14 14 

1 ., excused payment @ £2 2s. 2 2 

2 „ dead @ £2 2s 4 4 

IG „ struck off list @ £2 2s 33 12 

796 



By 76 .\ssociate members, paid @ £2 2s. 159 12 

7 ,. „ unpaid @ £2 2s 14 14 

1 „ „ resigned @ £2 2s 2 2 

1 ., „ dead @£2 2s 2 2 

2 „ „ struck off list @ £2 28 4 4 

87 

By 158 Associates, paid @ £1 5s. 197 10 

39 „ unpaid ... @ £1 5s 48 15 



2 „ resigned ... @ £1 5s 2 10 

7 „ struck off list @ £1 5s 8 15 

206 

By 23 Students, paid @ £1 5s. 28 15 

8 „ unpaid ... @ £1 5s. 10 



1 „ resigned ... @ £1 5s. 15 

2 „ dead @ £1 5s 2 10 

34 



1,966 11 298 3 78 

By Arrears 194 17 23 1 62 18 

2,161 8 
By Subscriptions paid in advance during tbe 

current year ... ... ... ... 42 8 



2,203 16 321 4 140 18 

_^ v^ ^ 

£2,665 18 



12 TKANSAC'TIO.VS TJIK .XOUl'll (»l" K.V(;LAM) IVSTITITK [Vol. Ixvi. 

The Pkesident (Mr. T. V. (ireeiiei), in moving the adoption 
of the Report, called attention to the fact that during the past 
year the income had exceeded the expenditure by £426 9s., and 
the Council were of opinion, so far as they could foresee, that the 
current year would show an equally favourable result. In these 
satisfactory financial circumstances it was felt that the Institute 
was well able to assist in some way the meritorious work by 
which aid was being rendered to our wounded soldiers, and it 
had been agreed at the Council meeting that day that he should 
recommend to the members at their annual general meeting that 
the Institute sliould subscribe the sum of £200 to the fund which 
was being raised by Mr. H. Dennis Bayley for the Red Cross 
Motor Ambulance Service. He had pleasure in including that 
recommendation in his motion. 

Mr. JoiinH. Merivale (x'Vcklington), in seconding the motion, 
said that he had had considerable experience of the extra- 
ordinarily good work that was being done by the Red Cross 
Society. No doubt they knew that the number of deaths from 
disease was exceptionally low in this war as compared with 
former wars, and that was largely due to the great care which 
was being taken of the' wounded by the St. John Ambulance 
Association and the Red Cross Society. The Institute had the 
money, and he thought they could not do better than aid this 
good work. There was no doubt that the number of wounded 
would be even greater as the war went on, and the Red Cross 
Society would require more money in the future to carry on 
their work. 

Mr. J. W. Fryar (Eastwood), in supporting the recom- 
mendation, was of opinion that the Institute could not devote 
its money to a better purpose. He was sure that in giving 
financial assistance to the Red Cross Society the money would 
be well spent, and that the wounded would receive the benefit of 
it. 

The motion, coupled with the recommendation, was unani- 
mously carried. 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSION — COAL-MI.VIXG IN PENNSYLVANIA. 13 

ELECTION OF REPEESENTATIA'ES ON THE COUNCIL 
OF THE INSTITUTION OF MINING ENGINEERS, 
1915-1916. 

The President (Mr. T. Y. Greener) moved, and Mr. Mark 
Ford seconded, a resolution that the following g-eutlenien be 
elected as tlie representatives of the Institute on the Council of 
The Institution of Mining Engineers for the vear 1915-1916: — 



Mr. R. S. Anderson. 
Mr. SioNKY Bates. 
Mr. VV. C. Blackett. 
Mr. W. Cochran Cabr. 
Mr. Allan Cordner. 
Mr. Benjamin Dodd. 
Mr. J. W. Fryar. 
Mr. T. Y. Greener. 



Mr. Reginald Guthrie. Mr. VV. C. Mountain. 

Mr. Samuel Hare. Mr. R. E. Ornsby. 

Mr. A. M. Hedley. Mr. Walter Rowley. 

Mr. T. K. JoBLiNG. Mr. F. R. Simpson. 

Mr. J. P. KiRKUP. Mr. John Simpson. 

Mr. Philip Kirkup. Mr. J. G. Weeks. 

Mr. C. C. Leach. Mr. W. B. Wilson. 

Prof. Henry Louis. Mr. E. Seymour Wood. 



Mr. John H. Merivale. 
The resolution was agreed to. 



The following gentlemen were elected, having been previously 

nominated : — 
Members — 

Mr. John Coggin Brown, Geologist, Geological Survey of India, 27, Chow- 
I'ingliee, Calcutta, India. 

Mr. George Ernest Gregson, Surveyor, Valuer, and Mining Engineer, 13, 
Harrington Street, Liverpool. 

Mr. Edgar Arthur Jackson, Surveyor, CliiDsley Lodge, Haydock, St. Helens 

Mr. Asahiko Kar.^shima, Meclianical Engineer, c/o Messrs. Mitsui & Com- 
pany, Limited, 31, Lime Street, London, E.C. 

Mr. Griffith Rees Morgan, Land and Mineral Surveyor, 178, Commercial 
Street, Senghenydd, Cardiff. 

Associate Members — 
Mr. Edward Maurice Gregson, 12, Hesketh Road, Southport. 
Mr. George Arthur Gregson, 12, Hesketh Road, Soutlijiort. 

Student — 
Mr. Cecil Edward William Shapley, Mining Student, Santry, Clielston Road, 
Torquay. 



DISCUSSION OF MR. SAMUEL DEAN'S PAPER ON 
"COAL-MINING IN THE STATE OF PENNSYL- 
VANIA, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA."* 

Mr. Eugene B. Wilson (Scranton) wrote that in the third 
line of the fifth paragraph of his remarks on page 538 of Volume 
XLIX., " Potsdam Sandstone" should read " Pocono Sandstone." 



* Trans. Imt. M. E., 1914, vol. xlviii., page 367 ; and 1915, vol. xlix. , pages 
108 and 537. 



14 TRANSACTIOXS—TTIE XORTH OF F.XGLAXD IXSTTTUTE. [Vol.lxvi. 

DTSCTTSSION OF ME. C. W. CHATER'S PAPER ON 
"MINING IN BURMA."— PART I.* 

Mr. ^. CoGGiN Brown (Geological Survey of India, Calcutta) 
wrote that Mr. Chater's paper was an interesting and useful sum- 
mary of the past and present position of the more important 
mining industries of Burma, gained largely from personal 
experience. It was particularly pleasing to note the author's 
recognition of the fact that so many of the failures in the province 
had been brought about in the first place by the neglect of local 
financiers to seek good advice, and in the second by entrusting 
operations to men with little or no experience of mining. This 
was undoubtedly true to a very great extent, and the sooner it 
was understood both by the profession and by the general public 
the better it would be for the industry. He had no remarks to 
make on those portions of the paper dealing with his (Mr. 
Chafer's) observations, but as one sharing his desire to see a 
systematic exploration of such mining fields as were really 
deserving' of attention, he would like to offer a few suggestions 
on some of the other localities. 

In the first place, it would have been more cautious to wait 
until the gravels of the Uyu or Uru River had been sampled and 
valued before making the statement that they might prove highly 
payable. The Uyu was an important tributary of the Chindwin, 
which it entered on the left bank some 4 miles above Homalin 
(not Homabin). The thick gravels of this river, in the lower 40 
miles or so of its course, were examined in 1912 by the late Mr. 
H. S. Bion,t of the Geological Survey of India, who concluded 
that the payable gravel was so intimately mixed with barren 
sand, and so inconstant in character, that both had to be taken 
together, and that the mass average of the material so obtained 
was far too low to allow of work being carried on at a profit. Of 
course, it was within the bounds of possibility that the auriferous 
gravels of the upper reaches of the Uyu might turn out to be 
richer; but until this was definitely proved, it was just as well 
to bear in mind that there were two sides to the question. 

Members might possibly gather from Mr. Chater's remarks 
that jadeite only occurred in alluvial gravels along with gold, 

* Tra7is. Inst. M. E., 1915, vol. xlix., page 628. 

t "The Gold-bearing Alluvium of the Chindwin River and Tributaries," 
^y H. S. Bion, Records of the Geological S^irvey of India, 1913, vol. xliii., page 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSION — MINING IN BTEMA. 15 

platinum, and other precious luetaLs. Although the jadeite was 
found as boulders both, in the conglomerates of and in the actual 
bed of the Uyu River, the most important occurrences at 
Tammaw were in a dyke of igneous origin, intrusive into serpen- 
tine, fi'om which the jadeite was won.* 

During tlie year 1918-1914 the value of jadeite exported from 
Burma was £36,194. The maximum export during the last five 
years was in 1910-1911, when it reached a value of £99,601, and 
the average value of the exported product for the same period 
was £72,265. 

Mr. Chater had fallen into the common error of confusing 
jadeite with true jade (nephrite) ; the latter mineral had never 
been found in Burma. He agreed with the author that the intro- 
duction of European methods would add considerably to the out- 
put, but whether the Chinese market would absorb a largely 
increased supply at present prices was a matter open to dis- 
cussion. 

Having recently spent six months at Bawdwin and in the 
surrounding country, he could confirm Mr. Chafer's statements 
as to the great extent and comparative richness of the lead-silver- 
zinc lode recently discovered there. This deposit occurred as a 
replacement in rhyolitic tuffs, and not near the contact of a 
felspathic country-rock with rhyolite. 

It would be better if the location of the mineral deposits 
described had been more accurately shown. 

Finally, Mr. Chater deserved the thanks of the members for 
drawing attention to a most promising mineral-producing area ; 
but the vriter could not help thinking that the paper, interesting 
though it was, would have been greatly increased in value by 
references to the very voluminous literature on the subject which 
already existed. 

Mr. Samuel Crawshaw (Tavoy, Lower Burma) wrote that 
Mr. Chafer's paper was both interesting and instructive. 

The reason given for the so-called " failures " of the numer- 
ous undertakings which had been floated from time to time was 
only true in part. The people sought " good advice," but, 
owing to the want of qualified metalliferous mining engineers, 

* "Jadeite in the Kachin Hills, Upper Burma," by A. W. G. Bleeck, 
Records of the Giologlca', Survey of India,, 190S, vol. xxxvi., page 254. 



10 TUAXSAfTTOXS -TUK NORTH OF KXCJLAXD IXSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

they fell iuto the hands ot tlie self-constituted '' mining expert " 
mentioned by Sir Thomas Holland in his Presidential Address to 
the Manchester Geolof?ical and Mining Society in 191-'',,* and the 
undertaking- came to grief, to the detriment of the Province and 
to the loss of tlie shareholders. So far as liis (the writer's) 
experience went, tlie failures in Tavoy had been due to bad 
management. 

He could confirm the author's statements as to the present 
unsatisfactory state of wolfram-mining in the Tavoy district. 
That was due to the want of Government control, and the indis- 
criminate issue of the so-called " Certificates of Approval," 
without which no person could take up a mining concession. 
The local Government was doing its best to remove the obstacles 
which in the early days it had set up, but what was urgently 
required was a revision of the present mining rules. 

The question of transport was the most important at present, 
and, owing to the war, the hopes of the writer in the Public 
Works Department programme had been shattered, as no money 
was to be spent on roads. The rock-drill plant mentioned as 
being set up at the Hermyingyi Mines had cost more to trans- 
port it 24 miles than the actual cost of the plant in Tavoy, and 
this along so-called '' roa'ds." 



DISCUSSION OF MR. H. AV. G. HALBAUM'S PAPER ON 
"THE WINDING-DRUMS OF PRACTICE AND OF 
THEORY; WITH NOTES ON FACTORS OF SAFETY 
AND ECONOMY OF WINDING-ROPES. "t 
Mr. T. Campbell Futers (Monkseaton) said that Mr. Hal- 
baum had no doubt performed a useful service in drawing atten- 
tion to a matter which, though perfectly well known, was one 
about which few people troubled themselves. At the same time, 
in his (Mr. Futers') opinion the harm resulting from the lateral 
friction of properly-greased winding-rt)pes was not so great as 
might be imagined, and there were at present many hundreds 
of ropes which coiled quite satisfactorily on plain parallel 
drums. Where difficulty had been experienced, the conical drum 
had been installed more as a makeshift to overcome what was 
regarded rather as a nuisance than as a mechanical difficulty ; but 

* Trans. Innt. M. E., 1913, vol. xlvi., page 339. 
f Ibid., 1915, vol. xlix., page 557. 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSION — WINDING-DRUMS. 17 

whilst it obtained the object aimed at, it did not entirely remove 
lateral friction, because the conical drum became, so to speak, 
a fleeting pulley ; and he thought that the same conditions would 
apply in all conical drums, even those designed according to 
Mr. Halbaum's rules. Ropes would coil evenly on plain parallel 
drums without serious lateral friction, if the engine were placed 
far enough back from the shaft, so that the angle of rope-travel 
would not exceed 2 degrees on either side of the centre-line of 
the pulley. Where these conditions could be obtained, or where 
it was desired to eliminate entirely lateral friction, the proper 
remedy and the only perfectly satisfactory one was to screw-cut 
the drum. In his opinion it would pay to screw-cut every drum, 
and he could not imagine why this perfectly simple and well- 
known method of guiding a winding-rope, in which every coil 
was properly bedded and supported, was not more generally 
adopted . 

With regard to the Koepe and AVhiting systems of winding, 
so strongly advocated by Mr. Halbaum, the chief trouble with 
the latter was the heavy deterioration of the ropes, due to the 
excessive bending stresses. This system was in use, he believed, 
on both the Edinburgh Tramways and the Glasgow and District 
Underground Railway, and in both cases he understood that the 
wear on the rope was very heavy. The system was also used for 
underground endless-rope haulage, and was much more suitable 
for that class of work, as the strain upon the rope was more 
constant and continuous. In winding, the rope had frequently 
sudden strains put upon it, varying from a maximum to zero, 
and it was really this condition that was responsible for all rope 
troubles. The harder the steel was from which the rope was con- 
structed, the more quickly the deterioration took place. In this 
country, at any rate, owing to legal requirements in regard to 
the capping of ropes and the provision of keps, it was very 
unlikely that either the Koepe or the Whiting system would be 
used to any extent. In Germany the Koepe system was certainly 
used, but mostly in connexion with electric winders, for which, 
owing to the more even turning movement, it was much more 
suitable than with a steam-engine. The reasons for and against 
the use of sheave-winders were very fully dealt with in chapter 
iv. of " Winding' Engines and Winding Appliances," by Mr. 
George McCulloch and himself, and these might be of interest 
to Mr. Halbaum, but were too lengthy to recapitulate here. 

TOL. LIVI.-1815-1916. 2 E 



18 TRANSACTIONS — THE NORTH OF EN(iLAXD INSTITUTT:. [Vol.lxvi. 

The only way to wind minerals in a vertical shaft, with the 
maximum economy of steam and with the least wear and tear 
on ropes and machinery, was to lift as heavy a net load as possible 
at as slow a rate as the required output in the given time would 
permit. Speed was a huge mistake. By speed was meant the 
velocity of the cages, and undoubtedly the present legal restric- 
tions and requirements in regard to winding-ropes were entirely 
due to neglect of this fact. By all means let the inertia of the 
drums and the moving masses be kept as low as possible; but the 
effect of inertia was much more difficult to deal with in the case 
of high velocities than when the speed was low. The drum 
should be kept to a minimum diameter, and in cases of deep 
shafts in his (Mr. Futers') opinion the very best arrangement for 
preventing the angling of the rope was the Morgans traversing 
engine. No other method yet suggested was its equal, and for 
electrical winding it had very many advantages. Mr. Morgans 
kept the diameter of the drum to a minimum, and, when winding 
from a depth of 3,000 feet, it measured only 10 feet in diameter 
and 21 feet in length. The rope coiling on took the place of the 
rope uncoiling off the drum. Its advantages in many respects were 
so undoubted that it had always appeared to him strange that 
the design had so far not,been repeated. In any winding instal- 
lation, in order to secure the maximum economy and safety, the 
designer should aim at lifting a maximum net load of coal with 
a minimum speed, and with the least possible inertia of the 
moving masses. Thirty years ago the mechanics of winding were 
not thoroughly understood, and the result was that winding 
plants were badly designed and roughly operated. Mr. Halbaum 
had not mentioned the human factor, but the type of man 
employed at the handles was of supreme importance in the whole 
operation of winding, especially where speed was the chief 
consideration. With low speeds and heavy loads his influence 
was reduced, and as the mechanics of winding were now gener- 
ally well known, there was not the same excuse for faulty design 
or dangerous operation. When these facts became recognized, 
as they ought to be, there would not be the same reason for the 
legal restrictions and requirements which existed at present. 



Prof. W. M. Thornton's paper upon "A New Battery 
Signalling Bell " was read as follows : — 



1915-1916.] THORNTON — A NEW BATTERY SIGNALLING BELL. 19 



A NEW BATTERY SIGNALLING BELL. 



By W. M. THORNTON, D.Sc, D.Exg., Professor of Electrical 
Engineering in Armstrong Collegk, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



Nature of the Spark, and Limits of Igniting Power. — The 
recent important Home Office Report by Dr. R. V. Wheeler, on 
the risks of ignition of methane by battery signalling bells,* has 
proved beyond reasonable doubt that the spark in the bell or on 
the wires is a danger that must be dealt with. 

Before, however, this can be done effectually, it is necessary to 
know the nature of the spark and the limits to its igniting power. 
Dr. Wheeler has given in his Report several ways of improving 
the safety of bells and much useful information for the guidance 
of bell manufacturers. The present paper is a statement of the 
chief points which arise in the working of such bells, and affect 
sparking ; and an arrangement is described by which danger from 
the spark is prevented. 

In the first place, the spark at the trembler-contact is not con- 
tinuous. If viewed in a revolving mirror, it is seen to be regu- 
larly intermittent; and if the current is observed by an oscillo- 
graph, it is found to have the general form shown in Fig. 1. 



^ \/_ ^V^ l_ \jm£- t 

0\* Af/i/Cf X BREAK ^ 

Fig. 1. — Curve of Cxjeeent in a Battery-bell Ciectjit in Full Ringing. 

In the case of an electric circuit of resistance r and inductance 

JP / —Ti\ 

At the curve OA has the form i = -M - e ^ j, where ^ is the battery 

* Report on Battery-hdl Signalling Systems as Regards the Danger of Ignition 
of Firedamp-air Mixtures by the Break-flash at the Signal-wires, by R. V. Wheeler, 
D.Sc, 1915. 

t The inductance of an electric circuit is defined as the number of lines of 
force which are linked with the circuit when unit current is passing through the 
wires. It is measured in henries. 





I'O TRAXSACTIOXS— THE XORTII OF KXCiLAXD IXSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 



voltajre, and £=-2-718, the base of the natural logarithms. EIr 
is the final steady value of the current i if the circuit is closed for 
a long time. 

In bells this curve is modified by the movement of the arma- 
ture and by eddy-currents in the solid parts of the magnetic cir- 
cuit of tlio windings, and may become a straight line, as in Fig. 
2. 




— MAKE >^BRtAK> 

Fig. 2. — Form of Ctjrrent-cttrve occasionally Fottnd. 



The voltage e^ which causes the spark at the trembler-contact 
is produced by the rush of magnetism out of the coils when the 

di 
current is broken. It is, in fact, L-^., where L is the self-induc- 
tion and dijdt the rate of break of the current. When L is 
in henries and dildt in amperes per second, L dijdt is the voltage 
on the spark. At the moment of break the battery voltage is all 
absorbed in the resistance, and does not affect the initial value of 
e«. The gap-voltage as observed is that shown in Fig. 3; after 
the spark has ceased, the voltage across the spark-gap is that of 
the batterv alone. 



BATTERY VOLTAGE 



TIHEt 



MAKE 



BREAK — MAKE »^ BREAK >- 



Fig. 3. — Voltage across Spark-gap at Trembler-contact. 

In good bells the time of break is found to be about half that 
of make, and the maximum voltage v is about ten times that 
of the battery e. The spark at the trembler-contact is a series of 
ordinary break-sparks of short duration, in which both current 
and voltage are greatest at the instant of break. 



1915-1916.] THORNTOX A NEW BATTERY SIGXALLIXG BELL. 



21 



Now, the ig-niting power of an electric break-spark depends on 
the voltage with which it is associated. It has been shown that 
the product of these is roughly constant,* as in Fig. 4. 

When the voltage is high, a small current becomes danger- 
ous, and the degree of danger increases with the inductance in 
the circuit. With single continuous-current break-sparks on a 
20-volt battery circuit, 0"5 henry causes ignition of the most 
inflammable mixtures of illuminating gas with a current of 0"5 
ampere, t 

Another factor of great importance is the duration of the 

spark. It is clear 
from the curves of 
Figs. 1, 2, and 3 
that the duration 
of the high voltage 
is small compared 
with the period of 
the bell. Measure- 
ments of curves 
taken show that it 
is sometimes as 
low as a fiftieth of 
the period, so that 
in a bell ringing 
twenty times a 
second the time of 
high voltage is a 
thousandth of a 
second. So short 
a duration is less favourable to ignition than an ordinary non- 
inductive break-spark, and this may account to some extent for 
the rarity of accidents in coal-mines which might have arisen 
from bells. 

di 
The power w of the bell-spark — that is, the product Li-r. of 

volts and amperes in it — is given in Fig. 5, and is seen to be even 




C IRCUIT VOLTAG E 

Fig. 4.— Charge of least Igniting Current with 
Voltage in a Non-inductive Continuous- 
current Circuit. 



* See "The Ignition of Coal-gas and Methane by Momentary Electric Arcs," 
by Prof. W. M. Thornton, Trans, hist. M. E., 1912, vol. xliv., page 145, and 
figs. 2 and 3, pages iSO and 151. 

t Ibid., fig. 5, page 154. 



22 



TIUXSACTKINS 



TlIK NOUTll OF KX(iLAXl) INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 



less imitorm tliau the voltage. As shown in Fig. 4, the ease of 
iguitiou of a given mixture by break-sparks, as measured by the 
product Li, is approximately constant. So long as lo does not 
reach the critical value, the bell is safe. In order to keep iv low, 
it is advisable to make the product Li as small as possible, for the 
speed of break depends to a great extent on the mechanical design 
and setting of the bell. 

Measm-ements of L have been given in the Home Office Ee- 
port, and have since been found to reach the high value of 1 
henry. There is an upper limit to the current, depending on the 
kind of battery used. It may be taken that signalling currents 
range on an average between 01 and 05 ampere, and the value of 
Li from 005 to 01. There is no limit to the number of turns 

ui 



TIHE-t 



MAKE '^- BREAK ^ MAKE r 

Fig. 5. — Volt-ampeees of Teembler Spaek. 



on the bell, that is, to the self-induction L. Expressed in terms 
of dimensions, L = ^irT"\R, where T is the number of turns on the 
windings and i? the reluctance of the magnetic circuit, which is 
equal to the average length of the magnetic lines of force divided 
by the sectional area of the core and by its magnetic permeability. 
The air-gap has a greater reluctance than the iron of the magnetic 
circuit. 

The total energy of the break-spark is \ Li- = „ — . It 

therefore 'varies as the square of the amperes and turns on the 
coils for a given magnetic circuit. For a given number of 

ampere turns it varies inversely as jR = -j-, where, since the air- 

gap has much greater magnetic resistance than the core of the 
coils, I is the double length of the air-gap, A the mean area of the 
magnetic field in the gap, and /«, = 1, when / and A are in centi- 
metre measure. 



1915-1916.] TIIOENTOX — A NEW BATTERY SIGNALLING BELL. 28 

The product Li is the number of lines of force iV linked with 
the coil-windings. N only affects the spark when changing, for 

g, = -jp = L -r. Li= — o — ^> «iid is, therefore, proportional 

to the current and to the square of the turns. 

A mo ^• 

The voltage e^ = — ^ — • j. The speed of break depends so 

much on the mechanical adjustments that it is the least definite 
of all the important factors in sparking. For a fixed setting 
it is nearly proportional to the current broken. Writing 

-J = ki, the result is e^ = — ^— ?', following the same law as Li. 

The Influence of Resistance. — How does sparking depend 
upon the working resistance in the circuit? The greater the re- 
sistance r, the greater is the drop of voltage in the wires for a 
given current, and the less of it there is for the gap while the cur- 
rent lasts. The equation of the current in the bell at break may 

E -'hi 
be written ^ = — c x , where r-^ is the resistance after break, 

including that of the spark. From this w= ~, and the resis- 
tance of the spark r^, which is ?i — r = r f ^ — Ij. The resistance 

of the spark is not independent of the current in the circuit, but 
it is clear that the greater is the resistance r of the circuit the 
smaller is the sparking voltage e^ for a given size of spark. Ee- 
sistance in the battery or line, or bell-windings, therefore, 
diminishes the igniting power of the spark. Wet Leclanche 
cells having a higher resistance than dry cells are from this point 
of view safer. To ring over a long distance is safer than over a 
short distance, because the ratio r^^jr is less for the same ringing 
current. 

From observed values of e^ the resistance of the spark at break 
can be found. A common ratio of CslE is about 10. Thus if 
r = 6 ohms, r.s = 54 ohms at the moment of break. This rapidly 
increases as the spark is drawn out and breaks. 

Resistance Inserted Across the Spark-gap. — For the purpose 
of preventing ignition of gas by a signalling bell, the first sug- 
gestion is to bridge the spark-gap by a resistance, but this may 
be in practice a positive danger, for by it a large part of the 



2i TIIANSACTIDXS— THE NORTH OF K.V{;LAXJ) INSTnTTK. [Vol. Ixvi. 



energy of the spark at the trembler is handed on to the signalling 
point on the ivires. These wires are near the roof, and there is 
probably more risk of inflammable mixtures being formed there 
than at a bell in a hanlage-house. AVhen the gap is bridged, 
there is no free gap at a, but tliere is at h, and it has been shown 
by Mr. C. P. Sparks,* and also by Dr. Wheeler, that there is 
daiiger of ignition there equal to that at a under normal working 
conditions (Fig. 6). 



H 






a^ 



Fig. 6. — Shunt Eesistance aceoss Spark-gap diminishes Spark at a, but 

INCREASES THAT ON LiNE AT b. 

Resistance in Parallel u-itJi the Magnetizing Coils. — When, 
however, a suitable resistance is placed across the terminals of the 
coils, and the gap left uubridged, a break there gives rise to a 
spark of much less magnitude. The resistance r^ may be always 
connected (Fig. 7), or it may be so arranged that it is joined up 



v--\. 



vmwm 



a^ 



Fig. 7. — Eesistance across Magnet-coils suppresses Sparks both at 

a and at h. 



^hHh--]h 



muwm 



^\. 



Fig. 8. — Resistance connected at c just before Break at a. 
Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, 1915, vol. liii., page 389. 



1915-191().] THORNTON — A NEW JJATTERY SIGNALLING BELL. 2o 

b}- the movenieut of the armature just before break (Fig. 8), so 
avoiding the small current which passes through r^ continually 
while the bell is ringing. The value of ra, so as to give the best 
results in practice, is found to vary from 20 to 150 ohms, de- 
pending on the design of the bell. 

This resistance provides a path for the " extra current " at 
break. In other- words, the voltage e^ at the gap is checked at 
the moment when it begins, for the cuiTent and magnetism in the 
coils die down slowly instead of being broken suddenly. Oscillo- 
graph records such as those illustrated in Fig. 9 show that the 
voltage across the gap never rises above the battery volts, and the 
igniting power of the spark is reduced, or the factor of safety 
increased, by at least 4 or 5 to 1 ; and by 10 to 1 if the voltage 
only is considered. 

The effect of the suppression of the sparking voltage is very 
marked. It is possible to work any bell in full ringing in the 

cr 

BATTEPy VOLTAGE ONLV 

e 



MAKE -< BREAK 



Fig. 9. — Voltage across Spark-gap when Resistance is connected, as in 

Figs. 7 or 8. 

most inflammable mixture of illuminating-gas and air without 
igniting the mixture while the shunt path is connected. Ignition 
occurs the moment that it is disconnected. By having a scraping 
contact in the box, it can be shown that the same increase of 
safety is obtained on the signalling wires as at the trembler- 
contact. 

When applied for the purpose of preventing ignition of 
gas, there is another important point to consider which is not 
well known. It is only within the last five or six years that the 
currents which will ignite gas have been determined, and it is 
only as a result of long and laborious trials that one is able to say 
by inspection whether or not a certain spark will ignite gas. 
When the use of a resistance across bell-coils (and not across the 
gap) was first tried by the author in discussion with his colleague, 
Mr. W. W. Firtji, who had suggested shunting the gap, he was 
able to say from previous work — of which accounts have been 
given to the Institute — that from its appearance the nature of 



26 



THANSACTIONS^ THE iVoRTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vollxvi. 



the spark was completely cliauyed, and tliat ignition would not 
occur. This was soon verified by enclosing the bell in a large 
explosion-box, and the method has never been found to fail. 
The device does for electric signalling bells what gauze does for 
a miner's safety-lamp : so long as it is in normal action, ignition 
cannot occur. 

This arrangement, which was first demonstrated at the 
Senghenydd enquiry, although it greatly diminishes wear at the 
sparking contacts, does not appear to have ever been used on 
electric bells, although Mr. H. R. Ivempe* recently states that 
the principle is well known to telegraphists. It has the advantage 
that it can be fitted to any existing bell, so making it incapable 
of igniting the most inflammable pit-gas. 

The author ventures to submit the device to the consideration 
of those concerned with the management of coal-mines, as a con- 
tribution to the safety of underground working. 



After reading his paper, Prof. Thornton carried out a 
number of experiments with an explosion-box and an oscillo- 
graph. 

Mr. H. E. Kempe (Betchworth, Surrey) wrote that, in regard 
to " The Influence of Resistance," he thought that when Prof. 
Thornton stated that " Resistance in the battery or line, or 
bell-windings, therefore, diminishes the igniting power of the 
spark," he did not sufficiently define what he meant by " resist- 
ance ijQ bell-windings." High resistance covild be obtained by 
winding the electromagnet with a great number of convolutions 
of wire, but this, while giving the bell a high resistance, would 
also give it a high inductance, which was certainly not desirable, 
unless the electromagnet was shunted, which, at this part of the 
paper. Prof. Thornton did not seem to suggest. 

He (Mr. Kempe) did not consider the arrangement suggested 
in Fig. 8 was at all good. It introduced three contacts in the 
place of one, and the amount of current which such a device 
saved was insignificant, as the proper resistance for the shunt 
would be ten times that of the bell-coils which it shunted. 

He thought that Prof. Thornton should, when speaking of the 
shunt as a "suitable" resistance, have pointed out that 

* Electrical Recitw, 1915, vol. Ixxvi., page 886. 



1915-1916.] DISCITSSION — A NEW BATTERY SIGNALLING BELL. 27 

" suitable " included " double winding " ; also it would have been 
better to have stated that the value of the shunt should be about 
ten times the resistance of the coils that it shunted, rather than 
to have made the rather indefinite statement that the value might 
be from 20 to 150 ohms. The "ten-times" value was the one 
adopted by the Post Office for all local apparatus, such as 
sounders. The object of the shunt was to get rid of sparking at 
the relay contacts ; such shunts had been in use for the last 30 or 
40 j^ears. 

With regard to the statement that the shunt device had never 
been used on electric bells, this statement was, he thought, prac- 
tically correct, the necessity for such shunting not having 
hitherto arisen. He might mention, however, that the Post 
Office had arranged some time ago to fit a number of bells for a 
special purpose with spark shunts (bell-coils, 100 ohms ; shunt, 
1,000 ohms), and he believed tliat these were being installed. 
The bells were rather large, and were to be worked from relays. 

The use of bells shunted to prevent gas-ignition was novel, 
and should be made compulsory. "Double winding" of the 
shunts should be specifically mentioned in the specification of 
such bells. 

Dr. R. V. AViiEELEE, (Eskmeals) wrote that it was a great 
regret to him that he was unable to be present at the meeting and 
express in person his admiration of the manner in which Dr. 
Thornton had presented the theory of the common form of 
battery-bell. The paper should give valuable information to bell- 
makers as to the manner in which they could improve both the 
ringing efficiency and the safety of bells. 

He had had the pleasure of examining a bell fitted with this 
device for preventing sparking, and could testify to its efl&ciency. 
The tests were referred to in his Report to Sir Richard Redmayne 
in connexion with the Senghenydd Colliery explosion, where it 
would be seen that no ignition of an 8'5-per-cent. methane-air 
mixture could be obtained with a battery of 24 wet Leclanche 
cells (current on closed circuit, 10 ampere; voltage on open 
circuit, 34"5). 

There was, however, a jjractical disadvantage attaching to 
the use of any device for preventing sparking which involved a 
circuit other than the ringing circuit. If the additional circuit 



28 TUAXSACTIONS TllK NOlMII OF EXCiLA.N'D IN'STITITK. [Vol.lxvi, 

should by soino iiiiscluince become broken, the bell would become 
unsafe, and yet continue to ring. For this reason he (Dr. 
AVheeler) favoured any device which, though not theoretically 
as efiicient as Prof. Thornton's, formed an integral part of the 
ringing circuit, and could not be separated from the bell without 
destroying it. 

The problem of obtaining a sate system of underground 
signalling without eliminating bare wires (which it was 
expedient to retain for the sake of their convenience) presented 
several complications, but the difficulties were certainly not 
insuperable. He hoped that, as a result of the investigation 
now being conducted by the Home Office, several methods alter- 
native to those already outlined in their recent Report would 
emerge. 

Mr. W. C". MorxTAix (Xewcastle-upon-Tyne) said that the 
experiments which they had seen were conclusive evidence that 
Dr. Thornton had practically produced a bell which appeared to 
be almost free from the risk of causing' an explosion. So far as 
the formulae given and the paper itself were concerned, prob- 
ably those were of more interest to scientific men, and men con- 
nected with electrical work ; but, as a practical mining man, 
he thought that Dr. Thornton had overcome any danger there 
might be with a bell working in an explosive mixture. It 
seemed to him that the application of the device was needful, 
and moreover it was produced at very small expense. The cost 
of a bell fitted with Dr. Thornton's device was little more than 
the cost of the present ordinary commercial bell, and there- 
fore was of considerable value. If he had produced an article 
on a more elaborate scale, one would have been doubtful as to 
its useful application ; but seeing that it could be produced at 
little expense, it should find considerable use. He was not 
making these remarks because he thought that the device 
should be made compulsory : the use of this class of bell should 
be determined by the prevailing conditions in each colliery, 
rather than be made generally compulsory. 

Mr. John H. Merivale (Broomhill) said he understood that 
in his apparatus Dr. Thornton put in a resistance, and part of 
the energy which would otherwise go to cause the spark was 
absorbed by this resistance; if that was so, one would fancy 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSIOX — A XF.W BATTERY SIGXALLIXG BELL. 



29 



that a decrease in the battery power would have tlie same effect. 
He asked Dr. Thornton whether this assumption was correct? 

Dr. TiiORXTOx replied that the device niipht be simply ex- 
plained by hydraulic analogy. Everybody knew that the 
sudden closing of a cock on a water-main caused water-hammer. 
This could be prevented by providing a bye-pass across the cock 
consisting of a veiy small-bore water-pipe, the effect of which 
was to prevent entirely the sudden rise of pressure and knock 
that followed from it. 

Mr. H. W. Clothier (AVallsend) wrote that the addition of 
a small non-inductive resistance to all bell-coils seemed to be an 
obvious and at the same time a very effective method for elimina- 
ting risks of dangerous open sparking on bell-circuits. He had no 
doubt that, if the danger had been realized earlier, something of 
the kind would have been standardized before now. The prin- 
ciple was well known, not only to the telegraphist, as stated by 
the author, but also to the power-station engineer, with whom it 
was universal to use non-inductive resistances in conjunction 
with generator field-switches. In this case, owing to the large 
amount of self-induction on the held-coils, the sparking on the 
switch-contacts was found to be very vicious, and. what was 
perhaps more serious, the excessive voltage caused by a sudden 
break was apt to pierce the insulation. 

One warning note he would sound, and that was in regard 
to the reliability of the electrical connexions. Seeing that the 
spark was dangeraus with ordinaiy bells and safe with the 
addition of the shunted resistance, a great responsibility rested 
with the latter, though only an insignificant part in the bell : a 
loose or bad connexion might prove to be its undoing. In bell 
mechanism these parts were "out of sight." He would be very 
reluctant to trust a metal-to-metal make-and-break contact for 
the shunted resistance circuit as shown in Fig. 8. It would be 
too easy to put it out of action by accidentally bending some 
little spring or other. A little dirt across the contact-surface 
would also have the same deleterious effect. 

The general principle was excellent, provided that it could 
be relied upon to be always in operation, and there should be 
no difficulty in this if the system in Fig. 7 was used, and steps 
were taken to make it impossible to connect up the coil without 
the resistance. 



30 TRANSACTIONS— THE XOHTII OF F.XGLAXI) IXSTITTJTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

Perhaps tlie surest way would be to make a strong sweated 
connexion to the actual wire of the coil, so that the resistance 
could never be disconnected unless the coil-circuit was also 
incomplete, when no harm other than the non-ringing of the 
bell would result. 

He thought that it would improve the paper if the amounts 
of currents and voltages were shown on Figs. 3, 4, and 5. 

Dr. Thorxtox said that he was glad to have heard the re- 
marks of Mr. Kempe, who was the consulting electrical engi- 
neer to the Post Office. He thought it would be understood 
from the earlier part of the paper that inductance was the chief 
cause of the trouble, and was to be avoided. High resistance 
obtained by winding the coils with brass wire, had a distinct 
effect in suppressing the spark, as shown by Dr. Wheeler. 
Since it was the effect of inductance which had to be overcome, it 
was not sufficient to make the shunt always the same multiple 
of the resistance. It was no doubt satisfactory where the type 
of coil and magnetic circuit was always the same, but in bells 
these varied so much that it did not cover every case, and he 
had found the difference between Cjuick and slow-ringing bells 
sufficient to make it unreliable as a preventive of ignition under 
working conditions. Each bell or type of bell should be tested 
in explosive mixtures. "Without some such test it was only 
possible by experience of the igniting power of sparks to say 
whether even the small spark obtained after fitting the shunt 
was safe or not. He gathered that the Post Ofiice had decided 
to fit the bells mentioned by Mr. Kempe with non-spark shunts 
after attention had been directed to the device in the paper at 
the Senghenydd enquiry. All electric battery -bells were 
improved by its use. and the patent covered its application to 
electric bells for the prevention of wear at the sparking contacts. 

Dr. Wheeler in his very kind remarks had raised a 
possible objection to the device, and had stated that there 
should be some device to prevent sparking which formed 
an integral part of the ringing circuit and could not be 
separated from' the bell without destroying it. No doubt that 
would be ideal, but here they had what was equivalent to a 
naked miner's lamp, round which was put a gauze, and 
they staked their lives on that gauze, although if the gauze 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSION A NEW BATTERY SIGNALLING BELL. 



31 



broke an explosion might result. In order to combat the 
danger of the gauze or of the glass breaking, frequent inspec- 
tions were made. Inspection holes could be arranged on the 
front of bell-boxes for frequent inspection in order to see that 
the spark was riglit, although he could not see why the shunt 
should break or become disconnected any more than the bell- 
windings. 

He was also glad to hear Mr. Mountain's remarks. Person- 
ally, he thought that there was not a great risk from ignition 
by bell-wires, but they could not take any risk whatever. If 
the smallest risk could be overcome, it was the wisest plan to 
overcome that risk, especially when it could be done at a small 
cost — a mucli smaller cost tlian the initial cost of the bell itself. 

In reply to Mr. Clothier, he agreed that the non-sparking 
bell was a new application of an old principle. "\¥hat rather 
surprised him was that bell-makers had not thought of using it 
before, not only for relays where, as in the Povst Office, it had 
been used, but on ordinary bells for the preservation of the 
sparking contacts. The sweating of the ends of the bell-winding 
and shunt together, as Mr. Clothier had suggested, would be the 
surest guarantee against any possible disconnexion due to bad 
fitting. 

The President (Mr. T. Y. Greener) proposed a vote of 
thanks to Dr. Thornton for his paper. He (the speaker) was 
not an electrician, and could not criticize the paper, but the 
device appeared to him, as a practical man, to be a step forward. 
It might be true, as Dr. Wheeler had stated, that accidents 
might conceivably take place by reason of the fact that electric 
bells as at present constructed were unsafe ; but, after all, 
during past years they had been employing bells which had no 
such protection as that referred to ; but if this bell was an 
improvement on the old bell and was distinctly safer, as they 
had seen that it was by actual demonstrations that day, then 
whether it was ideal in its present form or not, it was certainly 
much safer than the bells wJiich they were using. It could not 
be said that the present system was unsafe, because so far as he 
was aware, no explosion had been traced to a bell ; but as sensible 
people they were bound to take advantage of this device if it 
rendered the system of signalling still safer than it was at 
present. 



32 TTIAVSACTIOXS- TIIK XORTTI OF F.Xr.LAXI) IXSTTTFTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

Mr. W. (". Mor.vTAix siMondcd llio vote of tliaiiks, whicli 
wji.s licnrtilv ciiiried. 



The Pkksidext (Mr. T. Y. Greener) moved, and Mr. J. G. 
Weeks seconded, a vote of thanks to the Scrutineers for their 
services, and tlie resolution was carried unanimously. 



Mr. T. Campbell Fitters proposed, and Mr. N. B. Ridley 
seconded, a vote of thanks to the President, Yice-Presidents, 
Councillors, and Oificers for their services during the past year, 
and this resolution was cordially adopted. 



Mr. Frank Coulson proposed, and Mr. J. Kenneth Guthrie 
seconded, a vote of thanks to the representatives of the Insti- 
tute on the Council of The Institution of Mining Engineers 
for their services during the past year, and the resolution was 
carried unanimously. 



1915-1916] STMPSOX I'EESEXTATIOX OF EXGRAVIXGS. 8S 



THE XOETH OF EXGLANU INSTITUTE OF MIXING AND 
MECHANICAL ENGINEEES. 



GENERAL MEETING, 

Held in the Wood Memorial Hall, Newcastle- cpox-Ttne, 

OcroBER 9th, 1915. 



Mb. T. Y. GREENER, President, in the Chair. 



The Secretary read the minutes of the last General Meetings 
and reported the proceedings of the Council at their meetings on 
August 21st, September 25th, and that day. 



The following gentlemen were elected, having been previously 
nominated : — 

Member — 
Mr. Edward Carl Joachim Meyer, Mining Engineer, P.O. Box 57, East 
Rand, Transvaal. 
Associate — 
Mr. Ernest Hughes Suggeit, Colliery Under-iuanager, The Villas, West 
Rainton, Fence Houses. 



EEMAEKS ON THE MINEE'S "SAFETY-LAMP" ON 
THE PEESENTATION OF POETEAITS OF THE 
INVENTOES BY JOHN BELL SIMPSON. D.C.L. 

As this year was the centenary of the invention of the so- 
called " safety "-lamp by Sir Humphry Davy, and about the 
same time of the Clanny and Stephenson lamps, it seemed to him 
that it was a fitting opportunity to review the great advantages 
which had accrued to this country by the development of its coal 
industries and by the increased security of the miner'.s life in 
consequence of these inventions. 

He might say that the annual output of this country, 100 

VOL. LXVI.— 1915-1916. 



84 TKA.NSAn IONS I UK \(tKriI OK KN(.IJ-\.\I) INSTITITK. [Vol. Ixvi. 

years ago, was nut iiioic than '21 millions of tons, while now it 
had reached the enormous total of 280 millions. Evidently the 
present output could not have been reached if the safety-lamp 
had not been invented. The railway system oould never have 
been developed as it had been if this lamp had not been invented, 
an invention which also <>ave an impetus to otiier industries and 
enabled man}' new ones to be introduced. 

A few years ag'o (in 1891), in a Presidential Address which he 
had delivered to the Institute, he had g-iven a brief account of the 
introduction of the safety-lamp, and he now proposed to quote 
a few extracts therefrom. 

He had mentioned that The North of England Ins'ltute of 
Mining- and Mechanical Engineers, which was founded in 1852 
after the serious loss of life caused by an explosion at Reaton 
Colliery, had as one of its chief objects " to meet at fixed times 
to discuss the means for the ventilation of collieries, for prevent- 
ing- accidents, and for general purposes connected with the win- 
ning and working of collieries." He had added that in 1813 a 
society for preventing accidents in coal-mines was formed after 
a serious explosion at Felling Colliery, in which there had been 
great loss of life. The Duke of Northumberland was the Patron 
and Sir Ralph Milbanke- its President. It was also under the 
patronage of the Man^uess of Bute, the Bishop of Durham, Lord 
Percy, Sir Matthew White Ridley, the Rev. Robert Grey, Dr. 
Clanny, John Buddie, Matthias Dunn, the Rev. J. Hodgson 
(who was the Honorary Secretary), and many others. 

Mr. John Buddie, at the request of the Society, in 1813 made 
a report to them explaining the condition of mining, etc. He 
concluded his report in the following words : — 

" On the streugtli of my own experience .... I freely hazard my opinion 
that any further application of mechanical agency towards preventing explo- 
sions in coal-mines would be ineffectual, and therefore conclude that the hopes 
of this Society ever seeing its most desirable object accomplished must rest 
upon the event of some method being discovered of producing such a chemical 
change upon carburetted hydrogen gas, as to render it innocuous as fast as 
it is discharged, or as it approaches the neighbourhood of lights. In this 
view of the subject, it is to scientific men only that we must look up for 
assistance in providing a cheap and effectual remedy." 

At this time the Rev. J. Hodgson and some of the mem- 
bers of the society and others fortunately appealed to Sir 
Humphry Davy, giving him an account of the great loss of life 
which was so frequently taking place in coal-mines. They were 



1915-1916.] SIMPSOX PRESEXTATIOX OF EXGRAVIXGS. 35 

successful in inducing liim to visit Xewcastle to gain some know- 
ledge of the conditions under which inflammable gas was found 
in underground workings. 

Davv visited the north in 1815, and had several interviews 
with Mr. Hodgson and others, and Hodgson introduced the 
illustrious visitor to Mr. Buddie, who had charge of many col- 
lieries. They visited several of the dangerous mines in the 
north ; Mr. Buddie assisted Davy in the investigation of the 
conditions of mining, and pointed out the necessity for some safe 
method of dealing with inflammable gas in the working of the 
mines. 

When, on leaving, he said to Mr. Buddie, from whom he had 
got all the information that he wanted. " I think I can do some- 
thing for you," Mr. Buddie looked at him with considerable 
doubt. 

However, within a few months, Davy did produce a lamp 
which was destined to make a great revolution in mining-, and to 
add greatly to the development of the coal-trade. 

In 1816 the Sunderland Society was apparently disbanded, as 
it was thought that its objects had been accomplished by the 
invention of the safety-lamp. Whatever one might think of the 
wisdom of breaking up so important a society, it must be ad- 
mitted that it had achieved a triumph which has seldom fallen 
to any society to accomplish in so short a time ; and Mr. Buddie, 
who before had expressed himself so despairingly, afterwards 
wrote as follows : — 

" I first tried the lamp in au explosive mixture on the surface, and then 
took it into a mine, and to my astonishment and delight, it is impossible for 
me to express my feelings at the time when I first suspended the lamp in the 
mine and saw it red hot. If it had been a monster destroyed I could not have 
felt more exultation than I did. I said to those around me, ' We have 
subdued the monster.' " 

Davy accompanied Mr. Buddie into some of the fiery mines, 
and saw his lamj) in actual use, and was delighted; and Mr. 
Buddie expressed himself as " overwhelmed with the feeling of 
gratitude to that great genius which had produced it." 

Mr. Buddie spoke feelingly, and his colliery diaries, which 
were kept up daily and with great exactness, gave graphic details 
of his own frequent hairbreadth escapes, and the difiiculties 
which the viewers of those days had to encounter from inflam- 
mable gas. The present generation could hardly realize the 

VOL, LXVI.-lgis-iDir;. 4 E 



3G TRAXS.VCTIOXS— TlIK NOKTIl OF ENGLAND IXSTITUTE. [Vol.lxvi. 

(lan<>-eruus comlitions of niiniug before the invention of the 
safety-lamp. 

Since the time of Chuiny, Davy, and Stephenson, who were 
the first inventors, their lamps liad undergone many modifica- 
tions. In their day. there was great controversy between the 
friends of ])avy and tiiose of Steplienson. There was no doubt 
that they weie both working at the same time witli the same end 
in view, but on rather different lines: Davy went into the matter 
in a i)urely scientific way, and Stephenson proceeded on more 
mechanical and practical lines. He (Dr. Simpson) thought that 
the opinion of the late Nicliolas Wood, wlio. from his friendship 
for Stephenson might have been more partial, might be accepted, 
namely, that they should be considered as parallel inventors. 
There could be no doubt, however, that Clanny was the first man 
to produce a lamp enclosing a light which was safe in an inflam- 
mable mixture. The original was not portable enough, but after- 
wards he produced a lamp which, with the Davy and Stephenson 
lamps, was the foundation of all the lamps now in use. 

No invention since the application of steam for the draining 
of our mines and for the winding of coal gave to the coal-trade, 
and. he might add. to the industries of the country, so great a 
stimulant. 

Time would not allow him to go in any length into those diffi- 
culties : but, in order to consider one of them, let them imagine 

our fiery mines having to be lighted by the flickering sparks from 
the old flint-and-steel mill (which sometimes produced explo- 
sions), and they would easily realize how restricted the output of 
coal would be. 

lie would not say anything more on the subject, as two of the 
members were engaged on a comprehensive history of the safety- 
lamp, with an account of its improvements, which permitted of 
the lamp being more properly designated a " safety "-lamp, and 
thus able to cope with the additional difficulties from inflammable 
gas consequent on the working of coal at greater depths. 

He would also refer the members to the very extensive 
remarks on snfety-lamps by the late R. L. Galloway (who was a 
member of the Institute) in his Annals of Coal Mining. 

Without further comment, he had now to ask the acceptance 
by The ^'^orth of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical 
Engineers of portraits of Davy, Clanny, and Stephenson, to hang 



1915-1916.] SIMPSON PRESENTATION OF ENGRAVINGS. 37 

ou the walls of the Institute, as well as a steel mill (which was 
in use at Beuwell Colliery) to be placed beside them. And under- 
neath each portrait, he understood that the Institute had 
kindly offered to place a safety-lamp of each inventor, which they 
had in their possession. He had also to present the portraits of 
John Buddie. Xicholas Wood, and the Rev. John Hodgson (the 
historian), who all took an enormous amount of trouble in the 
introductioM and development of the safety-lamp. 



The President (Mr. T. Y. Greener) proposed a vote of thanks 
to Dr. Simpson for presenting the engravings and the steel mill. 

Mr. -J. G. Weeks (Bedlington), in seconding the vote of 
thanks, said that as a former official (under-viewer), he was 
qualified by long experience to state that Dr. Simpson had taken 
the greatest interest, not only in the safety-lamp, but in all 
matters connected with mining. He hoped that the portraits 
presented would adorn the walls of the Institute, and refresh the 
memories of present and future members with the features of 
the inventors of the safety-lamp, to whose discoveries the mining 
community owed so much. 

Dr. Simpson said he hoped that the presentation would be of 
interest to the members. 



Mr. T. Y. Greener delivered the following " Presidential 
x\ddress " : — 



38 TRANSACTIOXS — THE NORTH OF KXGLAND IXSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



By T. Y. greener. 



I have, in the first phiee, to thank you for electing me 
President of the Institute. You have conferred upon me the 
highest honour that the members can bestow upon one of their 
colleagues. My predecessors have been the most eminent 
members of the profession, and I feel some hesitation in taking 
my place among that honourable body of gentlemen. I will, 
however, endeavour during my term of office, with the assistance 
of the Council and of the members, to do all that I can to uphold 
the interests of the Institute, and to maintain its traditions and 
the high standard of its scientific attainments. 

The present is a very difficult time, by reason of the 
European War now raging, and I am afraid that we must look 
for some rediiction in the membership of the Institute. It is, 
however, to be hoped that members will not allow their interest 
in its proceedings to fiag, although I quite realize that their 
minds must necessarily be preoccupied and full of anxieties 
connected with the war. It is just a hundred years since the 
Battle of Waterloo, which established the supremacy of the 
British Empire on so sound a basis that the last century has 
been a period of uninterrupted freedom from great wars, and of 
such prosperity as was previously unknown in the history of this 
country. It is earnestly to be hoped that a similar victory will 
follow our efforts now, and that it will be succeeded by equally 
satisfactory results. Many members of the Institute are sei-ving 
their country on military and other duties connected with the 
war, and are doing their part to bring about the victory for 
which we are all hoping. The Institute has also added its con- 
tribution to the Roll of Honour of those who have fallen in the 
defence of their country. 

I must thank Dr. John Bell Simpson for the very handsome 
gift that he has presented to the Institute in the shape of 
engravings of Sir Humphry Davy, George Stephenson, Dr. 
W. Reid Clanny, John Buddie, Nicholas AVood, and the 



1915-1916] GREENER — PKESIDfiNTIAL ATlllRESS. 39 

Rev. John Hodg'son, and also for a Hint-and-steel mill aelually 
used in Benwell Colliery. The portraits of these illustrious 
men will greatly enhance the value and interest of the collection 
of portraits now belonging- to the Institute, and the gift which 
Dr. Simpson has just made will be much appreciated and valued 
by all its members. It is in my opinion very right and proper that 
the services which these men rendered to humanity and to the 
coal-trade should always be remembered. They were all more or 
less connected with the introduction of the safety-laiiii) into coal- 
mines; without it numerous lives would have been sacriticed in 
attempts to work niines which would ultimately have been 
abandoned: hence the invention which they were the means of 
producing has been one of the most important factors in the 
development of collieries generally, and in raising the output of 
the country from about 26 to 27 million tons in 1815 to its present 
output of 280 million tons per year. 

The earliest record of a fatal accident from an explosion of 
firedamp in a British coal-mine is, I understand, contained in 
the register of St. Mary's Church, Gateshead, in which it is 
stated that on October 14th, 1621, the burial took place of 
Richard Backas, who was burned in a pit. It is quite possible 
that there may have been similar cases at a much earlier period, 
because the records of coal-mining in the ]Vewcastle district go 
back to the 12th or 13th centuries. In those days, however, seams 
near to the surface only were being worked, which did not, as a 
rule, contain firedamp, and it was not until the early part of the 
nineteenth century that the presence of firedamp in mines became 
a serious danger and the cause of large losses of life in collieries. 
At that time the celebrated High Main Seam, which had been 
extensively worked at Wallsend and at other collieries on the 
Tyne, was becoming exhausted near the outcrop, and the 
workings were being continued at greater depths. Large quan- 
tities of firedamp were, therefore, encountered, and the 
difficulty of ventilating the mines was further aggravated by 
" creeps," which were constantly occurring in those days by 
reason of the small size of the pillars of coal that were left. 

An explosion took place in 1801 in the High Main Seam at 
the "A" Pit of the AYallsend Colliery, which caused extensive 
damage to the shaft and destroyed a number of lives. Other 
similar explosions, accompanied by loss of life, followed, and 



40 TRAXSACTIOXS THE NORJ'll OV KXl.LAND IXSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

l)ublic attention was not unnaturally diiet-ted to the matter, with 
the result that tlie ((jal-owners and viewers took up the (luestion 
in order to tiiid a laiiii) wliicli niig-ht safely be used in tiery mines. 
Up to that time various expedients had been tried for providing 
light in mines in whicdi it was not safe to use a candle, and in 
Flanders fungus tinder had been occasionally used under those 
conditions ; but the light was much too feeble for working pur- 
poses, and was just barely sufficient to enable the pitmen to find 
their way in and out of the mine. The phosphorescent light from 
decaying fish was, I believe, also occasionally utilized ; but it is 
perfectly obvious that none of the expedients mentioned could be 
of any use for practical purposes. A more important appliance 
was the flint-and-steel mill, which is supposed to have been in- 
vented by James Spedding of Workington, Cumberland, in the 
year 1760, who was described by John Buddie in his evidence 
before the Select Committee on Mines in 1835 as the most able 
pitman of his day. The light from that mill was produced by 
sparks obtained by means of a steel wheel revolving against a 
piece of flint. That method of obtaining light was undoubtedly 
safer than a ciuidle, but explosions have been known to follow 
from sparks from the steel mill, and the system had the further 
disadvantage that it required the services of a lad in each 
working'-place to do nothing but work the mill ; hence the system 
was not only inefficient but costly. 

The need, therefore, of an improved light in gassy mines was 
urgent and imperative, and it was further emphasized by the 
fact that on May 25th, 1812, a tremendous explosion occurred 
in the Low Main Seam of the Felling Colliery, by which 92 
persons lost their lives. The Rev. John Hodgson, who was at 
that time Vicar of the Parish of Heworth, in which the colliery 
was situated, w^as naturally very much concerned at the loss of 
life among his parishioners caused by the disaster, and appar- 
ently assisted to the best of his ability in obtaining relief for 
the dependants of the deceased workmen, and further, by means 
of correspondence and meetings, did everything in his power 
to give publicity to the occurrence, with the view^ of calling the 
attention of the Government to the matter, and of making sure 
that steps should be taken for the prevention of similar accidents 
in the future. For that purpose, a society, the object of which 
was to devise means for the prevention of accidents in coal-mines, 



1915-1916] GREEXER PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 41 

was tormed at Sunderland iu the latter part of 1813, and 
although I have not been able to obtain a complete list of the 
names of its members, it is clear that the Rev. Dr. Grey, at that 
time Rector of Bishopwearmouth and Prebendary of Durham, 
and afterwards Bishop of Bristol, Cuthbert Ellison, M.P., 
of Hebburn Hall, and the Rev. John Hodgson were among itw 
most active members. The society was under the patronage of 
the ]3uke of Northumberland, the Marquis of Bute, and other 
distinguished colliery-owuers. I have not seen any records of 
the proceedings of the society, but the chief object which 
Hodgson had in view was undoubtedly the production of a 
lamp which might be used safelj- in the presence of gas. He 
appears to have discussed the question very earnestly and ex- 
haustively with John Buddie, at that time the most eminent 
viewer of his day, and to have made experiments himself with 
the object of devising a safety-lamp. jN'othing, however, came 
of Hodgson's experiments; but on August 21st, 1815, the Rev. 
Robert Grey wrote to Hodgson the following letter : — 

To the Rev. Mr. Hodgson, 

He worth, Newcastle. 

lilSHOPWEAKMOLTH, 

Aii(ju<t 21.-;/, 1815. 
Dear Sir, 

Having been informed by a letter from Sir Humphry Davy that he is to 
be in Newcastle on Wednesday or Thursday next, I have felt desirous that he 
should have some conversation with you and Mr. Buddie on the subject of the 
accidents in the collieries, that he may be the better able to furnish us with 
his opinion. I have therefore written to him to express the hope that he may 
see you ; and if, on the receipt of this letter, you would address a few lines to 
him at the post office, Newcastle, saying where you might be seen on those 
days, it might contribute to promote the objects which the Society (for the 
prevention of Accidents in Coal Mines) has in view. I have written to Mr. 
Buddie with a similar design. Sir Humphry comes from the North. Whether 
he travels by post or mail I know not. With many apologies for giving you 
this trouble, 

I remain, dear Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

KoBT. Grey. 

In consequence of that letter, Hodgson called upon Sir 
Humphry Davy on August 23rd, at the Turk's Head Hotel, 
Newca-stle, and laid before him such information as he possessed 
with regard to the ventilation and lighting of coal-mines, and 
explained the experiments that he had made to show that the 
explosive gas of mines was a mixture of common air and coal-gas 
spontaneously evolved from the coal. He and Sir Humphry 



42 ruAXSACTlONS — tllK NOinil of ENGLAXI) institute. [Vol.lxvi. 

J)avy then proceeded to Jiuddle's house at Wallsend, and the 
hitter and Hodf^'sou discussed the subject of a safety-hiinp for 
mines with Sir Humphry ])avy at great length. Davy did not 
consider it necessary to go down the pit, and left them with the 
statement that he '' thoug-ht he could do something for them." 

In the meantime, William Reid Clanny, a doctor in Sunder- 
land, who was, of course, well acquainted with the coal-trade 
and with the condition of the collieries in the district, had pro- 
duced a lamp in which the light was enclosed in a cylinder con- 
taining water, through which air was circulated to support 
combustion by means of bellows. The process, however, was 
too cumbersome for practical work, and the lamp never went 
beyond the experimental stage. Subsequently, however, Clanny 
perfected the glass and gauze lamp which bears His name, and has 
been adopted as the model on which other lamps now in use are 
based. 

I do not propose to comment upon the steps which led Sir 
Humphry Davy to the discovery of his lamp ; his experiments 
and his deductions from those experiments are all fully described 
in his treatise on Researches un Flattie. The experiments were, 
however, so successful that before the end of 1815 Sir 
Humphry Davy had produced the wire-gauze lamp w-liich bears 
his name, and which lias been successfully used in coal-mines 
(with various modifications) during the past hundred years. 
Hodgson, Buddie, and Matthias Dunn were among the first 
to try the lamp practically in January, 1816, at the Hebburn 
Colliery, and Hodgson describes how it behaved in the presence of 
gas in a letter to Sir Humphry Davy dated January 9th, 1810. 
About the same time, George Stephenson, then enginewright at 
Killingworth Colliery under the late Nicholas Wood, was also 
making experiments with the view of discovering a safety-lamp, 
and although he had not the scientific attainments of Sir 
Humphry Davy, he apparently' arrived at very much the same 
conclusion as the latter as a result of his own. observations and 
experiments. It is no part of my province to enter into 
the question of whether Sir Humphry Davy or George 
Stephenson was the actual discoverer of the safety-lamp, or 
whether (as seems likely) they were parallel discoverers. George 
Stephenson's fame does not depend upon his experiments with 
lamps, but upon the fact that he was the father of the railway 



1915-1916] GREENER — PKESIUEXTIAL ADDRESS. 43 

system and the inventor and manufacturer of locomotive engines 
on a practical basis. On the other hand, Sir Humphry Davy 
will always be remembered in mining circles as the producer of 
a safety-lamj) whicli in its essential features is still being used in 
coal-mines to-day, notwithstanding tlie fact that its details have 
been considerably modified and improved. 

A very acrimoniou>s correspondence was conducted about tliat 
time in the Newcastle papers as to the merits of the Davy and the 
Stephenson lamps respectively, and as to the time at which they 
were put upon the market. Hodgson took his part in that 
correspondence, and upheld the claims of hiri friend Sir Humphry 
Davy. Xo further reference need be made to the matter ; the con- 
flict has long since ceased, and has no interest at the present time. 
I do not pro})Ose to pursue the subject of safety-lamps further, as 
I understand that a paper is being written on it by two gentle- 
men who .are more comjjetent to discuss it in all its bearings than 
I am. 

It is always a difficult matter to find a subject for a Presi- 
dential Address which is not already threadbare, having regard 
to the number of mining institutes in the country and the num- 
ber of addresses on all manner of subjects which have from time 
to time been written. In looking over the Transactions of the 
Institute, however, I have come to the conclusion that I might be 
able to contribute some useful information concerning the manu- 
facture of coke in bye-product ovens, more especially as members 
have not written largely on the subject. 

The late A. L. Steavenson was undoubtedly an authority on 
the manufacture of coke in beehive ovens, and he has de- 
scribed in the highly instructive series of papers which he from 
time to time contributed to the Institute the methods of manu- 
facturing coke in those ovens, from the earliest periods of the 
history of coke manufacture up to the time at which bye-product 
ovens were introduced. I will, therefore, endeavour to take up 
the story at the point at which he left it, and to bring it up to 
date, without, if possible, entering into too much wearisome 
detail. 

John Percy, in his Metallurgy, alludes to the fact that in 
1852 F. Jossa of Witton-le-Wear was taking- out a patent 
for extracting salts of ammonia from the smoke and gases evolved 



44 TRAXSACTIONS -THK XoKTIl OF KNCiL.VM) INSTITUTE. fVol. livi. 

from ihe iiiamit'iiclurc of L-oke, so that it appears that at that 
(•onii)araliv<'ly early period attention was being directed to the re- 
covery of l)ye-products from coke-oven gases. I do not know any- 
thing about the process, nor whether it was ever tried on a large 
scale, but I believe not. At all events, the system was not adopted 
in any coke-yard, and nothing further appears to have been 
accomplished until about 1873. In that year — or thereabouts — 
Messrs. Bell Brothers determined to abandon laboratory experi- 
ments, and to test practically, on a fairly large scale, the nature 
and iiuautity of bye-products to be obtained from the waste gases 
from coke-ovens : for this purpose they treated the gases from 
thirty-six beehive ovens for a period of five months or more. The 
(juautities of ammoniacal liquor and of sulphate of ammonia 
which they obtained were, however, so small that it was 
not worth while to continue manufacturing them, and the 
process was (for the time being) abandoned. It was un- 
successful, not only because of the small quantity of bye- 
products recovered, but also because the quality of the coke 
for blast-furnace purposes was greatlj- depreciated. The 
coke was soft, spongy, and full of black-ends, and the cost 
of maintaining the ovens was very heavy. Steavenson 
remarks that each oven required thorough repair every four 
months : hence, though the scheme was not altogether successful, 
valuable experience was gained which paved the way for eventual 
success. Bell Brothers continued to persevere in their 
endeavours to solve the problem of recovering bye-products from 
waste gases, and in 1882 the Jameson oven, having been previous- 
ly patented, was introduced to a small extent at their Pagebank 
Colliery. The process was exceedingly simple — the coal was 
coked in a beehive oven of the ordinary type, and the gases were 
conducted from the back-ej-e by means of a flue connected with 
a series of flues underneath the floor of the oven, similar to those 
in the Dixon and Brecon oven. The gases were drawn off by 
means of an exhaust-engine, and they were treated in the usual 
manner for tar and sulphate of ammonia. The results were not 
equal to the sanguine estimates of the patentee, but they were 
not altogether unsatisfactory, and the system might have been 
perfected and extended if it had not been for the fact that the 
manufacture of coke in bye-product ovens was by that time fully 
established on the Continent, and the first installation of twenty- 



1915-1916] GREENER — PRESIDEXTIAL ADDRESS. 45 

fire of such ovens was being erected by Messrs. Pease & 
Partners at their Bankfoot works, together with a recovery- 
plant for tar and sulphate of ammonia. The results ob- 
tained by Pease &, Partners were so satisfactory that, in 
the succeeding nine years, they built eighty-three additional 
Simon-Carves ovens similar to the first twenty-five installed, 
and more than doubled their recovery-plant and extended it 
to include the production of benzol. The installation of ovens 
at Peases West was ([uiekly followed by a similar installation at 
Bearpark, but for some years afterwards little or no progress was 
made with the extension of the system, chiefly, I believe, by 
reason of the prejudice at that time current against the appear- 
ance of coke manufactured in bye-product ovens. The coking 
process in those ovens commences at the side walls and proceeds 
laterally in both directions, until it meets in the middle, so that 
there is always a parting in the coke, and the columnar structure 
of the beehive coke, to which manufacturers at one time attached 
considerable importance, is altogether destroyed. Further, the 
coke from the retort oven must be cooled on the bench, and, 
therefore, the silvery appearance which coke cooled inside tiie 
oven possesses entirely disappears. Consumers, therefore, were 
very difficult to persuade that retort-oven coke was in all respects 
as good as beehive coke, having regard to its smaller size and 
indifferent appearance. The prejudice against that coke is only 
now disappearing, and I believe that even yet certain consumers 
prefer to pa 3' an enhanced price for beehive coke. 

About twenty years ago, however, the necessity for improv- 
ing the manufacture of coke was forced upon the attention of 
colliery-owners by reason of the fact that the best coking coal 
in Durham was being rapidly exhausted, and that the remaining 
workable seams were not capable of producing good coke without 
careful washing. The effect of such washing was to remove the 
free dirt in the coal, amounting in some instances to 1-3 to 20 
per cent, of the produce, with the result that, whilst a clean coal 
was obtained, its cost was so high that it was impossible to 
manufacture coke in beehive ovens at a profit, having regard to 
its comparatively small yield and to the market price of the coke. 
A great impetus was therefore given to the erection of bye- 
product ovens, because the manufacture of coke in such ovens 
had very distinct advantages over the manufacture of coke in 



46 Transactions— TiiK south of knmjlaxd institute. [Vol.ixvi. 

beehive ovens. The yield was generally Hi per cent, higher 
Ihaii ill (lie beehive oven, and the hye-producls from the waste 
gase-s — tar, sulpiiate of ammonia, and benzol were recovered, 
whereas tliey were absolntely lost in the beehive oven. The 
diffteulty of iinding a market for the coke 1o a great extent 
settled itself, because consumers, whether they liked it or not, 
were compelled to use coke from retort-ovens, by reason of the 
fact that they could not obtain sufficient supplies from beehive 
ovens, hence the Drejudice against the nse of bye-product coke 
has by this time almost entirely disappeared. Large numbers 
of bye-product ovens were from that time onward installed in 
the several coalfields, and I should think that it is more than 
likely that all the coke in the country will eventually be manu- 
factured in such ovens, and that the beehive oven will in process 
of time be entirely superseded, as it has been in Germany. 

The bye-product oven is a retort, and the recovery of the 
bye-products in the most recent installations approaches as 
nearly as possible the best practice at gas-works. There is a large 
number of different makes of ovens, in which there are important 
differences of detail, but substantially they may be divided into 
two classes — those that are constructed with vertical flues, and 
those that are constructed with horizontal flues. I do not 
propose to enter into the consideration of the question whether 
the horizontal or the vertical flue is better; there is considerable 
difference of opinion on the subject, but, so far as I am aware, 
the results from both descriptions of ovens are, in practice, 
eminently satisfactory. The best-known types of ovens with 
vertical flues tliat I know of are the Otto-Hoffmann, the Otto- 
Hilgenstock, the Coppee, the Ivoppers, the Collin, and the Simon- 
Carves, but there may be others with which I am not acquainted. 
The original Simon-Carves oven was constructed with hori- 
zontal side flues, but of recent years that system has been 
abandoned in favour of the vertical flue. Of the ovens now in 
operation having side flues, the best-known makes are the Semet- 
Solvay and the Huessener. Installations of most of the ovens to 
which I have referred are working in this country, and can be 
seen by those who are interested in the subject. The general 
principles regulating the manufacture of coke in all bye-product 
ovens are the same. The theory is that coal should be carbonized 
in a retort from which all atmospheric air is excluded, that the 



1915-1916] (iREEXEE PRE8IDKXTIAL ADDEESS. 47 

gases as they are ^'iven oil' from the coal shouhl be drawn by 
means of exhausters, first into the hydraulic main in which the 
tar is deposited, thence to the sulphate-of-ammonia factory, 
from there to the benzol house, and finally shouhl return to the 
oven, there to be burned in the flues for the purpose of carbon- 
izing" the coal in the retorts. The operations to be conducted, 
and the results to be achieved, are precisely the same in each 
description of oven, although there ;ire important diiferences in 
the methods of obtaining- the results. 

The ammoniacal lic^uor from coke-ovens may be dealt with 
in two ways — either by the older method of obtaining the 
sulphate of ammonia b}' bringing the ammoniacal liquor into 
contact with live steam, or by the recovery of the sulphate direct 
from the coke-oven gases. The former process was always 
adopted in this country until about six years ago. By that 
method, the ammonia from the gases is obtained by passing the 
gases through scrubl)ers, in which water is dropping against the 
ascending gases and by circulating the water until it attains a 
given strength ; the liquor is then brought into contact with 
live steam and lime in a still. The ammonia-gas is driven off 
by the heat of the steam and the action of the lime, and passes 
through a bath of sulphuric acid, in which sulphate-of-ammonia 
crystals are formed, the latter being discharged from the bath 
either automatically, as in the self-discharging saturators, or 
removed by hand bj' means of a ladle. The crystals are then 
stored and dried, and are sold as the ordinary sulphate of 
ammonia of commerce. The liquor which remains after the 
ammonia is recovered is removed from the stills, and at all coke- 
yards with which I am acquainted is very difficult to dispose 
of. It is absolutely waste, and contains various free acids which 
ought not to be turned into any stream used for drinking 
purposes either b}- human beings or cattle. The difficulty of 
dealing with this liquor was, I believe, to a large extent an incen- 
tive to the adoption of the direct-recoveiy process. In that 
process the gas, having been first freed from tar, is passed at 
high temperature directly into saturators containing a bath of 
sulphuric acid, in which the salt is deposited, the great advan- 
tage of the system being that no steam or lime is required for 
distillation purposes. Consequently, there is no waste liquor 
to deal with : hence the difficulty of providing an outlet for such 



48 TRAXSACTIONS THE NORTH OF EXGLAXD IXSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

liquor is entirely obviated. So far as I am aware, the output 
of salt is aboui the same wiiiehever process is adopted; hut I am 
inoliued to think from my own observation that the appear- 
ance of the salt manufactured by the direct-recovery process is 
not quite so o-ood as that manufactured from ammoniacal liciuor, 
althou<>h for commercial purposes the two classes of salt are 
('([ual in the market. 

The out])ut of bye-products at any <?iven yard depends, of 
course, upon the quality of the coal carbonized ; a highly 
bituminous coal will contain more bye-products than a lean 
coal; but, on the other hand, the yield of coke from the former 
will be very much less than from the latter. It may, however, 
be interesting to quote figures, which I think from my own 
exjierience are fairly representative of tlie results obtained from 
the seams in Durham. I should say that it would be reason- 
able to expect an output of tar varying from 8A to 4 per cent, 
of the coal carbonized; an output of sulphate of 1 to Ij per cent, 
of the coal carbonized; and about 1 per cent, of benzol. These 
figures are necessarily approximate, and will vary with the 
quality of the coal in each coke-yard. The output of coke will 
depend upon the size of the OA^en, the nature of the coal carbon- 
ized, and whether the oven is of the regenerative or non-regenei'fl- 
tive type ; but over a period the output per oven in operation in 
Durlunn from non-regenerative ovens will generally be about 30 
tons per week, and in some few instances rather more. 

One of the most important points to consider in the installa- 
tion of bye-product ovens is the disposal of the surplus power 
to be derived from the ovens. In all installations consisting of 
not less than fifty ovens there is a considerable amount of surplus 
power to dispose of, and that power may either be utilized in the 
form of gas or in the form of waste heat, whichever is most suit- 
able for the purpose in view. If it were more convenient and 
more profitable to deal with it in the form of gas, naturally the 
regenerative oven would be installed. If, however, it was pro- 
posed to raise steam in boilers fired by waste heat from the ovens, 
the non-regenerative oven would be adopted. In the former case, 
the air is pre-'heated to a tempei'ature of 900° to 1,000° Cent, be- 
fore being admitted to the flues in the sides of the chamber in 
which the coal is carbonized, so that the consumption of gas is 
reduced by about one-half, and it it be assumed that a ton of 



1915-1916.] GEEENEE PRj:SinEXTIAL ADDRESS. 



49 



cokino' coal usiially contains about 10,000 cubic feet of gas, it is 
obvious that there will be about half that quantity to spare, say 
about 5,000 cubic feet per ton of coal carbonized. TTndoubtedly 
tlie most economical method of usino- the p'as for power purposes 
would be to instal o-as-engines, and if it be assumed that an 
oven would carbonize 40 tons of coal containing not more than 
10 per cent, of moisture per week of seven days quite a moderate 
assumption — there would be produced 2,380 cubic feet of gas per 
hour, having- a heat value of, say, 500 British thermal units. 
Half that quantity of gas would be available for power purposes, 
say 1,100 cubic feet per hour. Gas-engines would, I understand, 
require 25 to 30 cubic feet of such gas per horsepower, in which 
case there could be produced 36 to 44 horsepower per oven. 
Such ovens have not been largely u^sed at collieries in this 
country, although there are many in operation on the Continent, 
because, generally speaking, gas-engines are not so reliable as 
steam-engines, and the responsible persons at pits have, as a rule, 
no experience of such engines. There is always, therefore, a 
very proper reluctance to introduce a new method until it has 
been thoroughly tested elsewhere. The Powell-Duff ryn Company 
have installed- a number of gas-engines actuated by spare gas 
from Koppers coke-ovens at their Bargoed Colliery, South 
Wales, and, so far as I am aware, they are quite satisfied with 
the working of the .system. I think there is no doubt that the 
use of gas-engines will be greatly extended, and that regenera- 
tive ovens will be more largely built in the future than they 
have been in the past. It would, of course, be quite feasible 
to raise steam from spare gas, and I calculate that 95 
cubic feet would be required to produce ■'*() pounds of steam 
having a pressure of 160 pounds, and on that assumption 11^ 
horsepower would be available per oven. I cannot, however, 
imagine that any person wishing to raise steam would adopt the 
regenerative oven for that purpose: it is essentially a gas-pro- 
ducer, and is not, therefore, suitable for raising steam by means 
of spare gas. Such gas might, however, be purified, and if the 
coke-yard was within reasonable reach of a town, it might be sold 
for lighting and power purposes. I believe that some of the iron- 
masters in the Middlesbrough district, who have bye-product 
ovens in operation at their works, are selling spare gas to the 
Corporation, and that it is being utilized for the purposes to 



50 TRANSACTIONS — THE NORTH OF KXCiLAXn IXSTITTTTK. [Vol. Ixvi. 

wliicli 1 linve referred. The niiijorily ot the ovens in this country 
are of the non-regenerative type, chiefly, I think, because 
colliery inanaf^ers are doubtful of the reliability of gas-eng-ines, 
and theiefoie i)refer to make use of the surplus power from ovens 
foi' the ])urpose of raising steam, either by means of Lancashire 
boilers or by water-tube boilers. 1 tliink tliat it is generally 
admitted by those who have experience of the matter that there 
may be obtained in LaiK asliirc or in watei-tube boilers, from the 
waste-heat oven, 1 pound of steam per pound of coal carbonized ; 
so that if it be assumed that a bye-product oven is capable of car- 
bonizing 40 tons of coal per week of 7 days, or 53'^ pounds per 
hour, there will be produced 5'33 pounds of steam per hour per 
oven, or 17'76 horsepower, in an engine having a steam- 
consumption of 30 pounds per horsepower. If the steam were 
used for generating electricity by means of turbines, an output 
of 24 kilowatts per hour might be produced. I have known that 
output to be obtained continuously for over a week in actual 
practice in a large power-station, but I should prefer to estimate 
20 to 22 kilowatts, or 26 to 29 horsepower, as more likely to be 
produced over a long period. 

The quality of the coke, and the output of bj'e-products per 
ton of coal carbonized, -are the same whether the coal be coked 
in a regenerative or in a non-regenerative oven ; hence it would 
appear that, w^hen the gas-engine is perfected, the regenerative 
type ought to a large extent to supersede the non-regenerative 
oven, if we consider the relative amounts of power to be de- 
rived from the surplus gases in each description of oven, and 
the fact that larger outputs of coke and bye-products are capable 
of being produced in a given time in the regenerative than in the 
non-reg-enerative oven. By pre-heating the air admitted to 
the flues of the regenerative oven, the charge can be carbonized 
in a shorter time than in the non-regenerative oven, so that the 
production per oven in the regenerative system is probably 25 
per cent, higher than in the non-regenerative system. 

There is only one other matter to which I propose to refer, and 
that is the so-called " low-temperature "' carbonization of coal. 
So far as I understand the process, it is intended to produce the 
largest output of bye-products — tar, ammonia liquor, and gas — 
and to manufacture a coke containing 10 to 12 per cent, of 
bituminous matter. The appearance of such coke would 



1915-1916] GREENER PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 51 

more or less resemble half-burned coal, and would be quite un- 
suitable for blast-furnace or for foundry purposes. It is said, 
however, that it would take the place of coal to a large extent in 
the ordinary household fires, that in burning it would not 
give off smoke, and that therefore the smoke nuisance would be 
absolutely cured. The output of bye-products, however, would, it 
is expected, be greatly increased, and at the same time their 
quality would be considerably improved. I do not know whether 
these sanguine estimates will be realized in practice, but I under- 
stand that a plant is in course of erection in Yorksliire to test the 
matter practically, and no doubt in process of time the results 
will be made known. 

My object in preparing these notes was to provide the colliery 
manager who may have no previous knowledge of the subject 
with reliable data derived from actual experience, so that 
should he be called upon to deal with the installation of bye- 
product ovens in connexion with his colliery, he may have facts 
before him to enable him to come to a conclusion as to whether 
it would be worth while to incur the expenditure required for 
the erection of a plant of that kind. 



Prof. Henry Louis (Xewcastle-upon-Tyne) said that he had 
been privileged to move that a very hearty vote of thanks be 
accorded to the President for the excellent Address with which 
he had favoured them. Addresses such as this were of the best 
type possible for the Institute. They had had before them in 
the course of the past year many excellent papers dealing 
specifically with matters of detail in connexion with various 
subjects in which they were interested. These papers were given 
by specialists in the particular subjects dealt with, but such 
papers exposed them to dangers from which Addresses like that 
of the President would go a long way to save them. In papers 
written by specialists tlie writers were apt to put their subject 
forward from too favourable a point of view, but it was an 
advantage to have an Address like the one just delivered in 
which the subject was considered from the point of view, not 
of the inventor, but of the man who had had to use the invention 
and who had gre^t experience in the use of it. In the papers 
presented by specialists, owing to the amount of detail, there was 



52 TKAXSACTIOXS — TIIK XOKTIl OK KXtiLAM) IXS'J'ITUTK. [Vol. Ixvi. 

a clanger of losing sight of the wider outlook, lu the Address 
that they had just heard they had a review of what had been done 
over a long period of time, and this enabled them to " take stock " 
and see what progress had been made and what progress had yet 
to be made. They could not overestimate the value of reviews of 
this kind when put before them by one who had a practical know- 
ledge of the subject. He had no doubt that the President's 
Address would be consulted frequently by a large number of the 
members and would be regarded as one of the most useful of the 
Addresses that had been presented to the Institute. 

Mr. W. 0. Wood (South Hetton) seconded the vote of thanks, 
which was unanimously accorded. 

The Peesidext (Mr. T. Y. Greener) said that he was very 
much obliged to Prof. Louis for proposing and to Mr. AVood for 
seconding the vote of thanks. The object which he had in view 
in his Address was to give the members the benefit of his know- 
ledge on a subject with which he was practically acquainted, and 
he thought that it might be useful to the members generally to 
have some figures on which thev could relv with confidence. 



Mr. Samuel Dean's paper on " Modern American Coal-mining 
Methods, with Some Comparisons," was taken as read, as 
follows : — 



1915-1916] IJKAX AMERICAN COAL-MIXIXG METHODS. 53 



MODEEX AMEEICAX COAL-MIXIXG METHODS, WITH 
SOME COMPARISOXS. 



By SAMUEL DEAN. 



Introduction. — The feature wliicli stands out above all others, 
when comparison is made between coal-mining methods in differ- 
ent countries, is the output per man in American mines. A few 
weeks previous to the war the writer visited mines in Germany, 
Belgium, and France, and revisited mines in Great Britain, and 
he again affirms his opinion that the principal reason why the 
United States of America leads in production per man is because 
large-capacity mine-cars are used in American mines. 

Mr. S. F. Sopwith, in discussing Mr. S. H. Cashmore's paper 
on " The Reduction of Working-costs at the Coal-face,"* said 
that his experience was that fillers earning 6s. 9d. to 7s. a shift 
considered that they had done a day's work when they had filled 
fifteen tubs. It is assumed that he referred to tubs of a capacity 
of 10 cwts. each, which equals T^ tons per shift. Mr. Cashmore 
had shown that only about a fifth of the filler's time was actually 
occupied in filling, nearly the whole of the remainder being 
spent (or wasted) in topping up, tramming, and in waiting for 
empties. 

If Mr. Sopwith had used tubs of, say, 3| tons capacity, it 
would only have been necessary for the filler to load two tubs to 
equal the output of fourteen 10-cwt. tubs. It is quite reasonable 
to expect also that, if the filler is not engaged in topping, tram- 
ming, or in waiting, he will be filling, and will have little diffi- 
culty in loading, at least, three 3i-ton tubs. 

The writer quite expects to hear the following objections to 
the use of such large tubs : — " Large tubs would not be practic- 
able, on account of bad roofs and unevenness of strata ; and, 
where large trams are used, as in South Wales, the output per 
man is no more than in the districts where small tubs are in use." 

• Trans. List. M. E., 1915, vol. xlix., page 63. 

VOL. LXTI.- 19)4-1916. 5 E 



54 TRAXSACTIOXS — THE NORTH OF EXGLAXD IXSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

In the anthracite regions of Pennsylvania the seams pitch at 
all angles from tlie horizontal to the vertical; the roofs in some 
anthracite-mines could not be much worse, and the roofs in 
South AVales are bad. In the anthracite regions the capacity 
of the mine-cars ranges from 2 to 5 tons, the average being about 
3| tons. One of the principal reasons why the output per man 
is not higher in South Wales is because comparatively few coal- 
cutting machines and face-conveyors are in use. Locomotives 
and large cars are used with single tracks, except at the " pass- 
byes," and the main haulage-ways are not as wide as similar 
roads in mines where endless-rope haulage is employed. 

Machine-mining difficulties have been overcome to a large 
extent in the United States, and coal-cutting machines are being 
improved and introduced so rapidly that it would appear to be 
only a matter of a few years before hand-mining becomes nearly 
extinct in the bituminous mines. Methods of haulage, or 
transportation, are being developed to a high degree, in order 
to ensure plentiful supplies of empties at the coal-face. 

The modern mining man uses care in planning his roads, and 
chooses the best rolling-stock. In order to secure greater 
efficiency, he has (1) increased the weight of the coal hauled 
in proportion to the weight of the car containing it ; (2) 
decreased the amount of drawbar pull due to friction; and (3) 
decreased the delay due to derailments and wrecks, and increased 
the number of cars hauling coal in proportion to the number kept 
in the repair-shop. 

Large car capacity is not attained by increasing the height of 
the car, but by increasing the length and width, along with 
wide-gauge tracks. The introduction of roller-bearing wheels 
has reduced the drawbar pull due to friction. Brass journals 
or brass-bushed wheels are also an improvement. Cars fitted 
with spring draught gear are now being used so as to reduce the 
heavj' starting load. Compressed-air or electric locomotives are 
emploj'ed to haul the long heavy trains of cairs underground, 
and cases are on record of starting 50 per cent, more cars with 
spring draught than with solid bumpers. Some of the best 
principles of railroad engineering are being applied to under- 
ground haulage. 

The opinion exists in some countries that great danger is 
attached to the use of electric trolley-locomotives in coal-mines, 



1915-1916.] DEAX AMERICAN COAL-MIXIXG METHODS. 55 

but it i* well to remember that electric locomotives are used in the 
mines in "Westphalia, and the accident rate has not increased 
since their introduction. Countries that prevent by law the 
operation of trolley-locomotives are handicapped in world com- 
petition, and the same remark applies to countries where pit-tubs 
of small capacity are used. 

The output per man in Germany is low, coal-cutting by 
machinery is in its infancy, and the mine-cars and track-gauges 
are ridiculously small and narrow. In the United States over 
50 per cent, of the total production of bituminous coal is mined 
by machines, and large-capacity cars and wide-gauge tracks are 
used. The output per man per annum in Germany was about 
300 tons, and the average in the Fnited States 760 tons, despite 
the fact that the mines do not work with by any means the same 
regularity as European mines. German mines work on an aver- 
age 300 days a year, and American mines 238 days. There is 
food for much thought in this comparison, because Germany is, 
in many ways, more efficient than the ITnited States of America. 

Keen competition and low selling prices, especially in States 
east of the Mississippi. Eiver. are finding work for the efficiency 
expert. An address delivered before the Coal Mining Institute 
of America by Mr. Harrington Emerson, a Xew York efficiency 
engineer, is well worth c-onsideration. The figures given show 
how startlingly low are selling-prices and costs of production, 
despite the high wages paid to the workmen. 

Mine-car Design. — The modern mine-car is built of steel. 
The opinion that steel cars are easily damaged and difficult to 
repair is disappearing in most localities : small bends and dinges 
can be taken out with a sledge hammer; while heating with a 
blow-torch helps materially. Bent sides and ends can be 
straightened with a rail-bender or special appliance. "Wooden 
cages, large enotigh to admit a car, and jacks acting in opposite 
directions, are used to straighten out the worst cases of dis- 
tortion. 

Opinions vary as to the best design, and the steel-bottom car 
has been discarded at some mines, the practice being to have an 
oak bottom with sides and ends of steel. It is claimed that the 
disadvantage of t'he steel bottom is that it makes the car too 
stiff, the truck gets knocked out of shape, the bottom plates rust 
quickly away, and the truck becomes loose on the car-bottom. 



56 TIL4XSACTI0XS — THE NORTH OF EXGLAXD INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

A car with the pLates bolted to the binder, instead of being 
riveted, is preferred by many, with the sides made in separate 
sections, so that they can be taken off and repaired quickly and 
easily in case of a wreck. Figs. 1 to 4 (Plate IV.) show a steel 
car with an oak bottom; it has a capacity of S^yjt cubic feet 




Fig. 17. — Mine-cab Showing the End Door Raised. 




Fig. 18. — Mine-car with Outside Bearings of Railway Construction. 

with a track-gauge of 56^ inches — the standard railway-gauge. 
The cost of this car, fitted with " Whitney Wonder " roller- 
bearing wheels, is £17 10s. 6d. ($ 85). It is in use at a mine in 
the State of West Tirginia, the thickness of the seam being 4 
feet, the method of working room-and-pillar, and the average 



1915-1916.] 



UEAX AMERICAN COAL-MIXING METHODS. 



57 



in AVest Yirginia, and it is significant that the cost of produc- 
pitch of the seam 2 degrees. This car has an end door, which is 
raised automatically in the tippler or self-dumping cage. This 
wide track-gauge of 56| inches can be seen at numerous mines 




Fig. 10.— il:.NE-CAE used in Thin Se.\ms. 




Fig. 20. — Mine-cae with Automatic Coupling Device. 



tion is lower in this State than in any other coal-mining region 
in the United States. The average total cost per short ton (2,000 
pounds) is 3s. "3d. (79 cents). 

Figs. 5 to 8 (Plate TV.) show the type of cars used by the 



58 TRAXSACTIONS-TIIE XORTII OF KXGLAXD INSTITUTE. [Vol.lxvi. 

Lathrop Coal Company, AVest Virginia. They are all of steel 
^vith bodies 9 feet 4 inches long', 6 feet 8 inches wide, and 2 feet 
deep The 14-ineh wheels are pressed on to axles of miniature 
railroad type, with M.C.B. type boxes and springs. Spring 
draught gear is used with non-jamming couplmg-lmks and 
pins The body is so sloped as to facilitate operation on inclines 
without excessive spilling of coal, and back-end corners are 
angled off in order to prevent injury to the trip-rider m setting 
the brakes. The cars stand only 35 inches above the rails, are 
11 feet 4 inches long over the bumpers, and weigh about 4,000 
pounds. They run on the comparatively narrow track-gauge of 




Fig. 21. — Another type of Mine-car. 



36 inches. The seam varies between 6^ and 7 feet in thickness, 
and the pitch is usually IJ in 100 in the mine where these cars 
are used. 

Figs. 9 to 12 (Plate IV.) show a car that is used in very thin 
seams. It stands only 19 inches above the rail, and has a capa- 
city of IGr'V cubic feet. This car is sometimes made with a 
flare board only 6 inches wide, instead of 11| inches as shown, 
bringing the height of the car above the rail down to about 15 

inches. This car runs on a 36-inch track-gauge, and the cost 

complete is approximately £5 (|25). 

Figs. 13 to 16 (Plate IV.) show a car used by the Houston 

Coal & Coke Company in the Pocahontas coalfield. This car 

has a wooden bottom and steel sides, is fitted with roller-bearing 



1915-1916] DEAX AMERICAN COAL-MIXIXG METHODS. 59 

wheels, and costs approximately £22 12s. (8110). It lias a 
capacity of 104^ cubic feet, and runs on a 44-inch track-gauge. 

Fig. 17 in the text shows a car with the end door raised. 
This car has a solid round bumper and single link-coupling, 
both of which are very satisfactory features. The brake-lever 
is at the end of the car, instead of at the side, the end position 
being preferable. 

Fig. 18 shows a car with outside bearings of railway con- 
struction, with springs over the boxes. These cars are strong and 
run easily, and are said to follow an uneven track with little 
danger of derailment. Fig. 19 shows a car used in thin seams, 
while a car with the automatic coupling device is shown in 
Fig. 20. Fig. 21 shows another type of mine-car. 




Fig. 22. — Hyatt Roller-beaeixg Coxtini:oi:s-sleeve Jourxal-box. 

The dust-proof steel car witliout end door is rapidly coming 
into use, and is emptied in a rotary tippler. But where trains 
of cars are hauled to the outside from drift or slope openings, 
long tipplers, capable of dumping eighteen to tweoty cars at a 
time without detachment from the haulage-rope, are being in- 
stalled, where main or main-and-tail-rope haulage is used. With 
this arrangement a trip of empty cars, standing on the surface, 
is not necessary, and fewer cars are required. 

Mine-car Wheels. — As a rule, both the axles and the wheels 
revolve. There are numerous types of wheels in use. Fig. 22 
shows the Hyatt flexible roller-bearing continuous-sleeve journal- 
box. The advantages claimed for this type, with rollers in 
the box, over the other types, with rollers in the hub, is that, 
in the case of heavy loads, the thrust against the flange of the 
wheels, when rounding curves, cannot pinch the ends of 



60 TRAXSACTIOXS — THE NORTH OF EXGLAXD IXSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 




-%a> 



Fig. 23.—' 



Whitney Wonder " Kollee-eearing Wheel, with Hand-greasino 
Appliance. 




Fig. 24. — Underside of Mine-car, with " Whitney Wonder " Koller-bearing- 

W^HEELS. 



1915-1916] 



DEAX AMERICAX COAL-MIXIXG METHODS. 



61 



the rollers ; and it does uot take up as much room from 
the centre of the axle to the bottom of the car. Rollers in 
the wheels are preferred by some on the smaller cars, and in the 
box for the larger and heavier cars. The Hyatt flexible roller- 
bearing- is comparatively new in mine-car work, but has given 
successful service for many years in shafting and machine work. 
It is also used in the rear axles of automobiles. It consists 
of a steel sleeve or casing, a cage or roller-chase, and 




GREASE SCREW 



Fig. 25. — Heavy Duty " Whitney Wondee " Rollee-beaeing Wheel. 

a number of flexible spiral-wound steel rollers. As the rollers 
are hollow, each acts as a reservoir for oil, and, being wound 
alternately right and left, they serve to distribute the oil across 
the entire bearing service. Cars fitted with these roller-bearings 
have been known to start and run on a gradient of 1 in 200. 

A popular wheel is the "Whitney Wonder," which is shown 
in Figs. 23 to 25. Prior to 1908, roller-bearing wheels had not 
proved to be very successful, and it was only in 1913 that this 
wheel came into prominence. It has proved to be so satisfactory 



62 TRANSACTIONS — THE NORTH OF ENGLAND IXSTITTTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

that the raanufactuieis give a five-years' written guarantee, 
which covers both the wheel and the roller-bearing. Actual tests 
have shown that this wheel has doubled the speed of locomotive 
haulage and saved 58 per cent, of electric power consumed, in 
comparison with the solid-hub wheel working under similar 
conditions. 

Through the courtesy of Mr. J. C. Amis, Engineer of the 
Virginia Iron, Coal, & Coke Company, the following particu- 
lars are given of a test carried out at the Toms Creek Mine, 
Virginia. At this mine the cars weigh about 3,000 pounds and 
hold 31 tons of coal. On the haulage-road where the test was 
made the gradient varies from level to lA in 100. The track was 
in fairly good condition. Twenty loaded cars were taken and 
hauled, with a trolley-locomotive, 3,250 feet and back three 
times. An average of thirty-six electrical readings were made 
on each trip, and the voltmeter and ammeter readings were 
checked with a wattmeter. 



Average for Three 
Time, in minutes 


Trips. 

Solid Hub. 

14-9 


Roller-bearing. 

7-5 


Average amperes 

,, volts 

,, kilowatts 


178 
470 
83-78 


154 

465 

71-81 


,, kilowatt-honrs- 


21 


8-8 



It will be readily seen that all the conditions necessary, so far 
as gradient is concerned, were present. At first sight, it would 
seem that the amount of power consumed depended upon the time 
taken to make the trip. As a matter of fact, with the solid hubs 
it was necessary to use a great deal of sand, and the locomotive 
wheels slipped on the rails considerably, so that time was certain- 
ly not the greatest factor. In the train with the solid hubs there 
were many different kinds of wheels. They were in fairly good 
condition, and had been in use for about the same length of time 
as the roller-bearings. The statement of the engineer regarding 
the test was as follows : — 

" After all, the problem is to get the greatest number of tons over the 
line in the shortest time with the least power. Time is most important, for 
miners will load coal if they get the empties. Overloading a locomotive is 
very expensive. It strains the machine, slips wheels, wearing the tyres 
rapidly, arcs and burns the trolley-wire, heats the motor, takes more current, 
thus lowering the voltage on the entire system and heating all other machines. 
So, after all, we trace the trouble to the drawbar pull, and we have proved that 



1915-1916.] UEAX AMEEICAX COAL-MIXIXG METHODS. 63 

-we can take the same number of tous that will heat the motor aud necessitate 
a large amount of sand, some slipping of wheels, and a drain on the power, 
over the same road in half the time, and with half the power consumption." 

Whitney roller-bearing' wheels are supplied with grease about 
two or three times a yeiXT. At the mines belonging to the 
Thacker Coal & Coke Company, West Virginia, they are 
greased once every four months. The old hand-greaser has been 
displaced by a larger and more efficient machine built in the 
company's shops. This greaser receives a barrel of grease at one 
time, aud is connected to a hose which carries a pressure 
sufficient to grease four wheels at a time. Grease is forced in 
until the old grease is forced out of the back of the wheel. 

Large-capacity Pit-tuhs. — Referring again to large cars and 
wide tracks, the advantage claimed in West Virginia for the 




Fig. 26. — Shoetwall Machine unloading from a Truck in the Mine. 

065-inch track is that with this width of gauge the car may be 
made lower, and at the same time there need not be so great an 
overhang over the wheels. A larger wheel can also be used. 
If the car were made wide at the top it would be awkward and 
top heavy with a narrow-track gauge, and would reciuire too 
much weight to support the sides where they projected over the 
wheels. But by using the wide track a low strong car of large 
capacity can be obtained. It is easier to load a low car than 
a high one, because there is more clearance over the top of the 
car, and the filler does not have to raise his shovel so high. 
Larger lumps can be used for topping, because there is more 
room for the larger lumps to go in. 



64 TRAXSACTIOXS TIIK XOHTII OF KXGLAXD IXSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

In one of tlie mines belonging to the Solvay Collieries Com- 
pany. West Virginia, the track-gauge is b(ih inches, and the 
seam is 4i feet thick. Derailments are few, on account of the 



^^^^V^^^^^N^^^^^Ip'^ '^^''^pjf^Kv'rTnQi^^^^^^^Bi -^^^^E^^^^l 


- ^'f-- 4!^^^^?«j'- *^^ •/. ' :■ 1 




-^Siiii — i-^^^^S^Siit/lSf'i 


Wa • ^^ 




■ « 





Fig. 27. — Shortwall Machine heady to make a Sumping Cut at the Right- 
hand Rib op a Room. 




Fig. 28. 



-Shohtwall Machine crossing the Face of a Room from Right to 
Lepi. 



track being maintained in good condition. AVhen derailments 
do occur, retracking shells are used. The condition of the roof 
is only fair. The width of the headings or main roads is 14 feet. 



li)15-1916.] J)EAX — AMERICAN COAL-MIXIXG METHODS. 65 

Mr. A. B. liawn, the general manager of the company, is not 
in favour of the 5(U-inch track-gauge, because, in his opinion, 
the increase in tonnage of coal received is not proportional to 
the increase in the gauge best adapted for mine use, wnicli, in 
his opinion, is 48 inches. Mr. Rawn recommends strongly the 
use of roller-bearing- wheels. After five years' experience with 
them, he has now in service about 650 cars so equipped, all of 
which carry from 2'6 to 4 tons of coal. Of the main features 
spoken of in connexion with this wheel, he believes that the oil- 




FiG. 29. — Shoetwall Machine Cutting across the Face; the Body is in 

ADVANCE OF THE CuTTFE-BAR SO AS TO CUT THE CoAL IN FrONT OF A 

" Sulphur Ball." 

saving, power-saving, and ease of handling', combined with the 
life of the wheel, justify all the claims. 

The Mine Trnf/r.— The haulage-roads in mines now receive 
more attention than formerly. In bituminous mines twenty 
years ago rails weighing 20 pounds to the yard were used on main 
haulage-roads, 16 and 12 pounds on secondary roads, and wood- 
en rails in rooms. In the modern mines of to-day 60 to 90- 
pound rails are used on main roads, 40 to 50-pound rails on 
secondary roads, and 16 to '30-pound rails in rooms. Surveyors 
set lines enabling track-layers to get proper alignment, and head 
track-layers are supplied with small blue-prints of data relating 



6(; TRANS.UTIOXS TIIK XOKl 11 OF KX(vLA\l) IVnTHTTE. [Vol.lxvi. 

to diifereul .stuiulaid switches and curves. In some few mines 
main-road tracks are ballasted with incombustible material. Long 
trains of heavy cars hanled by locomotives weighing? as much as 
30 tons demand good tracks, so as to avoid derailments and 



Machine-mining in the Unite'd States of America. — In 1890 
the production of bituminous coal per man employed was 579 
tons, and the total production was 111,302,322 short tons. In 
1913 the mines averaged more days in the year, and the output 




Fig. 30. — Shorthall Machine at the Conclusion of a Face Cut, showing the 
Method of Swinging the Machine on the Feed-chain in order to 
Square up the Eib. 



was 837 tons per man, the total production being 478,523,203 
short tons. In 1913, 242,476,559 tons, or more than 50 per 
cent, of the total, was machine-mined, whereas in 1890 probably 
less than 5,000,000 tons, or less than 5 per cent, of the total, was 
machine-mined. In the State of Ohio 90 per cent, of the total 
production is now machine-mined. 

The total number of machines reported in use in bituminous 
mines in 1913, was 16,381, an increase of 1,083 over the year 
1912. Out of the total number 6,936, or 42-3 per cent., were 
chain breast, 6,327 were punchers or pick-machines, 2,210 were 
shortwall machines, 791 were longwall, and 117 were of the 
radialaxe or post-puncher type. 



1915-1916.] 



DEAX AMERICAN' COAL-MIXIN'G METHODS. 



67 



It must not be assumed that tlie foregoing figures indicate the 
most popular machines in use in bituminous mines to-day. Manu- 
facturers are competing keenly one with the other, and great 
improvements are being made. The pick or punching machine 
has "seen its day." Only in seams where " sulphur balls" are 
prevalent does it work to advantage, as it enables the operator 
to cut around them. Chain-breast or heading machines are not 
suitable where the roof is tender and the props have to be kept 
close to the face ; but shortwall or continuous-cutting machines 
can be used where the props are within 4 to G feet of the face. 







Fig. 31. — Flame-pboof Machine with 10^-foot Cuttek-bah, unloading froii 

Power Tetjck. 



This type of machine gives satisfactory results, and is gaining 
in popularity every day ; but none of these can compare with 
the turuet type of machine. Some remarkable results have been 
obtained with this latest type of coal-cutter wihere the conditions 
were suitable. Other manufacturers can be expected, however, 
to put forth strenuous efforts to produce a machine to excel it. 

There are very few disc-machines in use. The cutter-bits 
are attached to an endless chain which travels in a groove around 
an oblong frame called " the cutter-bar " or arm, and in some 
countries the " jib." 



68 TRAXSACTIUXS THE >ORTn OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol.lxvi. 

In the States of Illinois and Indiana the owner is not encour- 
aged to replace his old pick or puiu her, or chain-hreast machine, 
with the more rapid shortwall machine, because the number of 
loaders or fillers that are allowed to load after one machine is 
restricted bj^ trade-union regulations. This shows how progress 
is retarded by trade-unionism in some parts of the United States. 
The shortwall machine is essentially an adaption of the con- 
tinuous cutting principle of the longwall machine to the require- 
ments of room-and-pillar working. A certain number of men 
are allowed to work after a pick or puncher machine, and a 









,1 • 

f 



Fig. 32. — Result of Shots after Coal had been Undermined 10 feet. 



certain number after a chain machine, which means a breast 
macbine. If sixteen loaders or fillers constitute the union stan- 
dard for a breast machine, additional men are not allowed to 
load after a shortwall machine, even though the capacity of the 
shortwall machine is such that twenty-five to thirty men can 
be kept busy loading after it. 

Coal-mining profits in these two States have been very low, 
and often non-existent. In fact, it can be said that numerous 
companies in different States have been able to exist, not from 



1915-1916.] 



])EAX — AMEEICAX COAL-MIXIXG METHODS. 



69 



profits on the coal mined, but from the rents of houses and the 
revenue from grocery and dry-goods stores, butchers' shops, and 
saloons (public-houses). Efforts are now being made, however. 




Fig. 33. — Chain-breast or Heading Machine. 




Fig. 34. — Reversible Longwall Machine. 




Fig. 35. — Drop-enc Machine Truck used with the Goodman Shortwall 

Machines. 



VOL. LXVI.-::i;5-: 16. 



6 E 



70 TRANSACTIONS — THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

in Illinois and Indiana to organize sellino- agencies, and to adopt 
methods somewhat similar to those employed hy the Westphalian 
Coal Syndicate. 

Fig-. 2(i shows a shortwall machine unloading from 
a truck on to the floor of a working-place, and travelling on a 
feed-chain anchored hy a jack. The machine travels over the 
rails from place to place under its own power. Fig. 27 shows the 
same machine squared with the right-hand rib of a room and 
ready to make a sumping- cut. 




Fig. 36. — Shortwall Machine travellixg into a "Working-place. 

Fig. 28 shows a shortwall machine crossing the face 
from right to left, while Fig. 29 shows the shortwall machine 
being manoeuvred to cut out a sulphur ball. The feed-chain at the 
take-up rig- behind the machine is slackened up, allowing the 
body of the machine to cut ahead at an angle. This cuts the 
coal away in front of the obstruction. The machine is then 
drawn back on its feed-chain to the right and the point of the 
cutter forced to feed ahead behind the obstruction. When thus 
freed on three sides, it is usually easy for the machine to jerk 
the sulphur ball out, and cutting is then resumed in the usual 
waj'. Fig". 30 shows the machine at the left rib ready to back 



1915-191G.] DEAX AMERICAN COAL-MIXIXG METHODS, 



71 



out. The jioint of the bar follows the line of the feed-chain 
(shown at the left) on its way out, leaving a straight rib. 

When the shortwall machine was first introduced, it 
was thought that its field would be confined to wide places or 




Fig. 37. — GooDii.\N Overcutting or Turret Machine. 




Fig. 38. — Goodman Overcutting or Turret Machine at Work. 



rooms, or to longwall faces. It is now used regularly for cutting 
headings or narrow places between rooms. In an Illinois mine 
seven 8-foot entries have been cut in five hours. Shortwall 
machines have been used in rooms driven across a pitch of 25 



72 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol.lxvi. 

degrees, and in rooms and entries driven up a pitch of 20 
degrees. The speed of these machines across the face is regu- 
lated by feed-gears, the speeds varying from 12 to 36 inches per 
minute. 

A Deep Undercut.— There appears to have been an opinion 
current— the writer has not been able to discover its origin— 
that a seam of coal could not be undercut to a depth greater than 
its thickness without difficulty being experienced in shooting 
down the coal. In the mines of the United States Coal & 
Coke Company at Gary (West Virginia), "Ironclad" shortwall 
machines are now being used to cut to a depth of 10 feet. 
The seams vary in thickness from 4| to 9 feet. The time and 
power required to cut to a depth of 10 feet are only slightly in 




Fig. 39. — Jeffrey Arcwall Machine, with Drop-head, used for cutting neab 

THE Bottom. 

excess of those required to cut 6 feet. 

Fig. 31 shows a machine with a 10^-foot cutter-bar in use in 
a mine in Virginia. Fig. 32 shows the result of shots after 
the coal had been undermined to a depth of 10 feet. In this 
mine each machine has an assigned territory of twenty to 
twenty-five rooms, which are 25 feet wide. Where the coal 
is only 5| feet thick, two 6-foot holes are drilled 3 feet from 
each rib, and one central hole 7 feet deep. The central hole is 
fired first, and breaks clear to the heel of the cut. The side 
holes leave about 3 feet of coal standing on each rib ; one light 
shot at each rib then squares up the place. 

Coal-cutting in Anthracite-Tnines . — Anthracite is now being 
undermined by machines. Formerly the opinion was that 



1915-1916.] 



DEAN — -AMERICAN COAL-MIXIXG METHODS . 



78 



anthracite was too hard to undercut, but this opinion has been 
found to be incorrect. The rapid exhaustion of the thicker seams, 
especially in the northern anthracite-field of Pennsylvania, made 
necessary the working of thin seams. These thin seams were 
cut by machines, and coal-cutters are now being used in anthra- 
cite-seams 10 to 12 feet thick. The coal is worked on the long- 
wall panel system in thin seams, with conveyor-faces 220 feet 
long. AVith a 6-foot undercut and coal 30 inches thick, 130 
to 140 tons of coal are obtained from each face per day. In 




Fig. 40. — Self-peopelled Arcwall Machine travelling into a Working-place. 
The Guard-board along the Trolley-wiee cin be seen. This Machine 
IS USED foe Cutting neae the Top. 



making the cut, from two to two-and-a-half sets of bits may be 
used, but at times, when very hard coal is encountered, three or 
four sets of bits may be needed for a cut of 220 feet. About 5 
feet of bottom rock is taken up in the gangway or gateway, in 
order to give sufficient height for the large-capacity cars beneath 
the conveyor. The coal moves in a flaring trough 6 inches 
deep, along the bottom of which passes a chain with flat broad 
links as wide as the bottom of the trough. 

Coal-cutting machines of the shortwall type are being used 



74 TRANSACTIONS — THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

in autliracite-seams pileliing 15 degrees. An iron rail is 
placed l)eliind the niacliine, after the sumping cut has been 
made, i)arallol with the face of the chamber or room. The rail is 
held in place by means of a jack at each end, and is moved when 
the machine has cut to the end. The machine has enough power 
to pull itself up to the coal and to make the sumping cut at the 
same time. 

Pillar-drawing by Machines. — Pillar-drawing by machines is 
carried out successfully in different parts of the country. Pillars 




Fig. 41. — Aecwall Machine at the Face op a Heading or Entry ready to 
CUT IN a Band of Shale. 

between rooms average, as a rule, about 30 feet in width. AVhen 
the room lias been driven to its limit — a distance of 200 to 300 
feet — a place from 20 to 30 feet wide is cut through the pillar 
at the far end. A second place, similar in width, is then cut 
through, leaving a pillar of coal about 10 to 12 feet thick on the 
goaf side. The machine then takes a cut along the full length 
of 30 feet of this goaf pillar or " stump," and the roof weight 
or squeeze causes the coal to break down. The total recovery at 
some mines by this method is 90 per cent. The building of 



1915-1916.] 



DKAX AMERICAX C0AL-:MINIXG METHODS. 



75 




Fig. 42. — Aecwall Machine cutting ix a Room near the Top of the Seam. 




Fig. 43. — Arcwall Machine withdrawn, showing th2 Position of the 

Cutting. 



76 TRANSACTIONS- — THE NORTH OF ENGLAND JXSTITL'TE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

packs or the setting of chocks during the process of extracting 
pillars is seldom, if ever, resorted to. The object always is to 
avoid all deadwork. 

Fig. 33 shows the chain-breast or heading machine, the popu- 
larity of which is on the wane; Fig. 34 shows a reversible long- 
wall chain-machine; Fig. 35 shows the drop-end truck used 
with the Goodman shortwall machine; while Fig. 36 is a view of 
a shortwall machine travelling into a working-place. 



- 


'^^ "••vT""^ ■,..:!;-■*,.«-£ 




■* 






1 






< 

i. 





Fig. 44. — Aecwall Machine at the Face of an Entry, cutting out 8 inches 

OF " Bone " Coal. 



; Overcutting Machines. — Figs. 37 and 38 show the Goodman 
overcutting or turret machine, which can cut at the top of the 
coal or from 18 inches or so above the bottom in room-and-pillar 
work. The machine travels over the tracks from place to p?ace 
by means of its own power, like an electric locomotive. It does 
not leave the rails during the operation of cutting. In travelling 
into a room the cutter-arm or bar is always ahead, and tlio 
machine advances until the arm is close to the face. A lever or 
quadrant brake is then set, and a telescoping anchor drill-rod 



1915-1916.] 



DEAX AMERICAX COAL-MIXIXG METHODS. 



77 



extended forward to the face. The drill is driven by power fvom 
the machine, and the anchor hole is quickly drilled. After the 
anchor has been driven into the hole, a wire rope from a drum 
on the rear of the machine is attached and the cutter-arm swung 
to the right-hand corner. The sumping cut having been made, 
the cutter-arm travels across the face to the left-hand corner, 
and the machine backs out (still cutting), leaving a straight face 
and straight ribs on each side. This type of machine will be 
improved, and there is undoubtedly a great future before it. 




Fig. 45. 



-CoiiBixED Cutting and Loading Machine in Opeeation at the Face 
OF A Heading. 



Fig. 39 shows the "Arcwall" drop-head cutter. This 
machine is built to cut anj^where above the top of the rail, and is 
adjustable while in operation to an irregular band of shale or 
dirt in the seam. 

The straight head-cutter (Fig. 40) is used for cutting 
near the top. It is used with much success in seams 
where inferior top coal is left to form a roof. Coal roofs in 
rooms which are , not required to stand for a long time are 
generally safe. This machine, with a 7-foot bar, has cut twenty 



78 TRAXSACTIOXS— THE NORTH OF KXGLAXJ) IXSTlTrTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

rooms in 10 hours, each room being 20 feet wide. The track is 
generally carried in the centre of the entry or room, and the face 
is in the form of an arc. Figs. 41 to 44 show the machine at 
work, and the face of a place after the machine is withdrawn. 
The writer has had some experience with this machine in a mine 
with a treacherous roof, but has not been able to devise a simple 
and economical method of timbering to protect the machinemen. 
Props had frequently to be removed and reset during the oper- 
ation of cutting. This machine can cut more places in a given 
time than the shortwall machine, because it is not necessary 
for it to leave the rails: it runs into a place with the cvitter- 




FiG. 46. — Showing the Conveyor of the Combined Cutting and Loading 

Machine. 



arm ahead, sumps in, makes a sweeping cut across, and travels 
out into the next place. It is a simple machine to operate, 
and does not make as much noise as some other types of machines. 
Young men about the mines show a keen desire for an opport- 
unity to work as learners or helpers with this machine ; they can 
ride on the machine as it travels from place to place, and they 



1915-1916.] 



DEAX AMERICAN COAL-MIXIXG METHODS. 



79 



do not liave to exert themselves unduly during any portion of 
their shift. If the machine cuts in shale or dirt, a labourer has 
to follow it and shovel the cuttings back before shots are fired. 
This work costs about lh\. (-3 cents) per ton of coal output, and is 
generally contracted for. Where the cutting is about the middle 
of a G-foot seam, six holes are often necessary in a 20-foot place, 
three in the top, and three in the bottom. The cost of explosives 
in such a seam comes to about lid. (-3 cents) per ton, the cut 
being 6 feet deep. The loader receives Is. 4d. (32 cents) a short 
ton for getting' and loading, drills his own holes, and does his 
own track-laying and timbering. The average is often 10 tons 
per filler per 8-hour shift. The writer does not hesitate to say 
that this average can be kept up easily if the loader can get a 
regular supply of empty cars. He has watched carefully the 




Fig. 47. 



-Goodman Rack-rail Locomotive ttsed in Mines with Steep and 
Uneven Gradients. 



work of men of different nationalities at the coal-face, and has 
found that of those from Ea.stern and Southern Europe the 
Austrian is in front, closely followed by the Italian from the 
northern part of Italy. He has frequently seen men break down 
and load 15 tons of coal into 2-ton capacity cars in an 8-hour 
shift; but 15 tons is not, by any means, the record. As the turret 



80 TRAXSACTIOXS — THE XOETII OF EXGLAXD IXSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

type of machine weighs 5 tons and more, it is necessary to lay a 
{substantial track in order to prevent derailments. 

Comhined Cutting and Loading Machines. — The cutting and 
loading machine is the latest type of appliance used at the coal- 
face in room-and-pillar mines. It has a stationary frame or pan 
in which the machine feeds itself forwards or backwards by its 
own power, the undercutting chain similar to the breast 
type, two vertical shearing chains, the conveyor in the cutter- 
head, the rear-pivoted conveyor which loads the coal into the car, 
and the mechanically-operated picks which knock the coal down 
on to the conveyor after it is undercut and sheared. It is also 
provided with a slack-conveyor. The machine is taken into a 
woricmg-place, and never removed until the place is worked out 
or driven to its destination. It is moved into difierent positions 
by its own power. There are as yet very few machines of this 
type in use, but more will probably be heard of it at a later date. 
Figs. 45 and 4G show the combined cuttiug-and-loading machine 
in operation at the face of a heading. 

The following particulars relate to actual results of machine- 
mining in different States : — 



I.^^State of Alabama. 



Method of -working 
Thickness of seam 
Inclination of seam 
Nature of cutting 
Ciiaracter of roof 
Width of rooms ... 

,, entries 

,, pillars 

Number of loaders per place ... 
Coal loaded per loader per shift 
Price paid for loading after machines 



Type of machine 

Length of cutter-bar 

Depth of cut 

Height of kerf 

Average lineal cut per minute 
Price paid per ton for undercutting... 
Average output per machine per day... 
Percentage of lump-coal over a 3-inch 
screen ... ... 



Eoom and pillar. 

32 to 36 inches. 

Flat. 

In hard coal. 

Good. 

40 feet. 

24 feet. 

20 feet. 
2. 

10 tons. _ 

Is. OM. (25 cents) per ton ; after the 
coal is shot and the track laid, 
the loaders do not timber. 

Sullivan continuous cutter. 

5 feet 3 inches. 

5 feet. 

5 inches. 

21 inches. 

6id. (121 cents). 
100 tons. 

35 per cent. 



1915-1916.] 



DEAX — AMERICAX COAL-MIXIXG METHODS. 



81 



II. — State of Iowa. 



Method of working 
Thickness of seam 
Inclination of seam 
Nature of cutting 
Character of roof... 



Distance of props from face ... 

Length of longwall 

Coal loaded per loader per shift of 8 
hours ... ... ... 

Price paid per ton for loading after 
machines, and packing 

Type of ma<;hine ... 

Weight of machine 

Style of bar 

Length of bar 

Depth of cut 

Height of kerf 

Average lineal cut per minute 

shift 

Price paid per ton for undercutting... 

Average output per machine per day 100 tons. 

Percentage of lump coal over l^-inch 
screen ... ... 

Cost of laying track 

„ haulage from coal-face to pit- 
bottom 

Previous output to main haulage per 
man per shift ... 

Present output to main haulage per 
man per shift, including machine- 
men ... ... 

Price paid per ton for hand-mining . . . 

Reduction in cost by machines 



Longwall. 

28 inches. 
Flat. 
Fireclay. 

Shale 16 inches, with 4 inches of lime- 
stone. 
31 feet. 
3,000 feet. 



6 tons. 

2s. 9id. (67 cents). 

Sullivan. 

4,800 pounds. 

Chain. 

30 inches. 

30 inches. 

4k inches. 

36 inches. 

500 feet. 

lid. C22 cents). 



90 per cent, 
l^d. (3 cents). 



4id. (9 cents). 



21 tons. 



5 tons. 

4s. 9id. ($1 15 cents). 

T^d. (15 cents). 



Alternating current is used, and two-tliirds of a kilowatt is 
consumed per ton of coal produced. Tlie depth of the undercut is 
only 30 inches, because this is the maximum depth allowed by the 
1914 agreement between the United Mine Workers of America 
and the Iowa Coal Operators. There is a seam of coal in Iowa 
only 15 inches thick, which is being undercut by alternating- 
current machines to a depth of 2 feet. Union labour is not 
employed at this mine. 



Method of working 
Thickness of seam 
Inclination of seam 
Character of roof 



III. — State of Pennsylvania. 

Room and pillar. 
... ... ... 8^ feet. 

... Flat to 6 degrees. 
Tender. 



82 TRAXSACTIOXS — THE NORTH OF EXGLAXD IXSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 



in. — State of Pennsylnania. — Contimied 

Distance of props from face 

Maximum distance between props ... 

Width of rooms 

entries 

,, pillars 

Number of loaders per place 

Coal loaded per loader per shift of 9 

hours ..• ■•• 

Type of machine 

Depth of undercut 

Average lineal cut per shift 



6 feet. 
U feet. 
12 feet. 
10 feet. 
1.5 feet. 
1 to 3. 

Api^roximately 12 tons. 
Shortwall. 

7 feet. 
110 feet. 



Note. — As the loaders in this mine are paid by the car and not by weight, 
any further data would not be reliable. 



IV. — State of Alabama. 



Method of working 

Thickness of seam 

Inclination of seam ... 

Nature of cutting 

Character of roof 

Distance of props from face 

Width of rooms 

entries 

,, pillars 

Number of loaders per place 

Coal loaded per loader per shift of 9 

hours ... 
Price paid for loading ... 



Type of machine ... 

Weiglit of machine 

Style of bar 

Depth of cut 

Average lineal cut jier minute 

shift ... 
Price paid per ton for undercutting. 
Electromotive force at switchboard . 
Loss in cable 
Current 

Power delivered to circuit 
Power expended by motor 
Energy used per ton produced 



Price paid -pev ton for hand-mining. 
Previous output per man at the face. 
Reduction in total cost by machines. 



Room and pillar. 
51 feet. 
2 degrees. 
Medium hard coal. 
Sandstone. 

7 feet. 
40 feet. 
16 feet. 
30 feet. 
1. 

8 tons. 

Is. 5gd. (35J cents), which includes ex- 
plosives, track-laying, timbering, 
and pushing the cars to the room 
necks. 

Jeifrey shortwall. 

4,400 pounds. 

Chain. 

5 feet. 

2 feet. 

100 feet. 

4id. (9 cents). 

250 volts. 

20 per cent. 

75 amperes. 

25 horsepower. 

20 horsepower. 

1-35 kilowatt-hours, or 100 tons per 
machine = 15 kilowatts for 9 
hours (at face). 

2s. 4|d. (57| cents). 

5 tons. 

Approximately 5d. (10 cents). 



1915-1916] 



DEAN AMERICAN COAL-MIXIXG METHODS. 



83 



Electricity. — All the machines described are electrically 
driven, this being the modern motive power in American mines. 
Severe, and sometimes bitter, competition compels the owner to 
adopt the cheapest methods, and perhaps occasionally to take 
some risks. When trailino: cables are attached to stationary 




Fig. 48. — Electric Trolley-locomotive. 




Fig. 49. — Electric G.\therixg Locomotive. 



conductors, they are merely hooked on to bare positive and nega- 
tive wires. 

Cost of Machines. — Shortwall machines cost from £200 to 
£350 each, but some of the £200 machines have not answered 
very well. An "Arcwall"' machine costs £650. Longwall 
machines run about £400 each. 



84 TRAXSACTIOX.S — TlIK XOimi OK KXIJLAXJ) IXSTITL'TE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

Locomotive Haulage. — Tins iu itself is a big subject, and the 
writer does not propose to deal with it at anj' length here. It 
has been touched upon in previous papers and discussions; but 
he wishes to call attention to the fact that the use of locomotives 
is not confined to easy gradients. Fig-. 47 shows a Goodman 
rack-rail locomotive used for transportation in '* hilly " mines, 
and applicable to haulage work on all gradients up to 1 in 6. 
There are a great many such locomotives at work. The number 
of electric storage-battery locomotives in use is rapidly increas- 
ing. Figs. 48 to 50 show types of electric trolley-locomotives. 




Fig. 50. — Electric Trolley-locomotive. 

Surface Plants.— li is not customary in the United States to 
build elaborate surface equipments at bituminous mines, as the 
mines do not, as a rule, have long lives. It can be said that the 
average bituminous plant is not " a thing of beauty" ; nor does 
one often see a " beautiful " mining village. Politicians of a 
certain type, and even women's organizations, have had much 
to say from time to time about poor housing accommodation, and 
the general " depressing" aspect which they claim pervades coal- 
mining communities. Their frequent remarks brought forth a 
satirical poem by Mr. Berton Braley, which was published in 
Coal Age.* 

Coiuhision. — Previous papers recently communicated by the 
writer have been discussed at considerable length, especially by 

* 1914, vol. vi., page 411. 



yg "Modcr/ij. 



VoLL..rM.\TEl\. 

\ USEP IN West Virginia 

Fig 7.— End View. 

'<U77 _ o.u A. .p. ^q p_. o o o <>_..?. 

r 



C*ST STEE 




< 36-INCH Gauge > 



Fig 8.— Rear View 




rir 



r 




USED IN THE PoCAHONTAS COALFIELD 

...... Fig n End View 



P 

^1 



^ 






'P.eidJeCoc-.pyL'^Wi 




T0J..LXVI.PIATEI. 



^iffiLilfote .^/^'SimMfJ /Je^ifts fhpfru7i iVaiicr/i Jni e/ican Coal mi/u///! . Vet/iocbMr//i somf Qjifipor i.son s'.' 

^ Figs 5 TO 8.-ALL-STEEL Railway Type of Mine-car oSEn in West Virqinii 



Vol I... PiuvrF. I\ '. 




Oak Bottom 



Fig 5 - Side E 



FiQ 3-End Vie 



Flo. 2.- Plan of Bottom 



f 

- I- 


YW HE 


^ ■=; 


r 




."'" 


'-.-.-— Trr::^ 






1 




- 




"^ 


i' 




• ... 








M 


> 


""^inW-iii" 










1 


¥ 


il ■ 
















1 












; V 







ij 


k 




• J, 









Figs. 9 to 12.-Mine-car us 
Fig. 9.-S1DE Elevation 






Fia IO.-Plan of Bottom 






1 


rh 


i 






A 


1 i.fe!j^i^i^ 


f 




\ 


/ 1 


Tr 






\ 


% 


i - .- ■-. 

-i-J 




^oiaw.iu- '- 




'.r. 


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/ 


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1 











IhnsntiuniJSli ISK 




Vf,t.l.Xri.PLArKl. 



J-Prii » Cocp'L" »mr..Oev,<ml|r~ 



1915-1916.] UISCUSSIOX AMERICAX COAL-MIXIXG METHODS. 85 

American mining engineers. These discussions liave been har- 
monious and instructive, and a special invitation is extended to 
engineers in America and other countries to take part in the dis- 
cussion of the present paper. The writer hopes that managers 
will endeavour to explain why they employ tubs of small 
capacity, and he feels sure that the views of mining engineers 
in South Wales, who are connected with mines where tubs of 
larger capacity are in use, will be valuable. American engi- 
neers can say what the result would be if they were some morn- 
ing to receive telegraphic instructions from their owners to dis- 
card their 3 and 4-ton capacity cars and replace them by cars 
capable of holding only half a ton. 



Mr. AV. H. RouTLEDGE (Abergavenuy) wrote that, in view 
of the constantly increasing costs and reduced output per man 
in this country, Mr. Dean's paper provided grounds for grave 
consideration on the part of colliery-owners and managers. 

The recent greatly accelerated adverse conditions had no 
doubt been brought about by " political " reasons and legisla- 
tion. Any comparison of other countries or methods with South 
Wales was extremely difficult, on account of the conditions being 
widely different. Having had some experience in South Wales, 
he (Mr. Eoutledge) could not therefore see any semblance of 
ground for a parallel. 

Mr. Dean had affirmed his opinion " that the principal. 
reason why the United States of America leads in production 
per man is because large-capacity mine-cars are used in American 
mines." There was no doubt that in many cases in South Wales 
the number of trams or tubs filled per man counted in the day's 
work, irrespective of whether they contained 1 ton or 25 cwts. 
each. This was proved by the constant pressure that had to be 
brought upon the coal-getters to fill the trams or tubs up to their 
carrying capacity. This, however, did not explain the position. 
It did not occur even to some of the officials that 1 cwt. more 
or less difference in the loading of a tram or tub in a fairly large 
collieiy made a difference of 20,000 tons of coal per annum, or, 
in other words, a month's output of coal. When one con- 
sidered, however, that all standing charges had to be met, 
whether for the larger or for the smaller output, it was obvious 

VOL. LXTI.— 1915-1916. 7 E 



8t) TRAXSACTIOXS THE XORTII OF 1;\(;LAX I) I VS'lITrTK. [Vol. Ixvi. 

that it made a difference in the earning power of the particular 
colliery. 

In regard to large trams or tubs, South Wales was the- 
pioneer in this respect. For over 50 j^ears trams having a 
capacity of 2 to 3 tons had been extensively used, with a gauge of 
3 to 3^ feet, and with rails weighing- 75 pounds to the yard. 
On comparing these large trams or tubs with those at other 
collieries (even in South Wales) where smaller trams or tubs were 
used, it had not been found that the output of the coal-getter 
using the larger trams was any better than where the smaller 
trams were adopted. As a matter of fact, the largest outputs of 
coal in South Wales had been from collieries where 25 to 30-cwt. 
trams were in use. The comparison in regard to outputs, there- 
fore, could not be made of large versus small trams or tubs. 

The adoption of a large or small tram or tub at any colliery 
was governed by local conditions — the work entailed and the cost 
of maintaining roadways being the principal factors. When it 
was remembered that the South Wales coal-getter was employed 
much of his time in repairing his roadways to the face of the 
stall, it made the comparison with other coalfields useless. The 
coal was worked chiefly by longwall, the stalls being 11 yards 
apart, with a roadway to each 40 or 50 yards long, under the 
control of the coal-getter, and any repairs had to be paid extra 
apart from the tonnage rate paid to the coal-getter. The cost of 
repairs in some cases exceeded the wage paid for actual coal- 
getting. It was quite common in South Wales for 50 per cent, 
of the coal-getter's earnings to be on account of repairs to his 
roadway. This was the sole reason why the output per coal- 
getter was the lowest in the United Kingdom. There was little 
incentive for the coal-getter to produce the maximum output of 
coal, or to reduce the deadwork. In addition, owing to the pre- 
vailing system of boy employees at the face, it would be almost 
physically impossible for such boys to fill a tram containing over 
2 tons of coal. 

The use of coal-cutting machines and face-conveyors had been 
introduced in South Wales ; but, as the coal-getters insisted on 
and obtained terms of remuneration exceeding the advantages 
gained in reduced cost and increased output, little progress com- 
paratively had been made. The whole tendency (as was well 
known) was for the Miners' Unions to advise the men to reduce 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSION AMERICAN COAL-MIXING METHODS. 87 

individual effort, so that more men should be employed to per- 
form a given amount of work. 

In all coaltields, with the exception of South Wales, the 
amount of coal sent out governed the wages of the coal-getter. 
Any imjuovements introduced would necessitate a wholesale re- 
organization of the system of labour; and the principle of pay- 
ment by results was the only means that could be indicated to 
bring South "Wales into favourable comparison with other coal- 
fields. 

Mr. Dean deserved the thanks of the members for giving such 
valuable information in regard to the types of trams or tubs, 
coal-cutters, and face-conveyors used in American mines. 

Mr. John Gibson (Kilmarnock) wrote that Mr. Dean was to 
be heartily congratulated on his fresh, vigorovis, and original 
paper. Undoubtedly very great reciprocal advantages would 
result from a freer interchange of views between American and 
British mining engineers. 

He (Mr. Gibson) was in hearty agreement with much that 
Mr. Dean had stated with regard to trams. He (Mr. Gibson) 
had drawn attention, in his paper on " Mining Economics : 
Some Notes and a Suggestion,"* to the importance of knowing 
the contours of all or nearly all drawing-roads. The size of the 
tram was closely related to this, and little or no co-ordinated 
thought was given to these matters in this country. Seemingly, 
they ordered these things better in the United States of America. 

Mr. Dean thought that the reason why America led in pro- 
duction per man was on account of the large cars used. This 
was a very plain issue, and it would be well to see how it stood 
the test of logic. Mr. Dean stated that in Pennsylvania the aver- 
age capacity of the cars was about 3| tons. Now, if the output 
per man was increased by large cars, why this limit of 3^ tons ? 
Why not 7, 14, 21, or 28 tons? Everyone knew, of course, 
that the car was a compromise, and that the conditions of the 
mine permitted only a limited measure of the logical. To call 
for large cars, without a knowledge of the conditions in each 
particular case, was akin to crying for the moon. 

He (Mr. Gibson) did not argue that the use of larger cars in 
many English mines might not be advantageous. It was a 

* Trans. Inst. M. E., 1914, vol. xlvii., page 250. 



88 TRAXSACTIOXS— THE .NORTH OF E^-GLAXD INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

question in every case of cost, and one to he determined by a 
knowledge of the particular conditions of the mine, and a sym- 
pathetic consideration of the practices and prejudices of the 
local miner. A careful study of these pros and cons by an 
engineer \^ersed in economic science would determine the size 
of the car, whether large or small. 

To take an example in this country : generally speaking, the 
trams in South Wales were much larger than those in Lanca- 
shire, and the difficulties of the seams were not greater. Was 
the output per man greater in the former than in the latter? So 
far as his experience went, the output per man in South Wales 
was the lowest in the United Kingdom, and was in a large 
measure due to the trams used being too big. As for the output 
per man, he would take Mr. Dean's smallest seam of 28 inches. 
With a flat working-face 1,000 yards long such as he had 
described, there would be no difficulty in Scotland in producing 
an output of 5 tons per man with 10-cwt. trams. How would 
the 3|-ton trams do under these conditions? Let them take as 
an example a colliery working two seams, one 18 inches thick, 
with a sandstone roof and a hard floor, the other 27 inches thick, 
with fireclay roof and floor ; inclination of the seams, 1 in 20 to 
1 in 3 ; and with faults- and whin intrusions occurring on the 
average every 70 yards. The quality of coal was second rate, 
' but the colliery was a commercial success. The trams held 8 
cwts., and every ton of coal went down one self-acting incline 
at least. 

With regard to electric locomotives, it was idle to advocate 
their use in this country, as the law made their introduction 
practically impossible. In any case, the principle of their appli- 
cation for traction limited their use to light gradients. If he 
was wrong, perhaps Mr. Dean would cite a few examples of work 
done by them on inclinations of 1 in 15, showing how they worked 
better than rope haulage. 

With respect to machine-mining, Mr. Dean had expressed the 
opinion that it appeared to be only a matter of a few years before 
hand-mining became extinct in bituminous coal-mines. Lest 
enthusiasts led them to suppose that machine-mining was the 
best in all circumstances, it would be well to understand clearlj?^ 
the economic aspect of hand versus machine-mining. With raw 
material and labour at present-day American rates, and with 



1915-1916] DISCUSSION AMERICAN COAL-MIXIXG METHODS. 



89 



twentieth-century workshop organization, the mechanical engi- 
neer could supply a machine for a given price. Mr. Dean had 
mentioned £400 as the price of a longwall machine. He had not 
stated the average miner's day wage, but if it were assumed to be 
14s. (3^ dollars), then the cost of a machine was roughly 570 
days' wages ; whilst, if the wage fell to 7s., the machine cost would 
rise to 1,140 days' wages. In effect, while the price remained 
at ±:400, the cost would be twice as great, and, of course, the cost 
of spare parts would be at the same ratio. A rise in miners' 
wages would have the opposite effect. Again, the tendency of 
machine-mining in this country would seem to have the effect of 
decreasing the efficiency of the hand-worker. This was reason- 
able, as the lad who did not require to work with the pick in his 
early mining days could not acquire in later days first-class pro- 
ficiency. 

He (Mr. Gibson) would venture to give the following as reasons 
for the extension of mining by machines in the United States : — 
(1) A plentiful supply of unskilled labour and a limited supply of 
good miners ; (2) the fact that the mechanical engineers were 
keen, progressive, and ingenious ; and (3) the keenness of competi- 
tion, which had brought about a narrow margin between the 
selling price and the cost of production. In the first reason lay 
the necessity, the second supplied the need, and the third sup- 
plied the force that trampled down all difficulties. 

The members owed a deep debt of gratitude to Mr. Dean for 
his paper, and none but could admire the work of the American 
mining engineer as set forth therein. 

Mr. Henry T. Wales (Swansea) wrote that Mr. Dean had 
laid special stress upon the benefits which had been found to 
accrue from the use of large-capacity mine-cars, and the results 
shown were certainly such as would be very warmly welcomed in 
South Wales if it were practicable to obtain them. The average 
capacity of the mine-cars in the American anthracite region was 
stated by Mr. Dean as 3i tons, which compared with an average 
of 25 cwts. in the anthracite collieries in South Wales. 

In comparing the relative advantages of large and small trams 
or tubs, there were many considerations which had to be taken 
into account ; but he did not think that it was in any case pos- 
sible to leave out of sight the fact that, to a greater or less extent. 



90 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND IXSTITlTi;. [Vol. Ixvi. 

there must be a certain amount of actual handling? and moving 
of the trams, both empty and loaded, by the workmen. There 
was also the fact that it was not possible to carry the mechanical 
haulage to the actual coal-face, and therefore the haulage must 
be done in the stalls and in the subsidiary headings by horses and 
ponies. These were reasons which tended to limit the carrying 
capacity when the most suitable type of tram for any new mine 
was being considered. Another important factor in the question 
was the width of the road, and the possibility and cost of main- 
taining it at that width so long as it remained in use. 

Instances were cited by the author of cars with a width of 
G feet 8 inches which would involve making a width of not less 
than 13 feet in every stall-road, after allowing the necessary 
room for the timber which would have to be fixed a few feet apart 
in the majority of cases. It would be both difficult and expensive 
to form such roads in the first instance, and the extra width of 
about 4 feet more than was usual in the Swansea district would 
give rise to heavy extra expense in maintenance ; it would also 
undoubtedly result in frequent falls of the roof, which was in a 
great many collieries traversed by numerous natural cleavages 
and breaks, thus causing delay and interruption in working. 

In his own district tKe average gauge of underground roads 
might be taken at 2 feet 10 inches, and in a few instances this 
gauge had been increased at new collieries to 3^ feet, but the 
change had not been generally adopted, and, taking the newer 
collieries as a whole, the gauge of road did not on an average 
exceed 3 feet. 

Mr. H. W. G. Halbaum (Cardiff) wrote that Mr. Dean, in 
seeking to institute comparisons unfavourable to this country, 
had quoted figures which appeared to be very striking. However 
striking these figures might appear to be at first sight, the way 
in which they discounted their own values upon closer examina- 
tion was more striking still. 

(1) The " modern " methods described by Mr. Dean were not 
modern from the British point of view, which regarded safety as 
an essential condition of modernity. For machines to cut to a 
depth of 10 feet was in effect working 10 feet in advance of the 
timbering. That would not be considered correct in this coun- 
try — working so far before the roof-supports was here merely a 
reminiscence of days long gone by. Neither would managers 



1915-1916.] DISCrSSlOX AMERICAN COAL-MINING METHODS. 



91 



here think of hooking their trailing cables on to bare conductors, 
and so forth. They had happily got beyond such antiquated 
methods. 

(2) The " modern " idea in this country was to extract all the 
coal. Mr. Dean spoke in his paper of a 90-per-cent. extraction 
as an efficiency to be envied. Apart from the Thick Coal of 
Staffordshire, any manager in this country who was content with 
a 90-per-ceut. yield would not be considered competent for his 
place, and would be discharged. 

(3) The "comparisons" instituted m the paper were not so 
complete as Avas desirable. No doubt, Mr. Dean only professed 
to make " some " comparisons, according to the title of the 
paper. But he (Mr. Halbaum) thought that the British mining 
•community did not care very much for comparisons which disre- 
garded the relative effects on safety. He would therefore invite 
Mr. Dean to include in his list a comparison of the injuries, 
iatal and otherwise, sustained under the modern American 

systems on the one hand, and those sustained under the " anti- 
quated " British systems on the other hand. He could promise 
Mr. Dean that, if the comparative statistics proved that 
^' modern " American methods resulted in the higher standard 
of safety, he would soon find the British mining community 
adopting American methods. But, unless Mr. Dean fortified 
his case in the way indicated, English mining engineers would 
have to struggle on in the same old ruts as before. 

(4) The comparison of national outputs instituted by the 
author appeared to be referred to a false standard of appeal. In 
the first place, it was a comparison of American machine-mining 
with British hand-mining, and the two were not comparable. 
They would be comparable only if the British had the same 
proportion as the Americans of machine-mined coal in their 
national output. But they had nothing of the kind, and he 
would make Mr. Dean a present of the admission that it was 
hardly to the credit of this country that such should be the case. 
But he had no objection to the comparison of machine-mining 
in one country with machine-mining in another. What he ob- 
jected to was the author's comparison of the annual output per 
man on the total national output. AVould Mr. Dean, for 
instance, allow him (Mr. Halbaum) to take only the machined 
■coal in this country and compare the output per man on that 



02 TRANSACTIONS THE NOH'lIl OF i;X(".LA\l) INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

with the output per man averaged on the entire production of 
the LTnited States of America derived from every mine ? He 
hardly thought so. Then it must be admitted that the same con- 
sideration vitiated Mr. Dean's comparison of the output per man 
in America (where more than half the coal was mined by 
machine) with the output per man in the United Kingdom 
(where but a small proportion was machine-mined). If they made 
comparisons at all, they should make them fairly. For instance, 
they might justly compare the output per man per shift attained 
under equal natural conditions in American machine-worked 
mines with the output per man per shift attained in British 
machine-worked mines. 

(5) Mr. Dean had quoted the x\merican figures in " short " 
tons of 2,000 pounds each. That promptly depreciated the 
American figures by 11'2 per cent, of their nominal values, and 
that was an aspect of the case that should not be ignored. 

(6) Coming to the author's comparative figures based on the 
coal mined by machine only, Mr. Dean had proceeded on the 
assumption that the British average per filler per shift was 7^ 
tons. In his (Mr. Halbaum's) experience, 60 per cent, or sa 
should be added to that amount. He knew something of machine- 
mining, both by punching-machines in narrow places and by 
continuous cutting with various types of machines on longwall 
faces, but he knew of nothing that would justify the 7^-ton 
standard set up by Mr. Dean. On the contrary, he had found 
that, even in a seam merely 3 feet thick, the fillers regularly 
averaged from 11 to 13 tons per man per 8-hour shift. Mr. Dean 
spoke with pride of a case where his fillers had often averaged IQ 
tons per man per shift, although his tabulated results showed 
that the average was sometimes very much less. It might, 
therefore, surprise Mr. Dean to hear of a British mine, with a 
seam 35 to 38 inches thick, where any man who regularly filled 
only 10 tons (twenty 10-cwt. tubs) per day failed to earn the 
" county average." Such a man was despised by his fellows 
as a weakling or a shirker, and his employers looked upon him 
as an undesirable who should be encouraged to quit and make 
room for a better man. In the same seam, one man had filled as 
many as fifty 10-cwt. tubs (25 long tons) in a single shift of 8 
hours from bank to bank. Mr. Dean was, therefore, not entitled 
to cast any reflection upon either the smaller tubs or the men 



1915-1916] DISCISSION AMERICAX COAL-MIXIXG METHODS. 93 

who filled theiu. His own tables, in fact, showed that as soon as 
the American filler got into low seams, approximating- in thick- 
ness to those available in the United Kingdom, his supposed 
superiority either fell to zero or became a minus quantity. 

(7) Besides swelling- the American fig-ures by " short " tons, 
and depreciating the British fillers' average by using Mr. 
Sopwith's quotation (of what his " datal " fillers did) as a 
standard for the whole of British practice, Mr. Dean had ignored 
the fact that, taken in the lump, the natural conditions were 
very greatly in favour of the American miner. There were no 
open-work coal-mines in this country, and it was unreasonable 
to expect this country, with its thin seams of coal, all of them 
underground, to compete successfully in respect of output with 
the great coal-quarries of America. The great success of 
''modern American coal-mining viethods^' was more or less a 
myth, since the prosperity of American coal-mines was due far 
more largely to the geological conditions that had obtained for 
ages before there was a man on the planet. 

(8) Some of the figures quoted in the four tables included in 
the paper could scarcely be accepted, and he would ask Mr. Dean 
to explain them. For example, in Table I., if the depth of the 
cut was 5 feet and the " average lineal cut per minute " 21 inches, 
how was it that the " average output per machine per day " was 
only 100 tons? Then, in Table II., the " average lineal cut per 
minute " was 3 feet, whilst the '' average lineal cut per shift " 
was only 500 feet. Was the shift less than 3 hours in length? 
Table lY. appeared to show that a "shift" in Alabama only 
lasted 50 minutes, since the lineal cut per shift was only 100 feet, 
although the " average lineal cut per minute " was 2 feet. Those 
"comparisons" did not speak much for the superiority of 
" modern " American methods. On the contrary, they repre- 
sented either very poor arithmetic or execrably bad practice — 
poor arithmetic, because an average of 2 feet per minute really 
gave an average of 900 feet per 7i hours; or bad practice, if the 
machine was simply "flitting" or standing idle and "eating 
its head off " for three-quarters of the entire shift. Modern 
methods in the old country would tolerate neither the one nor the 
other. Otherwise, under the natural conditions which prevailed, 
such "economies'" would laud half of the British collieries in 
the bankruptcy courts, however well these economies might look 
on paper. 



l»4 TKANSACTIOXS — THE .VOimi OF EXGLAXD INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

On re-reading- the foregoiny' remarks, the writer ad- 
mitted that they appeared to possess a somewhat aggressive 
tone, which, however, was not in accordance with his inten- 
tions. He wished therefore to make it quite clear that 
he warmly appreciated the many good points in Mr. Dean's 
paper, and to record his conviction that the paper would 
form a valuable addition to the Transactions. As to the 
rest, it was proverbial that " comparisons were odious," and 
Mr. Dean's comparisons did not entirely escape the common 
taint. It was no reflection on Mr. Dean to say so much, and he 
gave the author full credit for the best intentions and for 
undoubted ability. But the fact remained that Mr. Dean had 
considered methods with little regard to their influence on the 
standard of safety, and that was quite at variance with British 
ideas. He had also ascribed much to American methods which 
might more truly be placed to the credit of natural conditions. 
Furthermore (and without doubt, quite unintentionally), he had 
taken a wrong standpoint in sujiposing that the average British 
filler, working after longwall machines, only filled 7^ tons per 
shift. Fillers paid by time might stop at that amount, and those 
who employed fillers on time wages deserved just as much as the 
fillers chose to do for them.' But it was no part of any moderately 
well-organized scheme to pay fillers and machine-men by time. 

The credit due to the United States was fully summed up in 
the one statement that mining- men in that country had been 
more prompt than their British cousins to recognize the value 
of machinery at the coal-face. The rest of their success was 
accounted for partly by the natural and partly by the political 
conditions obtaining in the United States of America. "What was 
wanted most in both countries was better industrial organiza- 
tion all round, and less organization of the various opposing 
factions. He thought this was equally needed in both countries, 
and he regretted to say that in his opinion it would not be possible 
io realize that aspiration for many a long day. Because, the first 
principle of genuine organization was personal self-sacrifice on 
the part of the, individual, and the very completeness of the 
organization of each opposing faction demonstrated that the 
popular idea of organization was to thrust any sacrifice required 
on to somebody else's shoulders. There was as much difference 
l>etween that and genuine organization as there was between 



1915-1916.] DlSCrSSIOX AMKRICAX COAL-MIXIXG METHODS. 95 

seven successive coats of jjaint aud the continuouvS solar spectrum. 

Mr. AusTix Y. Hoy (London) wrote that, in comparing- tlie 
837 tons per man per year produced in the United States with 
the annual per-capita production of the United Kingdom, it 
seemed only reasonable to point out that natural conditions 
in the former country were, as a whole, probably much more 
favourable to a high production per man than those in the latter. 

While the writer had no official data at hand as to the relative 
thickness of the seams that were being mined in the two countries, 
perhaps it would not be far from the mark to say that the seams 
which were worked to-day in the United States averaged twice 
the height of those worked in this countiy. 

The fact that the bituminous seams in the United States 
had, as a rule, good roofs, and that they lay only 300 or 400 
feet from the surface — or, better still, were worked by tunnels in 
the hillsides — must certainly also be of material consequence in 
making the production per man so high in relation to other 
countries. 

Ironclad continuous headers, as described by Mr. Dean, had 
been used to a certain extent for narrow work in this countrj' 
for the last year or two. While these machines had more than 
justified their installation, it might be frankly admitted that it 
had been found impossible to attain the same degree of efficiency 
with them in thivS country as was reached in the United States. 
A number of reasons accounted for this, two of which Mr. Dean 
had brought out in connexion with the c[uestion of the size of 
the tubs and the haulage problem, namely, light loads and the 
prohibition by law of the use of bare trolley wires. The writer 
had accordingly grave doubts as to the usefulness on any exten- 
sive scale, for some time to come at least, of a 5-ton heading- 
machine, as described by Mr. Dean, when a 22-ton machine had 
found itself in most cases seriously hampered in flitting on 
account of light roads. 

There was, however, at present another factor which mili- 
tated against the achievement of American continuous-heading 
or shortwall machines in Great Britain of an efficiency of 
more than perhaps 20 or 30 per cent, of that reached across the 
Atlantic. This lay in the fact that the lay-OMt and organization 
of American room-and-pillar mines was decidedly difierent from 
the pillar-aud-stall or bord-and-pillar mines developed to meet 



96 TRAXSACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [^'"1 'xvi. 

conditions in tlie United Kinprdom. The lay-out and organiza- 
tion of these systems did not appear quite as well adapted to the 
cuttins: of a number of contiguous places each shift, with a 
minimum loss of time on account of the roads being blocked and 
the places not being ready to cut. 

He did not, for a moment, wish to imply that the American 
room-and-pillar system or organization was necessarily adapted 
to British mines where there was high coal and a fair top, and 
where the longwall system could not for some reason be profit- 
ably employed. This was a question on which he was not com- 
petent to venture an opinion; but, as one interested in this 
matter, he wished to emphasize the great difficulty as a rule of 
using properly American continuous-cutting or shortwall 
machines under present-day British conditions. 

British colliery managers were not at all slow to adopt 
improved coal-cutting machines, but were very ready to adapt 
their mines to an improved machine when the changes were 
economically possible. However, the changes necessary to work 
a 2|-ton header to the point of cutting eight, ten, or even fifteen 
places per shift in a British mine would be so extensive from 
everj' standpoint (labour, legislative, and those of a strictly 
mining character) that 'one could readily believe that any 
manager would be conservative in the matter. It was to be 
feared that the adoption here of a 5-ton machine, with the ideal 
of fifteen or twenty places per shift, was a matter involving 
much more seriovis modifications. 

It was undoubtedly trne that British colliery managers and 
owners had in the past been firmly of the opinion that it was 
only in the field of headers that American coal-cutter practice 
would be beneficial to them in reducing costs. This idea was 
probably based upon the fact that in the United Kingdom about 
three times as many longwall coal-cutters were employed as in the 
United States, where only a fraction of the coal was produced 
by longwall mining. Recent events, however, pointed emphati- 
cally to the fact that certain radically different mechanical 
features developed in the United States primarily for machines 
for narrow work (such as continuous chain-haulage, the friction- 
clutch, air-turbine motors, etc.), when properly applied, favoured 
the construction of longwall coal-cutters of a very high degree of 
safety and efficiency. 



1915-1916.] DlSCrSSIOX — AMERICAlSr COAL-MINING METHODS. 97 

For instance, Ironclad longwall machines, since they were 
only 2i feet wide and used no rubbing posts, not only piomoted 
greater safety, but under many roofs showed a considerable 
saving in the cost of timbering per ton. The fact also that they 
jibbed under in a few moments, and cut up to the rib with only 
a slight delay, had allowed of their use to great advantage where 
some longwall machines would work under a serious handicap. 
The cutter-chain and jib construction developed in the United 
States for holing in anthracite — and, what was far worse, 
bituminous coal containing sulphur balls and " nigger-heads " 
— had proved itself more than adequate for the hardest pave- 
ment holing in Great Britain. On the other hand, the rapidly- 
increasing use of these machines in South Wales in a soft and 
tender coal — often with heavy roof-pressure on it — was evidence 
that the jibs need not become bound in the cut, but that the 
great flexibility and adaptability of the chain-haulage permitted 
of their being readily freed in a few moments. 

Accordingly, so far as coal-cutting was concerned, it was his 
conclusion that it was mainly in the field of longwall machines 
rather than in the field of machines for short faces and headings 
that the United States could be of immediate service in assisting 
the coal-industry of Great Britain to meet competition by 
reducing costs and by raising the production per man. 

Mr. John Beindley (Wolverhampton) wrote that he had 
read the paper with much interest, and had been surprised to 
find that it was practicable to deal with such large tub-loads of 
coal in any ordinary mine. It was quite a revelation to him, as 
compared with anything that he had hitherto seen attempted. 
He took it, however, that in all cases where these large tubs or 
mine-cars were in use, there were no shafts, but that the coal 
was brought out of the mine through " day-levels," or " slants." 
He did not think that it would be practicable to deal with such 
huge tubs in ordinary pit-cages, unless the shafts were of very 
large diameter, or rectangular in shape. No doubt the majority 
of the members would be of opinion that such large tubs and 
heavy weights would necessitate a very heavy and expensive 
roadway, which in the majority of mines in this countiy would 
also present great ditficulty in upkeep, particvilarly in wet mines. 
Purthermore, as regarded the question of filling, he doubted 



96 TRAKSACTIONS— THE NORTH OF ENGLAXD INSTITUTE. [VoLlxvi. 

conditioiiii iu the Unitt'd Kiii-^doni. Tiie lay-out and organiza- 
tion of these systems did not appear quite as well adapted to the 
cutting of a number of contiguous places each shift, with a 
minimum loss of time on account of the roads being blocked and 
the places not being ready to cut. 

He did not, for a moment, wish to imply that the American 
room-and-pillar system or organization was necessarily adapted 
to British mines where there was high coal and a fair top, and 
where the longwall system could not for some reason be profit- 
ably employed. This was a question on which he was not com- 
petent to venture an opinion; but, as one interested in this 
matter, he wished to emphasize the great difficulty as a rule of 
using properly American continuous-cutting or shortwall 
machines under present-day British conditions. 

British colliery managers were not at all slow to adopt 
improved coal-cutting machines, but were veiy ready to adapt 
their mines to an improved machine when the changes were 
economically possible. However, the changes necessary to work 
a 2^-ton header to the point of cutting eight, ten, or even fifteen 
places per shift in a British mine would be so extensive from 
every standpoint (labour, legislative, and those of a strictly 
mining character) that one could readily believe that any 
manager would be conservative in the matter. It was to be 
feared that the adoption here of a 5-ton machine, with the ideal 
of fifteen or twenty places per shift, was a matter involving 
much more serious modifications. 

It was undoubtedly true that British colliery managers and 
owners had in the past been firmly of the opinion that it was 
only in the field of headers that American coal-cutter practice 
would be beneficial to them in reducing costs. This idea was 
probably based upon the fact that in the United Kingdom about 
three times as many longwall coal-cutters were employed as in the 
United States, where only a fraction of the coal was produced 
by longwall mining. Recent events, however, pointed emphati- 
cally to the fact that certain radically different mechanical 
features developed in the United States primarily for machines 
for narrow work (such as continuous chain-haulage, the friction- 
clutch, air-turbine motors, etc.), when properly applied, favoured 
the construction of longwall coal-cutters of a very high degree of 
safety and efficiency. 



1915-1916.] DlSCrSSIOX — AMEEICAN COAL-MINIXG METHODS. 97 

For instance, Ironclad longwall machines, since they were 
only 2^ feet wide and used no rubbing posts, not only piomoted 
greater safety, but under many roofs showed a considerable 
saving in the cost of timbering per ton. The fact also that they 
jibbed under in a few moments, and cut up to the rib with only 
a slight delay, had allowed of their use to great advantage where 
some longwall machines would work under a serious handicap. 
The cutter-chain and jib construction developed in the United 
States for holing in anthracite — and, what was far worse, 
bituminous coal containing sulphur balls and "nigger-heads'' 
— had proved itself more than adequate for the hardest pave- 
ment holing in Great Britain. On the other hand, the rapidly- 
increasing use of these machines in South Wales in a soft and 
tender coal — often with heavy roof-pressure on it — was evidence 
that the jibs need not become bound in the cut, but that the 
great flexibility and adaptability of the chain-haulage permitted 
of their being readily freed in a few moments. 

Accordingly, so far as coal-cutting was concerned, it was his 
conclusion that it was mainly in the field of longwall machines 
rather than in the field of machines for short faces and headings 
that the United States could be of immediate service in assisting 
the coal-industry of Great Britain to meet competition by 
reducing costs and by raising the production per man. 

Mr. John Brixdley (AYolverliampton) wrote that he had 
read the paper with much interest, and had been surprised to 
find that it was practicable to deal with such large tub-loads of 
coal in any ordinary mine. It was quite a revelation to him, as 
compared with anything that he had hitherto seen attempted. 
He took it, however, that in all cases where these large tubs or 
mine-cars were in use, there were no shafts, but that the coal 
was brought out of the mine through " day-levels," or " slants." 
He did not think that it would be practicable to deal with such 
huge tubs in ordinary pit-cages, unless the shafts were of very 
large diameter, or rectangular in shape. No doubt the majority 
of the members would be of opinion that such large tubs and 
heavj" weights would necessitate a very heavy and expensive 
roadway, which in the majority of mines in this countiy would 
also present great difficulty in upkeep, particularly in wet mines. 
Uurthermore, as regarded the question of filling, he doubted 



100 TRANSACTIONS — THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

Brinclley), from a personal knowledge of a large number of 
mining men, could distinctly state that they were certainly not 
born mechanical engineers. On the other hand he was only too 
pleased to acknowledge that a number of mining engineers, 
particularly in the North of England and in South Wales, were 
also good meclumical engineers, but they were the exception 
rather than the rule. 

In conclusion, the moral to be drawn from the paper and his 
remarks were that if the mechanical engineer held a more 
prominent position and were better paid, a superior class of men 
to those now holding such positions would be available, and 
their employment would be of great benefit to colliery-owners and 
to the coal-trade of the country generally. 

Mr. G-. Blake Waliver (Tankersley) wrote that there was 
doubtless much force in the statement of Mr. Dean that the 
amount of coal produced per miner employed iu the United 
States had very largely increased in recent years, and that the 
cause for this was to be sought in the substitution of machinery 
for human labour. Mr. Dean laid stress particularly on the 
advantage of large-capacity cars, and had shown by his illustra- 
tions of certain types of American mine-cars that it was practic- 
able to get very large vehicles into a very moderate height. 
Cars such as Mr. Dean had illustrated impressed the British 
mining engineer at first with their impracticability, so far as 
conditions on this side of the Atlantic were concerned ; but it 
was largely a question of roofs, and there were no doubt many 
seams where the roofs were suflficiently good to allow of very 
wide roads being made along which such cars could be emploj-ed. 
Mr. Dean had, however, also stated that these big cars were used 
in cases where the roofs were bad. 

The small British tub, or " corf " (as it was called in York- 
shire), was the successor to the basket (for which the German 
word was horh), and was about as big as two men could lift on to 
the tram by which it was brought out to the shaft. The wooden 
tub which succeeded it was not very much larger, and, with the 
exception of South Wales, the pit -tub in use in this country had 
not, as a rule, exceeded a carrying capacity of 12 cwts. A 12-cwt. 
tub was already more than a youth could safely handle, unless 
the seam was nearly level; and, when once a point was reached 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSIOX AMERICAN" COAL-MIXIXG METHODS. 101 

where a tub could not be handled by one man, it was not of great 
consequence whether its size were increased four-fold or five-fold, 
so long as it could be got into the workings of the pit. It must 
then be moved by machinery. The class of labour which was 
performed by putters, trammers, loaders, etc., was one of the 
most troublesome elements of colliery personnel. The more these 
persons were kept at the face the more work was got out of them, 
and if a 3-ton skip or car could be moved by some mechanical 
means, the less severe would be the work of these young men. 

The American system of using wide gauges such as the 
ordinary railway-gauge of 4 feet 8A inches doubtless arose on 
account of the conditions of some of the seams in the neighbour- 
hood of Pittsburgh which cropped out on the hillside, where 
ordinary railway-trucks were taken into some of the thicker 
seams, but when thinner seams had to be worked a modification 
only of the railway-truck was adopted. The American managers 
had thus grasped the idea that it was practicable to use these 
large cars in the mine. 

They also used the trolley electric locomotive and the com- 
pressed-air locomotive for their underground traffic to a much 
greater extent than was done in this country; in fact, the electric 
trolley wire was not thought safe in the majority of English 
mines. A compressed-air locomotive, so far as he had seen it at 
work, was rather a terrible machine to have in underground 
roads, but doubtless it would be employed where the gradients 
were flat. In Germany compressed-air locomotives were fairly 
well restricted to the cross drifts which were nearly level. 

Machine-mining was, of course, developing rapidly in this 
country as well as in the United States, and the more the labour 
bill rose the faster would these machines be introduced. In this 
country the longwall system had been found most convenient for 
coal-cutting, whereas Mr. Dean stated that it was not popular in 
America. No doubt there was much to be learnt from one another 
both by British and American engineers, although the former 
gravitated in one direction, while the latter adopted an opposite 
course. What one must guard against in reading Mr. Dean's 
paper was to discard as impracticable the system which was so 
largely used in America, although with our limited shaft-room 
and the limited width of our cages, it would probably be only in 
new mines that large-capacity cars could be introduced. He 

VOL. LXTI.— :91519I6. 8 E 



102 TEANSACTIONS — THE NORTH OF ENGLAXD INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

scarcely thought that mining engineers in this country would use 
" dump cages " in any case, as the breakage of the coal was too 
serious when such cages were used. 

The President (Mr. T. Y. Greener) proposed a vote of thanks 
to Mr. Dean for his very interesting paper. 

Dr. J. B. Simpson seconded the proposal, which was cordially 
adopted. 



1915-1916] TRAXSACTIOXS NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. 103 



THE ^'ORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE OF MINING x\ND 
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



GENERAL MEETING, 

Held in the ^YooD Memorial Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 

December 11th, 1915. 



Mr. T. Y. GREENER, President, in the Chair. 



The Secretary read the minutes of the last General Meeting, 
and reported the proceedings of the Council at their meetings on 
November 27th and that day. 



The following gentlemen were elected, having been pre- 
viously nominated : — 

Members — 

Mr. John Hogg, Jun., Mechanical Engineer, 154, Prospect Terrace, Eston, 
Yorkshire. 

Mr. RoBKRT Oliver, Colliery Manager, Cold Knott Collieries, Crook, County 
Durham. 

Mr. Arthur Edwind du Pasquier, Electrical Engineer, The British Westing- 
house Company, Consolidated Buildings, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

Mr. John Robert I;obinson Wilsox, H. M. Divisional Inspector of Mines, 
Westfield Drive, Gosforth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Associate Member - 
Lieut. -Colonel William Henry Ritson, V.D., Springwell Hall, Durham. 

Associate — 
Mr. Matthew Dixon, Colliery Under-manager, Middle fStreet, Walker, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Students — 
Mr. Pao Kin Chen, Mining Student, c o Messrs. Kaotze, Chen, & Company, 

58, North Soochow Road, Shanghai, China. 
Mr. Arthur Kkn.neth Dawson, Mining Student, Holme House, West 

Auckland, Bishop Auckland. 



104 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OK ENHiLANJ) IXSTITI'TK. [Vol. Ixvi. 

DISCUSSION OF MR. C. W. CHATBR'S PAPER ON 
"MINING IN BURMA."— PART I.* 

Mr. C. W. Chater (Tavoy, Lower Burma) wrote that he had 
read with interest Mr. J. Cogg-in Brown's remarks, to some of 
which he would like to refer now, having visited the Uru (or Uyu) 
valley in February and April, 1915. Unfortunately, he had 
not read Mr. H. S. Bion's paper on the Uru gravels. These 
gravels might be divided into three classes for the sake of 
convenience, and these he would call (1) the hills of gravel 
through which the River Uru runs; (2) the accumulations of 
gravels forming " talus " and river-flats; and (3) the cleaned 
and concentrated gravel in the present river-bed. He had not yet 
visited the lower 40 miles of the river, but it was probable that 
Mr. Bion referred to the gravel-deposits (2). It was also probable 
that these would be poorer — with more barren overburden, 
deeper, and more extensive — than similar deposits higher up the 
river. The evidence of values in these deposits was shown plainly 
by the numerous native workings where hundreds of small shafts 
had been sunk. In nearly all such cases only the upper portion 
of the gravel-beds had been worked, owing to difficulties arising 
from water, the lower and probably richer part being perforce left 
behind. Whether these gravels, together with the overburden 
that would necessarily be worked with them, averaged a value 
such as would repay working could not be ascertained by super- 
ficial examination, but by practical systematic testing. The 
gravels to which he (Mr. Chater) referred were those under (3). 
The only practical way of testing these was by diverting the 
stream. This was done during the last dry season by building a 
dam across the stream (which ran about 20,000 cubic feet per 
minute) and diverting it into an old channel at Mena, about 2^ 
miles up from Mamon. He had taken over the work personally, 
and had carried out a practical test for 10 days. Due precautions 
were taken by the writer cleaning up the sluice-boxes himself, by 
superintending closely the cleaning of the dirty concentrates, by 
drying, weighing, and locking up the clean concentrate, and by 
picking out and panning throughout the period pans of dirt taken 
haphazard both from the workings and when on their way to the 
sluices. The recovery during the 10 days was 19 ounces of almost 

* Trans. Inst. M. E., 1915, vol. xlix. , page 628 ; and vol. 1., page 14. 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSION' — MIXING IX BURMA. 105 

quite clean coarse o()]d-i)latiiuim concentrate, and the immediate 
expenditure on labour, native supervision, and oil for the pump 
was as follows : — 

35 coolies at 12 annas per shift of 9 hours 

Overseer and pumpman ... 

Cost of oilfor the pump 



t s. .1. 


Rupees. 


17 11 


263 


1 6 


20 


6 10 


100 



Total £-25 7 Rs. 383 



This work was carried on at a locality wliere it had l)een learnt 
from local evidence that there was good gold and jade, and the 
foregoing figures must in no sense be used to indicate average 
expenditure for the Uru bed. They might be taken, however, 
with all due caution, as a confinnation of the conclusions that had 
led the writer to .st<ite that the working of certain portions of the 
Uru gravels ought to prove very profitable. Any great extent of 
gravels of this average, which was over 1 dwt. to the cubic yard, 
would not be expected ; but those of a lower value could be worked 
at a profit with the help of a little machinery. Moreover, the 
value of the jade recovered as boulders should be added. The 
quantity recovered from the above working during about 3 
months was valued on the spot at some thousands of rupees. He 
understood that the average value of the ground in gold over that 
period was not quite so good as when he carried out the test, but 
was not far .short of 1 dwt. to the yard. When a depth of 15 to 
20 feet was reached, the labour of delivering the material to the 
boxes by hand became enormous, and about 80 per cent, of the 
labour was engaged on removing big boulders, as funds did not 
permit of the erection of a crane. 

Although most of the jade output of the district had been (and 
was still being) recovered as boulders which were originally part 
of the Tawmaw Dyke (and others similar to it, on the presump- 
tion that there were any), this dyke, if it extended underground 
to even a shallow depth and retained its size and quality, should 
prove of high commercial value. With the view of a.scertaining 
this, he had now a pumping plant on the way up to Tawmaw. and 
hoped that it would be set to work this season. The present 
workings by Chinese and Kachins were A-ery primitive. 

The market for jade was mostly in China at present, but 
possibly no effort had been made to introduce it into any other 
countries. The industrj' had only been tackled by the Chinese. 

VOL. LXVI.-191o-131i;. ^ ^ 



106 TKANSACnoXS TIIK XOKTU Ol" K,\(;LAXI) IXSTITUTE. ['^'ollxvi. 

Some jade ]ia<l, however, gone lately to America and Europe. 
A possible use lor jade might be for linings and balls in tube- 
mills, as it was exceedingly tough; also for knife-edges, pestles, 

mortars, etc. 

He knew that a considerable amount of literature had been 
written on the Jade Mines district, but unfortunately he had 
read very little of it. He could, however, as a miner, appreciate 
the interest evinced in the district by those writers from other 
points of A'iew. 

He ought to have explained that in Burma the general term 
" jade " was used, but the rock was, as Mr. J. Coggin Brown had 
pointed out, really jadeite. 



DISCUSSIOX OF ME. SAMUEL DEAX'S PAPER OX 
"MODEEX AMERICAX COAL-MIXIXG METHODS, 
WITH SOME COMPAEISOXS."* 

Mr. Edward W. Parker (Anthracite Bureau of Information, 
AVilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania) wrote that he had read the paper 
with much pleasure, and must congratulate Mr. Dean iipon the 
complete manner in which he had covered the situation. 

He could not say, however, that he agreed entirely with Mr. 
Dean that the principal reason for the lead of the United States 
in the production of coal per man was the large capacity of the 
mine-cars used in American mines. The most decided increase 
in the production of coal per man in the last 25 years had been 
in the bituminous mines. The increase in the production per 
man in the anthracite mines had not shown the same progress, 
although there had been the same tendency to operation. in 
larger units in the anthracite mines, not only so far as the mine- 
car was concerned, but in the number of cars to a trip, in the 
size of the breakers for the preparation of the coal, and in the 
size of the cars in which the coal was transported to market. 
Until the last year or two, however, no anthracite had been mined 
by the use of machinery. On the other hand, the use of machines 
in the production of bituminous coal had shown a phenomenal 
increase. In 1891 only about 5^ per cent, of the total output of 
bituminous coal was won by the use of machines, whereas in 

* Tran>i. Inst. M. E., 1915, vol. 1., page 170. 



1'J15-191G.] DISCrSSTOX AMEUICAX COAL-MIMXG iir.TI10]).S. 107 

191;5 more tlian 50 per cent, of the production was macliine- 
niined. Moreover, there had been a marked increase in the 
average capacity of the machines themselves. In 1901 the pro- 
duction for each machine was less than 11,400 tons per annum, 
whilst in 1913 it was nearly 15,000 tons per annum. He was 
strongly of opinion that it was this increase in the use of 
mechanical methods that was principally responsible for the 
larger production per man in the United States, as compared with 
the results accomplished in European mines. An e^en more 
striking comparison would be shown if it were not for the limita- 
tions placed upon the more modern machines by the trade-union 
regulations. This was mentioned by Mr. Dean, who spoke very 
justly of the manner in which the efficiency of the shortwall 
machine was reduced by the limitations put upon the number of 
men who were allowed to load after the machine had done its 
woik. 

He regretted to state that Mr. Dean's criticism of the rather 
unsightly surface improvements in the bituminous coal-mines 
of the United States was warranted. There was, however, he 
thought, a tendency there, as in the other coal-regions, towards a 
more aesthetic attitude than there had been in the past. In 
the anthracite region this was particularly- noticeable, and the 
new breakers in this region were constructed of steel, concrete, 
and glass. In their very nature they were not of architectural 
beauty, but the surroundings were made as attractive as possible 
by landscaj)e gardening, and by the construction of auxiliary 
buildings that were not blots upon the landscape. He wished that 
it had been possible for Mr. Dean to have visited one or two of the 
bituminous camps where some attention had been given to the 
better construction both of the company's buildings and of the 
miners' houses. Examples of these might be cited in the town of 
Phillips (Pennsylvania), where the H. C. Frick Coke Company 
had built a model village; in the city of Earlington (Kentucky), 
where it had been said that the St. Bernard Coal Company' had 
made "the desert blossom as the rose; " and in Jenkins (Ken- 
tucky), where the Consolidation Coal Company of Baltimore had, 
within the last few years, developed a large property and con- 
structed an ideal city in a region which four years ago was 
penetrated only by trails and hunters' paths. 

He would like to add that the technical portion of Mr. Dean's 



108 TRAXSACTIOXS— THE NOHTII Ol' EXGLAXJ) IXSTITUTK. fVollxvi. 

paper on the different types of machine and their methods of 
operation was above criticism. 

Mr. AV. K. WiLSOX (Fernie, British Columbia) wrote express- 
ing- with pleasure the trouble and pains taken by Mr. Dean in 
dealing with the various details that pertained to the very 
interesting- subject of his paper. 

He (Mr. Wilson) had had experience in England, Germany, 
the United States of America, and Canada, in the planning- of 
mines and plants, and in responsible management. In adding 
his views to those already expressed by Mr. Dean, he would say 
that experience had taught him that the higher production in 
tons per year of contract miners on tlie American Continent 
might be said to be due to the following- causes : — 

(1) The men employed at the coal-face in the United States 
worked longer hours per shift than the averag-e British coal-miner. 

(2) Contract miners on the American Continent came from 
all the countries of Europe. Their initative was more fully 
encouraged by the mining laws of the United States than 
appeared to be the case with the more restrictive laws of Great 
Britain. 

(3) It might be further inferred, from what had appeared 
from time to time in the Transactions, that the influence of labour 
unions exercised a considerable restraining influence upon 
individual effort. 

(4) The large percentage of machine-mining in the United 
States at least increased the average productive capacity hj about 
I ton per miner jier day over and above what the total returns 
would show if all mining in the United States was performed by 
hand. 

(5) In regard to the larger size of the mine-cars used in great 
variety in the United States being helpful towards increasing the 
output per employee, there was no question as to the accuracy of 
this view. For example, the more that this iniportant branch of 
mine labour in the general system of haulage was reduced, the 
greater would be the saving in actual haulage labour cost. Miners 
when loading a 10-cwt. car had to make eight movements that 
used up time while 2 tons of coal were being loaded. If the 
miners changed their own tubs, they must of necessity use (or 
waste) the time that was required to do this work. If haulage 



1915-1916] DISCUSSIOX — AMERICAN COAL-MIXING METHODS. 



109 



liaiids did the clianging, tlie same measure of lost energy must be 
accounted for when considered in rehition to manipulating a well- 
rigged car that carried from 1^ to 2 tons of coal. 

(6) There could not consistently be a general fixed rule for 
mine-tubs or pit-cars. Beds of coal varying in thickness and 
numerous other conditions that accompanied mining in the 
different coalfields in America made such a rule inexpedient, 
and resulted in false economy. For example, the presence of 
tender friable roofs necessitated the establishment of modes of 
timbering that made it inexpedient to use a car of not more than 
certain dimensions. The same remark might be used about beds 
of coal that were less than, say, 4 feet thick, where heavy dead- 
work such as lifting the l)ottom or taking down the roof would 
he necessary in order to provide space for the proper manipulation 
of the cars. The pitch or grade of the coal-beds also constituted 
a factor that should not be overlooked in mine-car organization. 

In the case of a coal-bed 3 feet thick and pitching 35 degrees, 
it might consistenth- with all the circumstances be' worked 
from the working-face with modern shoots right down to the 
main haulage-levels. In a case of this kind 2, 3, or 4-ton cars 
could be expeditiously used, without excessive deadwork charges 
being incurred in preparing main-level roadways for motor and 
large-car haulage. 

Again, if the coal-bed were 3 feet thick, and the pitch did not 
exceed, say, 10 per cent., there would be a new set of haulage 
conditions to consider, namely, the propriety of keeping the car 
up to the face, v.hich implied that, instead of shoots being used on 
which to slide the coal down to the main levels, either the roof 
would have to be taken down, or the floor lifted to make the 
roadway dimensions suitable for the car. In circumstances of 
this kind a car that carried from 1 to about li tons of coal might 
be planned to meet the conditions, and could be operated at less 
cost than a tub that only carried 10 cwt. of coal could be 
manipulated. 

In the mining practice of the United States strong compact 
pit-cars were often built, to carrj- li tons of coal, that did not 
weigh more than 11 to 12 cwt. when empty, with wheels 15 and 
18 inches in diameter, operated on tracks with gauges that 
varied from 3 to 3i feet. 

It might be added in conclusion that after 40 years' continued 



110 TRAXSACTI(3NS — THE XOKTH OF KXCi^^AXD IXSTlTrTK. [Vol.lxvi. 

experieiue in nuittois of this kind, one was led to tlie l)elief that 
a raiue-mr or tub to be nearly suitable for all the varying con- 
ditions that he had encountered should be constructed as 
follows : — When the general condition of mine-timbering would 
allow a space of not less than 6 feet between stationary timbering, 
the gauge of track should be 3i feet ; the length of the cars over 
the bumpers, 8 feet; and the capacity of the car in coal-load, li 
to 2 toQS. The weight of the car when empty should not exceed 
12 cwt. This gauge of track afforded ample room in which 
either men or horses could work, and complete stability for any 
kind of motive power or traction power that it might be desirable 
to use. 

Mr. Edward H. Coxe (Knoxville, Tennessee) wrote that the 
questions of mine-cars and tracks brought out by Mr. Dean were 
both extremely important features in mining. 

Where the thickness of the seam would permit, the writer 
was of opinion that the larger the car was (up to a capacity of 
3 or 3| tons) the better, as a large car could be handled as quickly 
as a small car, and, as suggested by Mr. Dean, the time spent 
in topping, tramming, and waiting was thereby reduced. The 
haulage cost was also reduced, as it did not take any longer to 
gather and switch a large car than it did a small one. It was the 
opinion of the writer, however, that a car became unwieldy when 
of a larger capacity than 3h tons. 

With regard to the question of topping, the writer did not 
advocate much topping, if it could be avoided, on account of the 
fact that the coal was knocked off the cars and ground 
up. This resulted in dirty tracks, with the consequent 
cost of frequent cleaning, and a dust-laden atmosphere, with the 
accompanying danger of dust explosions. The writer would 
rather advocate a car of sufficient capacity to carry the desired 
load, which should be rounded slightly above the top of the car, 
where the thickness of the seam would permit this, especially in 
the case of mechanical haulage, when the cars were subjected to 
hard jolts. In order to prevent the spilling- of dust along the 
roads, cracks in the cars should be avoided, and solid cars (that 
was, without end gates), and the use of rotary dumps were recom- 
mended. The maintenance cost of this style of car would also 
be less than in the case of cars with end gates. 



1915-1916.] niSCUSSIOX AMEEICAX COAL-MIXIXG METHODS. Ill 

As suggested h\ Mr. Dean, roller-bearing wheels greatly 
increased the haulage capacity, allowed of increased output with 
the same ef|uipment, and reduced the haulage cost. 

With regard to the increased danger resulting from the use 
of electric haulage, it had been the experience of the writer that 
this did not exist to a material extent if the voltage was kept 
down to 250, although he had known of a number of fatalities 
resulting from 500-volt electric haulage. 

The writer advocated a track-gauge of 3^ to 4 feet as being 
well adapted to mine use, as it allowed room for clearance and 
ditching without excessive width of entries or excessive overhang- 
to the sides of the cars. 

With regard to the weight of rails, he (Mr. Coxe) advocated 40 
to 60-pound rails on main roads, according to the thickness of 
the seam and consequent size of equipment, with 30 to 40-pound 
rails for secondary roads, and 16 to 20-pound rails in rooms. 
Steel ties were advocated in rooms, especially in thin coal, in 
order to save height. Substantial ties, extending at least a foot 
on each side of the rail, should be used in headings. 

Mr. Haeeixgtox Emeesox (New York City) wrote that he 
had read Mr. Dean's paper with great interest and advantage 
to himself. 

While coal-mining was merely one of many sub-divisions of 
the work of an " efl&ciency " firm, it might prove of value to 
summarize some of the experiences of the firm with which he 
was connected. 

It was often sceptically asked how it was that an efficiency 
engineer could go into a business in which his experience was 
small, if not nil, and advise competent and experienced men 
who had spent a successful life on the work as to its manage- 
ment and operation. The specialist could give valuable advice, 
because there were certain general phases of engineering applic- 
able to all industries. As to these general phases he was com- 
petent, first, because he had seriously studied them, and, 
secondly, because he had had very wide and unusual opportu- 
nities of applying them. Xo doctor would know as much 
about a patient's wounded leg, and its pains and how it 
happened, as the patient himself; but the doctor who had been 
treating a thousand legs in all sorts of states on several battle 



112 llf.VXS.U^riO.XS — TIIK NDinir OV ENGJ.ANI) IXSTTTr'IK. [Vol. Ixvi. 

fronts for fifteen months knew far better what was good for the 
leg- than tlie patient. 

The efficiency engineer tabulated the flow of money through 
a coal-mine from the first expense until the final return in cash 
for coal sold. This flow was a very complicated matter, requir- 
ing a whole system of stop-cocks, meters, and gauges. "With a 
given system of circulation, the flow should be as frictionless, 
as rai)id. and as A'olumiiious as possible, and the difference in 
level between the first expenditure and the final return as large 
as possible. 

Without a diagrammatic analysis that not only showed the 
usual balance-sheet, but, in addition, indicated where the assets 
and liabilities momentarily were, how fast they were shifting, 
by whose authority, into what records, and without friction, it 
was usually impossible to tell where the biggest leaks were 
occurring. For instance, the difference in value between one 
man and another, both drawing the same wages, was sometimes 
as much as 100 per cent. A method of selection and assign- 
ment of employees that resulted in having each job filled by 
the best available man would often do more to lower costs than 
any amount of improved, equipment. 

He had known the same man, under different methods of 
supervision, to vary in oiitput from four units to forty. In 
America two evils were almost universal — (1) over-equipment, 
and (2) under-supervision. 

The four important considerations in any industry were (1) 
not to over invest; (2) to use the most suitable units, whether 
men, mat-erials, or machines (equipment generally); (3) to stan- 
dardize operating and maintenance costs and attain standards ; 
and (4) to obtain the rational maximum from each unit. 

The law of dependent sequences here came into play. Depen- 
dent sequences were at once the cause of modern low efficiency, 
and they were also the salvation of the efficiency engineer. If 
six operations were in dependent sequence, as when a man 
gambled and only received back on an average 90 per cent, of 
his stake on each turn, at the end of six turns he would have 
only 53 per cent, of his original stake left. On the other hand, 
the banking gambler who won 10 per cent, on eveiy throw, at 
the end of six throws had increased his capital by 77 per cent. 
The usual manager was so busy with his big problems that he 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSION— AMERICAN COAL-MIXIXG METHODS. 113 

overlooked the small autl avoidable percentage that was working 
against him at every step. The efficiency engineer aimed not 
only at reaching a practical efficiency of 100 per cent, (not a 
theoretical 100 per cent.), but he aimed at reaching 110 per 
cent., not by some spectacular change in equipment, men, or 
methods, but by the microscopic improvement of many steps. 
Moreover, as the aim of the efficiency engineer was to achieve 
the greatest improvement in the shortest time at the lowest 
expense and with the least effort, he did not apply remedies in 
theoretical sequence. He concentrated his attention on the 
.serious leaks wherever they occurred. A leak of small per- 
centage, but of large volume, might be far more serious than 
a leak of big percentage, but of small volume. It might be 
more advisable to stop easily and immediately a leak of small 
percentage than spend a long time on a leak of serious propor- 
tions. 

Mr. I. C. Parfitt (Jerome, Pennsylvania) wrote that he had 
read Mr. Dean's paper with much interest, and was greatly 
impressed by its scope and comprehensiveness. He did not wish 
his remarks to be construed as adversely critical, but would like 
to have them considered as explanatory and suggestive. There 
were many details that went to form the general phase of in- 
dustrial life, and especially was this true in the United States of 
America. This general aspect was often very different in 
character from that of the factors that produced it. He had 
endeavoured to explain some of these details, and to show their 
bearing and relationship to the general result. 

So far as his personal experience and observation went, 
which, unfortunately, had been limited to a very small section 
of the United States, he would say that he regarded the cause 
for the pre-eminence in the production of coal per man in 
America, as compared with that of other countries, as being due 
primarily to the development and establishment of the mecha- 
nical coal-cutting machine rather than to the use of a mine- 
car of large capacity. 

That a car of large capacity had been a very important contri- 
butory factor was unquestionably true ; but, where the produc- 
tion depended upon, or was the measure of, the collective 
individual capacity of the miner, as in pick-mining, the amount 



1 14 TKA.VSACTIOXS TIIK XORTH OF EXOI.AXD IXSTTTFTK. [Vol. Ixvi. 

was (leteiininate for any given seam, and would not be affected 
by tlie sisie of the car, but would depend upon other conditions — 
principally the tliickness of the seam and its cleanness. 

A man was capable of exerting only a definite amount of 
natural energy. If this energy was expended upon a seam 6 
feet thick, it would produce practically twice the amount of coal 
a-s the same energy when exerted upon a seam 3 feet thick. 
The same remark was true with reference to mechanical 
power, with this advantage in favour of the latter — that it was 
capable of longer continuous application, and, therefore, 
capable of a larger relative production when the element of 
time was not taken into consideration. 

In view of the foregoing facts, he could not agree with 
Mr. Dean's statement that " the principal reason why the 
United States of America leads in production per man is be- 
cause large-capacity mine-cars are used in American mines." 
When mechanical coal-cutting machines were used, the use of 
the car of small capacity became impracticable, principally 
owing to the fact that it would require too great a number to 
meet the increased production; consequently, the mine-car of 
large capacity became ,a necessity under these conditions. 

The mine-car of large, as compared with that of small 
capacity, had its advantages and disadvantages, the principal 
of which might be enumerated as follows : — 

Advantages. — (a) Saving of time in loading. Mr. Dean 
had very clearly pointed out the importance of this feature. A 
very decided saving in this and other directions would be secured 
when the car was of such a capacity as to meet the required 
demands without the necessity of " topping," or, as the term 
was used in the United States, "chunking" or "lumping the 
car." 

(b) Reduction in number of rolling-stock units for a given 
output, and a less proportional increase to meet a larger propoi'- 
tional output. It was always an economic and desirable feature 
in the operation of a plant to reduce the expenses to a minimum. 
This in particular would reduce much of the expense incidental 
to purchase, repair, replacement of stock, and the consumption 
of power. 

(c) An increase of output proportional to the production and 
the capacity of the car, if the haulage power were increased to 



1915-1916] DISCUSSIOX AMERICAN COAL-MIXIXG METHODS. 115 

make tlie time of tlie trip ami the leugtli of the train the same 
as that for smaller cars. Au increased output under anj^ con- 
ditions required an increased expenditure of power. If the 
increased output were proportionately greater than the increased 
cost of power, the condition mio-ht be regarded as adyantageous, 
otherwise it would be objectionable. This consideration might 
be regarded as academic. 

Disadvantages. — {a) The necessity for the maintenance of a 
secondary haulage (generally animal) on moderate and heavy 
grades. Even with the use of the size of rails mentioned by 
Mr. Dean in room-work, and the improvement in car construc- 
tion, it frequently required the efE'orts of five or six men to push 
a large-capacity car from the point of delivery by the motor to 
the working-face ; and, unless a secondary haulage was main- 
tained to meet such conditions, places of this character could 
not be worked ; while with cars of small capacity one or two 
men could handle the cars easily to and from the working-face. 

(&) Longer delays in cases of derailment or wrecks, due to a 
longer time being required to retrack cars, clean up the debris, 
and repair damages to the road caused by the increased weight 
of the cars and loads. When a train of large cars, travelling 
at the velocity that was required in some of the mines, derailed, 
the results were more disastrous and productive of greater delay 
than those of a like train of small cars : for, despite the use of 
"■ climbers " and other retracking devices, it happened quite 
frequently that the cars were thrown into such positions that 
the haulage power was not adequate to remove them, and it was 
often necessaiy for the wrecked cars to be unloaded. A wreck 
of this kind, especially in a timbered haulage-road, caused long 
delays, sometimes necessitating the closing-down of the district 
for an entire day in order to secure properly the overlying strata, 
clean up the debris, and repair tbe road. Mr. Dean had con- 
sidered this phase of the matter and its decrease by the main- 
tenance of roads suitable to the weight that had to be trans- 
ported; but it was an old saw that " where there are railroads 
there will be wrecks," and, while good roads might decrease, 
they would not eliminate wrecks, and while they might be less 
frequent in occurrence, they would be no less disastrous in 
results. The maintenance of good roads suitable for the haul- 
age of small cars and their necessary equipment would attain 



IIG TRANSACTIONS — THE NORTH OF KNGLAXD INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

the same desirable feature of reductiou in the oeeurrenee of 
wrecks. 

(c) Increased size and strength of lioisting machinery when 
the mine opening was a shaft. When the capacity of the car 
was increased, the weight of the car, composed of the same 
material, must also be increased. For the same output, the 
same (or even a decreased) power might be used with a large- 
capacity car as compared with a small car; but when the output 
was to be increased in order to meet the increased production, 
the size and power of the hoisting machinery must be materially 
increased also. With the deep shafts that he (Mr. Parfitt) 
understood existed in the British Isles and Continental Europe, 
the question of an increased hoisting power to meet the equivalent 
output of an American mine would demand serious considera- 
tion. Deep shafts in either the bituminous or the anthracite 
regions of the United States were conspicuous by their absence, 
and mining engineers there had yet that problem with which to 
contend. In the West Virginia field, where a large part of the 
data used by Mr. Dean seemed to have been collected, there were 
very few shaft mines. The larger part of the Coal-Measures at 
present worked were situated at considerable elevations above 
the narrow defiles of that mountainous region, and were in the 
majority of cases drift-openings, from which the coal could be 
hauled to the surface in large trains, the "tipple" or drift- 
mouth arrangement sometimes being so far above the railroad 
that the coal must be transported down the grade by retarding 
conveyors. Large-capacity cars could be adapted to such opera- 
tions with greater facility and better results than to shaft- 
openings. 

(d) The necessary increased use of timbers on haulage-roads 
where the roof conditions were bad. Mr. Dean had named this 
as an anticipatory objection to the use of large-capacity cars, 
and had cited instances in which they were used under such 
conditions. Such a proviso did not necessarily prohibit the 
use of large-capacity cars; but their use under such conditions 
was productive of greater danger than the use of small cars, and 
especially was this true where the cars must enter branch or 
lateral entries, as they must do under the present system of 
coal-mining. The curves for such entries must, necessarily, be 
long for large-capacity cars, even though the wheel-base was 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSION AMERICAN COAL-MINING METHODS. 117 

small ; the i)oiuts of coal on one side of such curves were veiy 
thin and long', and must be reinforced by timbers either in the 
form of posts or of double sets. It was an acknowledged maxim 
in mining. esi>ecially in Pennsylvania, that timbers on haulage- 
roads should be avoided where possible, and reduced to the 
minimum where necessary. 

"With respect to the capacity of mine-cais in any individual 
case, his personal opinion was that the economic principle with 
respect to conditions, production, cost, and safety should be the 
deciding factor. The consideration of this principle with 
respect to any one or two of the conditions named would tend 
only towards extremes in either direction. 

In considering the adaptation of the mechanical devices used 
in the mines of the United States to the collieries of Great 
Britain, there was one important feature that should receive 
serious consideration. The coal-mining classes of the United 
States — that was, the men actually engaged in the digging, 
loading, and hauling of coal — numbered among them, at the 
present time, a very small percentage of practical coal-miners — 
men who had spent all or the greater part of their lives in actual 
mining work. He did not believe that he exaggerated when he 
stated that practically 90 per cent, of the coal-miners in the 
mines of the United States at the present time were foreigners. 
In this term he did not include miners from Germany, Belgium, 
France, or Great Britain : for, without flattery, it could be truly 
said that the men from these countries who entered American 
mines were regarded as practical miners, and, in fact, the 
present status of the industry was admittedly due to the prac- 
tical coal-miners, former subjects of Great Britain. He applied 
the term " miner" to the agricultural emigrants from Southern 
Europe — Italy, Austria, the Balkan States, Poland, and Russia 
— men who had never seen a coal-mine before they came to 
the United States, who were allowed to enter the mines entirely 
ignorant of the perils which they were to encounter, and for 
whose safety and conduct the American mine official was made 
and held strictly accountable. This class had been the main 
factor in compelling the English-speaking miner to leave the 
mines and seek enjployment in other branches of industry (this 
might be a blessing in disguise). As a result, the introduction 
of mechanical coal-miuina- uiachinery had been precipitated in 



118 TlfANSACTKKNS TllK .NOinil OFENGI.AMJ INSTITUTE. [Vol.lxvi. 

order to {'Oiuiteibalauce tli<* foice.s opposed to the re(iiiired i)TO- 
ductiou tliroug-h the hu-k of ability on the part of this class. 
The coal-mining- popnlation of the United States was not a 
stable class : they had no industrial axioms, dogmas, or prin- 
ciples, no such homogeneity of consolidation, or mutuality of 
interests, as should characterize a definite unit in the industrial 
econoniy. As a consequence of this condition, the introduc- 
tion of new devices for an increased output encountered but 
very little (if any) opposition from the miners themselves, 
whether the device was beneficial or detrimental to their inter- 
ests and safety. He did not advocate this condition as either 
favourable to the establishment and operation of a system of 
imposition on the part of the operators, or as militating against 
the operation of beueficient progress. He simply stated it as a 
condition in which one of the factors affected by the change was 
not competent to pronounce as to the nature of the effects, and 
as being the direct opposite of a condition in which the industry 
was based upon customs and intelligence and established upon 
traditions as in the British Isles, in which any change would 
have to be sanctioned by the continuity of such customs and 
traditions. 

Mr. Dean stated that " the opinion exists in some countries 
that great danger is attached to the use of electric trolly- 
locomotives in coal-mines," but he did not state the nature of 
this suppo%sed danger. A very strong opposition was urged by 
many good practical mining men in the United States, whose 
interests were as much concerned with the safety of the work- 
man as with the emoluments of the employer, against the use of 
electricity in any form in mines in which explosive gases were 
being generated either in large quantities from the seam or in 
indeterminate quantities from roof-falls, and also in mines in 
which the dust was known to be of a hig-hly inflammable and 
explosive character. Experiments in England and at the 
United States Federal Bureau Testing and Experimental Station 
at Pittsburgh had clearly demonstrated that great danger existed 
from the use of electricity under such conditions. In the face 
of such evidence, it would seem unpardonable crimiualitj' to 
introduce such a device into mines where the given conditions 
existed. 

Mr. Dean had referred to the statistical figures given by Mr. 



1915-1916.] mSCUSSIOX AMERICAN COAL-MIXIXG METHODS. 119 

Haniugton Emerson of ^'ew York City relative to the startling 
low selliny-price and costs of production despite the high wages 
paid to the workman, leaving it to be inferred that the rates in 
Great Britain did not compare favourably with those given. He 
(Mr. Parfitt) had no data at hand to compare what was regarded 
as a low cost of production and low selling-price relative to other 
countries. He would take, however, the figures given bj- Mr. 
Dean in the first part of his paper, that the English miner loaded 
Ih long tons (2.2-40 pounds) for Ts. (I'To dollars). This meant 
that he received 112d. (23j cents) per ton for digging and load- 
ing his coal. The machine-loader, that is, a miner loading in a 
place cut by a mechanical mining machine, in the locality where 
he (Mr Parfitt) was situated received Is. 6d. (36 cents) per long 
ton, and the '' cutter" and "scraper "' (the men who operated the 
machine) each received 3d. (6 cents) per ton, making a total initial 
cost of 2s. (48 cents) per long ton, which was more than double 
the initial cost in an English colliery for pick-mining. This 
allowed an expenditure of 12jd. (24f cents) per ton for general 
mine expense to equalize the initial cost in the case given. The 
coal could be placed on the railroad car at the tipple in the United 
States for about 4s. (1 dollar) per ton. It would be very readily 
I)erceived that the initial cost per ton of the coal on the car at 
the working-face was greatly in favour of the English colliery, 
despite the use of mechanical devices in production and haulage. 
Mechanical devices would, undoubtedly, decrease the initial cost, 
increase the production, and augment materially the daily wage 
of the miner in the British collieries if other conditions con- 
fonned or could be made to conform to the change. He did not 
mention this case as typical for comparison where a minimum 
initial cost was the desideratum, for the field from which Mr, 
Dean had collected the larger portion of his data could, and un- 
doubtedly did, produce coal at a much less initial cost than that 
stated, although the figures that he had given might be regarded 
as the average for the Pennsjdvania bituminous fields. He had 
been informed by men who had worked in the "West Virginia 
fields that in some parts the miner was paid only Is. (25 cents) 
for a car of 4 tons capacity. The cause of this low^ cost, how- 
ever, was not altogether due to the mechanical means and methods 
employed. There were other conditions that it would not be 
politic to discuss. 



120 IKANSACTTOXS THE NORTH OF iiS(i\..\S\) INSTITUTP:. [Vol. Ixvi. 

As ail interpolated tliouglit for individual or collective con- 
sideration, lie would state that the high wages of the coal-miner 
in the United States should not be regarded as a constituent 
determinative factor either in the cost or in the selling-price, so 
far as profits to the operator were concerned, however paradoxical 
and inconsistent such an expression might appear : for, if the 
wages were relatively high, the cost of living, due to the com- 
mercial conditions attendant upon or resulting from the opera- 
tion of a protective tariff, was proportionately higher, and the 
larger portion of such wages returned as rent and profits to an 
unwritten compulsory trade system. The same was true, 
though probably not to such a degree, of all classes of work- 
men connected with the industry, whose places of residence 
were, necessarily, in the mining camps. This was a feature 
that Mr. Dean had mentioned, but not directly in this relation. 
This system, he (Mr. Parfitt) understood, was non-existent in 
England. 

Mr. Dean had mentioned that trade-union regulations had 
retarded progress in some parts of the United States. This was 
unquestionably true, but it was also historically true that a 
democracy in the making-, especially a democracy of labour, had 
made serious mistakes in political as well as in industrial 
economy, and, in attempting to establish an equality, had 
licensed restriction. Britain, as well as the United States, 
could review its own political and industrial evolution, and 
perceive prominent landmarks of this character. 

Mr. Dean had given a very accurate description of pillar- 
drawing by machines, but the dimensions of the overcutting 
after that at the extremity of the room were largely determined 
by the nature of the overlying strata. He (Mr. Parfitt) had 
personally conducted the drawing of both room and entry pillars 
by machines under conditions where the roof was very brittle. 
The drawing of entry pillars by machine was an unusual proceed- 
ing, work of this kind being done almost exclusively by pick, 
but it could be successfully accomplished where the conditions 
were favourable. In both cases, the shortwall or longwall 
machine was best adapted for this kind of work. 

The distinction between shortwall and longwall machines, 
so far as he had been able to discover, was that, while both were 
of the continuous-cutting type, the shortwall was not adapted 



1915-1916] DISCUSSIOX AMKRICAX COAL-MIXIXG METHODS. 



121 



for the cutting of entries or for any narrow work where straight 
ribs on both sides were to be maintained by the machine — for 
tlie reason that its cutting-bar was of a less width than the body 
of the machine, and, in order to cut tlie required width, the 
macliine must be deflected to the left from a perpendicular line 
to the face, thus leaving an irregular rib as shown at A in Fig. 1 
in the text. The longwall machine had a cutting-bar of the 
same widtli as the machine-case, and consequently need not 
be deflected in order to secure straight cutting. 

Mr. Dean's brief but accurate and comprehensive description 
of American mining camps was unfortunately too true. The 
American coal-miner, of whatever nationalitv, was more or less 




Fig. 1 . — Illustrating Mr. I. C. Parfitt's Remarks. 

an industrial nomad. He had no settled habitation that he 
could call home. The lives of the majority of the camps were 
brief. The houses or " shacks '' were the property of the com- 
pany. The miner had no inducement to beautify his dwelling, 
because his tenure was brief and uncertain. He had spent his 
life in such camps, and fully realized the depressing effects of 
their environment. They possessed no characteristics such as 
could elevate the class either physically, mentally, or morally. 
In electric-locomotive haulage the combined use of sand and 
brakes on grades had a great wearing effect upon the wheels of 
all rolling-stock, but especially on those of the mine-cars. Even 
the best design of chilled M-heels, under these conditions, soon 
presented anything but a circular wheel tyre. A very ludicrous 

VO[„ LXVI.— 19lD-191fi 9 E 



122 TRANSACTIONS TllKNOinil ()!■ KN(. I AND 1 NSI ITITE. [Vol.lxvi. 

illustration of this effect was given by a miner in a plant where 
the haulage was entirely electrical ; he remarked that he had a 
car one day that had so many flat places on the wheels that when 
he and his (•()nii)iini()u attempted to })usli the car forward the 
wheels revolved backward ! 

Mr. Josiah Keely (Kayford, West Virginia) wrote that, 
whilst his experience had been confined to certain districts of 
Pennsylvania and West Virginia, his connexion had been with 
companies operating in several States, thus bringing their 
methods to his attention. 




Fig. 2.— New Type of Coai.-cutting Machine. Illustratinc; Mr. Josiah 
Keely's Remarks. 

He thought it rather unfortunate that Mr. Dean had not 
so extended his paper as to cover the one point that was of ulti- 
mate interest to all coal-producers, namely, profits. 

With all their devices and improvements for increasing 
tonnage per man and decreasing costs, they were not taking into 
consideration the cost of production when the mine became more 
than half worked out. New mines competed with old mines 
when the difference in costs of production was as much as 20 
cents per ton, and new mines were being opened and old ones 
abandoned. 



1915-1916] DISCUSSION AMERICAX COAL-MIXING METHODS. 123 




Fig. 3. — New Type of Coal-cdtting Machine. iLLusxRATiNri Mr. Josiah 
Keely's Remarks. 




Fig. 4. — New Type of Coal-cctting Machine. Illustrating Mr. Josiah 
Keely s Remarks. 



124 THAXSACTIOXS — THE NORTH OF KN(;i,ANl) INSTITl'TK. F^'"' '^vi. 

Some of the memher.s would probably be interested in unusual 
types of foal-(nittin<>- machines. Figs. 2, 3, and 4 in the text 
illustrated a machine wliich was being' experimented with by an 
inventor in the Xew River field. He (Mr. Keely) thought that 
there seemed to be some merit in his conception — it was at least 
rather ingenious. The cutter-bar was auger-shaped, with bits set 
along the worm. This auger had both a rotary and a saw move- 
ment, and was sumped and drawn across the face after the 
manner of a shortwall machine. Imagination would suggest 
some of the claims made for this machine. 

Mr. Hugh Archbald (Scranton, Pennsylvania) wrote that 
Mr. Dean had confined his attention almost entirely to the 
machinery used in mines, and had given but a hint of the 
economic engineering wliich was developing and promised results 
as important as those derived from machine-mining. 

There was in the United States more coal than was needed at 
present — Colorado was estimated to possess enough to last for 
32,000 years at the present rate of production. It had been so 
easy a matter to open up a mine (particularly so in the past) that 
over-production was a constant factor. In consequence, the 
prices that were obtained for the coal were lower than the 
quotations which he had seen for English coal. In the last 
10 or 15 years the demand for Pennsylvanian anthracite, which 
was the highest priced coal in the Vnited States, with more 
difficult mining conditions than bituminous coal, had about 
equalled the production, and the price per ton at the mines had 
been about 10s. (2^ dollars). The price for Pennsylvanian 
bituminous had averaged half, or less, of this amount, and the 
demand had not equalled what it was possible for the mines to 
produce . 

The relatively flat seams of the bituminous regions presented 
conditions favourable to the development of machine-mining, 
while the pitching seams of the anthracite region necessitated 
hand- work. 

The first mines opened in the United States were those where 
a drift could be run in on the hill-side on the outcrop of the 
seam, for this involved the least expense. A great quantity of 
coal Mas now produced from these mines. As there was in the 
past more idle time even than there was now, it had been 
necessary to keep down the overhead expenses, and so the very 
cheapest supervision had been maintained. 



1915-191G.] DISCUSSION — AMERICAN COAL-MINING METHODS. 



125 



The beg^intiingr of each of these mines was simple : the coal 
was near the surface and the veins larg-e ; there was no distance 
underground to cover with any organization ; but, as the mining 
continued, the space opened up underground increased, and the 
cost of mining also went up. In order to keep the output up 
and the costs down, relief had first been sought in the application 
of machinery. The competition between the manufacturers had 
developed the quality of the machines faster than the absorptive 
power of the people who were intended to use them and who were 
good practical men accustomed to manual methods. In conse- 
quence, the hopes for the economic salvation of some mines 
through the introduction of machinery had not always been 
realized: for the reason that with each machine, and consequent 
division of labour, a complication in organization had also been 
introduced. This fact was now being realized, and attention 
was beginning to be paid to it. The next great development 
in American practice would be along lines similar to the 
organization which had been progressing in the factories in the 
past few years, and had been known as " efficiency engineering." 

An instance, slight in itself, but showing the false reliance 
which had often been placed on machinery, occurred at an 
anthracite mine. The desire was to increase the output. A new 
headframe had been built and machinery to load the coal for 
hoisting at the two levels inside the mine installed ; but the 
output did not increase immediately. On examination of the 
proper use of the machiuerj^ it was discovered that the hoisting- 
engineers — although old, reliable, and steady — took from 10 to 
20 seconds to respond to the signal to hoist. This, repeated 300 
times a day, lost a substantial part of the working- day. When 
the attention of the engineers was called to this matter, they 
promptlj' corrected the fault themselves, and the amount of coal 
hoisted increased. 

At a bituminous mine 176 loaders were employed, and the 
company advei-tised for more men. The miners' union advertised 
in opposition that enough men were already employed. On 
organization of the work, the same amount of coal was produced 
witli 120 men. 

At the first mine mentioned, through the attention given to 
many details in the organization of the work, the output was 
increased from 450 cars with a capacity of 108 cubic feet to over 
GOO, and some fewer men were employed. 



126 TRANSACTIONS— THE NOUTII OF EN(iI-AND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

During an investigation it was foimd that under the loose 
organization customary in many mines, a "company-hand" — 
a track-layer, a timberman, a mason, etc. — spent only about 25 
per cent, of his time in effective work, the rest of his time being 
employed in procuring material or tools, or in learning exactly 
what had to be done. 

He (Mr. Arclibald) mentioned these incidents, not in order to 
call attention to bad points in American mining methods, but in 
order to call attention to an improvement that was in progress. 
There were many bright spots in work of this kind. In some 
mines the trains of cars were handled by a despatcher who was in 
constant telephonic communication with all parts of the mine, 
and the trains were run on schedule time. 

Mr. Dean spoke in a disparaging manner of the sentiment in 
favour of " welfare work " at American mines. He (Mr. 
Arclibald) imagined that the workmen in the United States were 
much more dependent upon the mine management for the 
conditions under which they lived than were the workmen of 
Britain, because the mines were often situated in districts where 
mining was the only industry, and it was necessary for the 
management to build a .town when the mine was opened. 

It was a pleasure to many to see on the part of the operators 
the steadily increasing assumption of their responsibilities to 
furnish reasonably good living conditions. Men of all nationali- 
ties worked in American mines, and the new recruits were mostly 
from non-English-speaking countries, although the older miners 
were Engdish-speaking, more of whom would be welcomed. 
Even though the non-English — who were often known as 
"foreigners" even in the United States — were accustomed to 
low-living conditions, it was realized that it did not pay to allow 
conditions such as would not permit a man to recuperate from 
his work during his hours of leisure. 

Mr. Dean was right in painting a cheerful picture of mining 
in America, and the outlook for advancement in mining 
engineering and in the accompanying economic and social con- 
ditions, based on present and past performance, was bright. The 
output per man might at present be high in comparison with 
other countries, but one could expect to see this materially in- 
creased as organization of work concurrently with the use of 
machinery was developed. 



1915-191G ] DISCUSSION — AMERICAN COAL-MINING METHODS. 127 

Mr. H. Eeisser (Chicago, Illinois) wrote that Mr. Dean had 
apparently made a very careful study of what was being done 
in the West Virginian mining field, and had certainly covered 
the ground correctly. 

There was veiy little to which he (the writer) coukl take 
exception, saving, possibly, the last paragraph. Truly no 
mining village was beautiful, but eiforts were achieving results, 
and the writer could instance quite a few villages which had 
been laid out with pleasant surroundings, and were being 
improved for comfort and the incentive of the workers. 

As to the construction of elaborate surface preparing plants, 
he believed, without exaggeration, that West Virginia led the 
American bituminous fields in the extent of careful refinement 
and handling of their coal. The character of the mineral was so 
fragile as to make it almost impossible to grade it into more than 
five sizes, namely, so-called lump, egg", nut, pea, and slack; 
any more than these would be simply a mixture of two or more 
sizes, and the demand did not warrant it. For the production 
of these sizes, however, preparation was becoming very stringent, 
and breakage due to rough handling was something that would 
not be tolerated. When one considered that the operators were 
willing to spend from £200 to £240 (|1,000 to |1,200) each for 
the laying of the first three named sizes into the railroad-cars, 
with a guarantee of no breakage over 2 to 3 per cent., it could 
readily be seen to what extent the modern preparation was 
elaborated. 

The tendency towards steel structures was also becoming 
popular, probably largely on account of fire, but appropriate 
design could often convert these otherwise dismal structures into 
ones pleasant to the eye, and he believed that manufacturers were 
aiming at making them as unobtrusive as possible. 

Mr. W. R. Peck (Big Stone Gap, Virginia) wrote that it was 
with great interest that he had read Mr. Dean's paper. Since the 
writer had had no opportunity of a visit to the coal-mining 
regions of Europe, the comparisons made in the paper could not 
be verified; but the allusions to the American coal-mining 
industry were correct, and, for a short paper, gave to the reader 
a very complete and comprehensive idea of its several interesting 
points. 



128 THANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF KXOI.A.Nl) IXSTITUTK. ry,,!. Ixvi. 

Mr. l)e;m called attention to the fact that modern mines in 
the United States had improved their hanlaj^-e-roads until they 
were really under <>roniHl tracks that compared favonrably with 
the railroads. This was very true concerninj^- the large com- 
panies, and to a less extent amon<^' all mining companies. It 
was due to the fact that the operating companies had realized 
that every improvement in the haulage-roads, hoth in track and 
in equipment, involved a larger output with decreased cost per 
ton. 

The conditions in the IJnited States were such that a mining 
company had a fixed price to pay for the cutting and loading of 
the coal. This price could not be lowered, either through labour 
unions or because of the prices prevailing in the particular coal- 
field in which the company was located : so that, in order to 
decrease the cost of mining, it was necessary to reduce the trans- 
portation charge — that was, to reduce the cost per ton that must 
be expended to haul the loaded car from the working-face, to 
dump it into the railroad-cars, and to return it empty to the 
loader. To obtain this decrease the best of tracks were required, 
which made wrecks either impossible or reduced their number 
to a minimum, while a iigh rate of speed, with large trips, could 
be maintained. Better and larger capacity cars, equipped with 
tracks that could stand the greatest wear and cause the least 
friction, and large haulage-motors of the best type that would 
handle the large trips with the least demand on the power-house, 
and with the minimum of upkeep charge, were also the result 
of this practice. 

To secure good alignment and grade on the motor-roads, 
alignment sights were set on tangents for the track-layers every 
100 feet, and on curves every 25 or 10 feet, depending on the 
degree of curvatiire. Top or bottom was taken when necessary, 
in accordance with the engineers' grades, in order to ensure a 
good gradient ; careful prospecting was the , rule in laying out 
the main haulage-roads in the development of new territory, in 
order to have the best natural grade and provide also for natural 
drainage. 

It would seem (from Mr. Dean's paper) that an increase in the 
size of the mine-cars used in Britain would be of material 
advantage to the operating companies. The large-capacity car, 
with the improved roller-bearing wheels, had done wonders in 



1'J15-191G.] mSCUSSIOX AMERICAN COAL-MINING METHODS. 129 

the United States. The conclusion must not, however, be drawn 
from the foreg'oing' remarks that all that was necessary was to 
increase the capacity of the mine-car in order to procure a greater 
tonnage per loader with a decreased cost per ton. A great many 
elements entered into this question, as it was also necessary 
at all times that the supply of cars should be sufficient to supply 
the loaders with only a minimum delay, that the different places 
were cut and shot down on time, and that the many causes of 
delays around the mines were all reduced to a minimum. 

The gauge of mine-car tracks was also very important, and, 
in order to secure the best results, it was imperative that the 
g'aug-e of the track should be such that it best fitted the conditions 
found in the individual mine. In America the g^auge varied 
from -30 to 50^ inches, but the most popular gauge was from 
42 to 48 inches. A gauge of less than 40 inches was very 
uncommon, the tendency being to secure a car of wide gauge, 
large capacity, but low in height. 

Modern mining machinery (coal-cutters and tipple equip- 
ment) had also done its part in increasing the average output 
in tons per loader. Competition had been keen among the manu- 
facturers of all kinds of mining machinery, and this fact had led 
to the rapid improvement in each and every machine, so that 
at the present time one could obtain almost any type of machine, 
car, or dump that would suit the conditions of the particular 
mine that one was operating. 

Nevertheless, before any radical change was made in any 
mine, a very careful study of the existing conditions should be 
made, so that when the proposed changes were accomplished one 
would have the pleasure of viewing an improvement, and not be 
rudely awakened to the fact that a quantity of machinery had 
l)een purchased that was absolutely unfitted for the particular 
conditions. 

Judging from the several descriptions of surface plants of 
European coal-mines that the writer had had the opportunity of 
reading, Mr. Dean's report on the surface plants of the bitu- 
minous mines of the United States was correct when compared 
with those of Great Britain and other countries of Europe. But 
the conditions in the United States were very different from those 
met with in the older countries : a great many of the bituminous 
mines were on leaseholds of from 20 to 30 years, perhaps with a 



130 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OK ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

renewal clause at au increased royalty. As the usual term of 
years was such that the lease would be exhausted under the 
normal conditions of the coal-market, there was no need to huild 
for several years beyond that term. 

The last ten years, however, liad sliown a marked improve- 
ment in the buildings erected, and, while the miners' houses were 
seldom constructed of brick or concrete, the present type was one 
of g'ood wooden construction. Many were now equipped with 
what was rapidly becoming to be considered a labourer's neces- 
sity — electric light and running water. The companies were also 
trying by the means of cash prizes and other encouragement to 
induce the mine-labourer to take an interest in his house and 
garden, and this method had produced wonderful results. The 
fact tbat the average mine-labourer did respond had caused 
several of the mining companies to take still greater pride in 
their camps; and it was a fact that in many instances mine- 
labourers had been discharged because they had not kept their 
house and yard according to the standard of the camp. These 
methods, combined with this spirit, would eventually turn many 
of the present "eye-sores" into mining villages that would 
compare favourably with those of any other country. 

In the construction of tipples, power-houses, etc., permanent 
buildings of steel, concrete, and brick now predominated 
throughout the United States. This was partly due to the 
demand for better prepared coal, requiring more men on the 
tipples, and also to the use of more expensive machinery that 
must be protected from fire and the weather. 

While he was dealing with the improvements made in the 
housing of employees and mining machinery, it did not seem 
amiss to mention some of the improvements due to the interest 
taken by both the company and the labourer in first aid and mine- 
rescue work. The "safety first" idea was very new in the 
United States, but it had gained a permanent foothold, and would 
continue to gain in all American industries. " Safety first " had 
brought the company and the individual closer together, and 
had made each realize that in many cases their interests were 
identical. It had brought about many improvements in the 
safety of handling the machines, the setting of props, the removal 
of dangerous roof, and in general had produced greater efficiency 
among mine-labourers. 



1915-1916] DlSCrSSIOX AMERICAN COAL-MIXIXG METHODS 131 

Working on this idea of '' safety first,"' several large cor- 
porations had installed series of moving pictures that explained 
to the foreign miner and mine-labourer the correct way to perform 
his many duties connected with the mining of coal. 

Practically eveiy mine had its first-aid team, and, in order 
to create more interest in this work, many companies paid every 
man who was on a first-aid team, or who attended the lectures 
and instruction courses, for all the time thus spent at the same 
rate as his daily earnings. 

In conclusion, the writer could not positively state what all 
American engineers would say if they received a wire from their 
mine-owners directing them to replace their 3-ton cars by cars 
of only 10 cwts. capacity, as suggested by Mr. Dean. If the 
owners, however, insisted on the change, the message from the 
engineer would be a resignation, to take effect at once : for, 
if the change were made, in most of the American mines the 
engineer or manager who did not resign would in six mouths' 
time be discharged, because his costs would be eliin1)ing upwards, 
his output dropping in the opposite direction, and his camp a 
nest of disgruntled and disloyal employees. 

Mr. Alfeed J. ToxGE (Glace Bay, Xova Scotia) wrote that 
Mr. Dean's paper was apparently intended to invite further dis- 
cussion on the relative capacities of the tubs or boxes as gener- 
ally used in Great Britain and in the United States of America. 
That the considerable outputs from the collieries in the T'nited 
States must be associated with the large candying capacity of the 
mine-cars, and the haulage problems involved, allowed little 
room for doubt; but that the same universal system could be 
applied in Great Britain would, on the otlier hand, give much 
room for a contrary opinion. There was, however, a possible 
need for serious reflection on the part of British colliery engineers 
as to how far they could go towards increasing the caiTying 
capacity of the boxes and improving the rolling-stock, the per- 
manent way, and the haulage facilities in the mines. 

It was not difficult to see that Mr. Dean had constantly in 
mind in his paper the use of the electric mine locomotive. With 
this in view and the concomitant good track, easy grades, and the 
minimum of risk of derailment and breakage, there was justifica- 
tion for improving the '* starting torque " by such means as 



182 I UANS.UTIONS TIIK NORTH OF EXGL.VNJ) INS'IITITE. fVol. Ixvi. 

spring- drawbars, roller-bearing's, a reduction in tlie gross tare of 
tlie boxes, etc. A large mine-car involved the provision of good 
roadways and substantial tracks right up to and including the 
woiking-face, and the use of motive power either for the entire 
distance, or motive power for the major and horse or mule power 
for a very minor portion of the distance. Manual labour in con- 
nexion witli the moving of the boxes was almost eliminated. 

Very few collieries in Great Britain would be found to offer 
the same field as America for the conditions of work described 
and implied by the writer of the paper. The deep seams had per- 
force to be worked by longwall, which necessitated brushing; 
the roadways presented a continually changing surface, which 
rendered electric locomotives and trolley work difficult, even if 
the use of electricity were considered advisable, which was scarce- 
ly likely. The thicker and often the shallower seams where the 
j)illar-and-stall system was in vogue, and where the conditions 
would approach those that Mr. Dean probably had in mind, 
were becoming very scarce. Other mines were either small, dry, 
steep, of faulted, all of which conditions would again aff'ect the 
situation as to the use of large boxes. In his (Mr. Tonge'«) 
opinion the use of a box of increased capacity could be advant- 
ageousl}' extended in collieries in Great Britain, although not 
perhaps under the conditions which prevailed in the United 
States. Among these might be mentiojied the collieries that 
proposed to adopt extensively the face-conveyor. 

That much could be gained by a study of the methods of the 
United States need not be stated. The importance attached to 
the quick handling and dispatching of coal in and out of the 
mine, the substantial rolling and permanent stock, and the neces- 
sity for the use of machinery, not only for transporting, but for 
handling- the coal, had developed several classes of skilled under- 
ground men. Each of these classes was capable of carrying on 
certain operations for supplying the needs of the man at the 
face, whose almost sole duty it was to fill as large an amount of 
coal as possible. There could be no gainsaying that Mr. Dean 
was right in avowing that this man could in a given time, assum- 
ing that there was room, fill more coal in a few large boxes than 
in many small ones ; but the conditions at the coal-face were only 
a part of the whole conditions requiring consideration. 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSIOX AMERICAX COAL-MINING METHODS. 133 

Mr. Ealph ^V . Mayer (Eoslyn, Washington) wrote that a 
hig"h degree of efficiency conhl only be obtained from a steani- 
eugine and boiler if a good grade of coal and that in sufficient 
quantity was used. In the same way. a high degree of efhciency 
in a miner working at the coal-face could only be obtained if he 
had an abundance of g'ood wholesome food for himself and family, 
congenial and healthy surroundings, and paj' sufficiently large to 
allow him to take a ])ride in his work and an interest in life. 

The large-capacity cars of the United States might be a reason 
for the high production per man, as mentioned by Mr. Dean ; but 
there were many mines in America which used cars with a capa- 
city of only 1 ton. and their output per man was also large, with- 
out the use of coal-cutting machines or face-conveyors. Mr. 
Dean stated that '' in South A\ ales, the outi)ut per man is no more 
than in the districts where small tubs are in use."' The personal 
equation entered into tlip larger production per man more than 
the size of the cars. 

A few years ago, when American bricklayers were taken over 
to London to work on a large store, they laid from two to three 
times as many bricks per day as their British cousins were in the 
habit of considering a fair day's work, and they were also paid 
accordingly. Materials were placed more conveniently for them. 
They had taken lessons in motion studies, and knew how to do 
the most work with the least exertion. Before the job was fin- 
ished their British cousins were able to duplicate their work, and 
incidentally their pay also. 

The same truth applied to working at the coal-face. At 
European mines there were many superannuated men who had 
been faithful employees of the company for many years. They 
did almost no work, and were practically pensioners. The effect 
of the influence that these men exerted about a mine in the 
direction of inefficiency could hardly be estimated. Certainly a 
man should not be shelved on account of his age, no matter what 
it was, so long as he could do his work satisfactorily. But. when 
the time arrived when he could not do this, it was far better for 
the efficiency of the mine that he should be pensioned outright 
and taken out of the mine. 

Mr. Dean had mentioned an instance in whicli only a fifth of 
the loader's time was spent in shovelling into the cars, the rest of 
his time being practically wasted so far as output of coal for the 
mine was concerned. That instance was very illuminating, and 



134 THANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF EXCa.AXl) INSTITUTE. [Vcl. Ixvi. 

presentefl the difference in a nutsliell between American mines, 
with a high tounag-e per man, and the European mines, or badly- 
managed American mines, where the tonnage per man was low. 
European mines had not a monopoly of low-tonnage records, as 
there were plenty of mines of that kind in the United States. 

When the miner had to wait for empty cars, as in the instance 
mentioned by Mr. Dean, or for props, track, or a thousand and 
one things which a mine under good and efficient management 
would have ready for his use as soon as or before he needed them, 
the tonnage was bound to be low. The miner lost interest in his 
work, and considered that, if the management took so little inter- 
est in having things run efficiently, he would obtain no credit ; 
nor was it of any use for him to try to break any records in effi- 
ciency or tonnage. 

The advantage that was to be obtained by using large cars 
instead of smaller or medium-sized cars might be more imaginary 
than real in some coal-seams. The cost of driving wide tunnels 
and opening up the mine was high. The expense of timbering 
and holding up a bad roof was a greater and never ending 
expense. Heavier track and better ballasting was needed for 
the heavy locomotives and cars. 

Mr. Carnegie was the first large manufacturer in America to 
inti'oduce the idea that the wages, no matter how large, paid to 
an employee were immaterial, provided that he increased propor- 
tionately the production of the manufacturing plant, or of the 
particular machine at which he worked. Carnegie made a huge 
success with that idea, and American mines now worked on that 
principle much more than European mines. A large tonnage per 
man resulted in the overhead expenses per ton of coal mined 
being decreased enormously. 

Gasoline locomotives were coming into use much more gener- 
ally, and under certain conditions gave good satisfaction. A non- 
gaseous mine could not have a much better system of haulage 
than the electric locomotive ; but to pull coal from an entry with 
an electric locomotive, and at the same time require the miners 
to use safety-lamps, was out of all reason. Either the safety- 
lamps were not necessary, or the electric locomotive should not 
be used. Spqrks from the trolley- wheel or from the motor would 
surely ignite methane if it were present. 

The U.S.A. Bureau of Mines had cited instances in their 



1915-lOlG ] DISCUSSIOX AMERICAX COAL-MINIXG METHODS. ISo 

Miners' Circidar ]Vo. 3, page 11, where a runaway trij) of cars 
knocked down a trolley- wire, short-circuiting' the ciurent, and at 
tlie same time raised a dense cloud of coal-dust which was ignited 
by the sparks from the trolley-wire, and caused a dust explosion. 

Much attention had of late jears been given to the prevention 
of coal-dust explosions in coal-mines in the United States. CarvS 
fitted with doors allowed much leakage of coal and coal-dust on 
to the entry, and this coal was ground by the cars into a fine and 
dangerous dust. Cars consisting of a solid box and no door were 
now being installed in many mines. They were emptied by 
means of rotary tipples, which turned the car upside down to 
dump out the coal. 

Mr. Dean had mentioned a case in Illinois where tlie miners' 
union allowed only a certain number of men to load coal behind 
a coal-cutting machine. It was only fair to the miners and 
operators that some explanation should be given as to this point. 
It was to the miner's advantage to have enough coal to load, so 
that he would lose no time, but could keep working steadily all 
the shift. Likewise, it was to the operators' advantage to have 
plenty of loaders, so that the coal-cutting machines could be kept 
bu.sy all the time. The miners, in order to protect themselves, 
must of necessity meet with the operators, and agree on the num- 
ber of loaders to a cutting machine which would be fair to both 
of them ; and if a coal-cutting machine having a larger capacity 
than those at present in use was installed, the agreement would 
be altered to suit the circumstances. 

Some of the mines in the Western States had been working 
very slack time (one day per week) last winter, but Avith their 
full force of men. This kept the mines in working condition at 
small expense to the companies. The miners timbered their rooms 
and cleaned up the rock at no expense to the company on the one 
day that they worked. The coal sent out of the mine was paid for 
through the companj-'s store in goods, on which the company re- 
ceived a profit. Theoretically this would make very cheap coal, 
but the salaries of the monthly men were continuing all the time, 
as well as unavoidable expenses, such as pumping, etc. This 
made the overhead expenses for the one day's work verj^ liigt? so 
that probably neither the miners nor the operators desired to see 
a repetition of such an experience. 



loG I'liANSACTlOXS TIIK .NOKTII OK KN(.I,AN1) LNSTITITE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

Mr. James Asiiwortii (\'aiicouver, British Columbia) wrote 
that the question as to which was the best size and form of mine- 
car or tub wavs a most important and interesting? one, especially 
when the outputs of various coal-mines were compared. Taking- 
a modern colliery, say, in the Nottinghamshire coalfield, and 
comparing it with many of the mines on the American Continent, 
it w^ould be found that the Nottinghamshire output was not 
deficient wdien it came to haulag'e costs. 

In the faulted and unevenly-deposited seams of coal in the 
Province of British Columbia large steel cars, holding, say, 2 
tons or more when loaded, caused a greater number of accidents 
to both horses and men than was the case with smaller and 
lighter cars. This referred particularly to those mines where 
the cars had to be taken up and down self-acting inclines. The 
large cars were, however, permissible w^here the coal was loaded 
out of shoots on a main haulage-road, and could be handled by 
mechanical traction, compressed air, or electric locomotives. 

A large car required a large road, and what might be possible 
in a mine 500 feet deep might be absolutely ruinous in a mine 
2,000 feet deep. The whole subject amounted to this : that the 
size and shape of a car must be made to suit the requirements of 
the mine, and not the mine made to suit the requirements of the 
car. 

The big- tonnage per'man produced by many coal-mines on the 
American Continent was certainly astonishing, and one of the 
explanations of this fact was ilhistrated in Mr. Dean's photo- 
g'raphs showing roadways in a mine without a stick of timber, 
and falls of coal the result of heavy blasting. 

Generally speaking, coal-mining operations on the American 
Continent were carried out under very much lighter cover than 
in Great Britain, and therefore the cost of the maintenance of a 
large road had not been appreciated or realized in the same way 
as it was in Great Britain. 

The writer agreed entirely with Mr. Dean that roller-bearings 
had effected an immense saving both in oiland in power, and he 
was also of the opinion that the more extended use of coal- 
cutting machines in America might be one of the best means of 
reducing the number of explosion disasters, the largest number 
of which were undoubtedly due to the use of very heavy charges, 
the too frequent blasting oif the solid, and to c-arelessness in the 
use of explosives. The latest explosions in Canada were nn- 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSION AMERICAN COAL-MINING METHODS. 137 

doubtedly due to recklessnes.s iu the use of explosive.s or 
detonators. 

Mr. George S. Brackett (Flemiugton. We.st Virginia) wrote 
that a niisconceptiou of some of the American metliods might be 
caused by Mr. Dean's remarks on the capacities of mine-cars, the 
gauges of the track, and the arc wall or turret type of mining 
machines. American practice in all industries experimented 
with extremes, only to return to moderation. As doubtle.ss other 
gentlemen would deal with other States, he would confine his 
remarks to West Virginian practice. West Virginia stood second 
as a coal-producer in the United States, exceeded only by 
Pennsylvania ; and its coal was mined from many beds under 
different mining conditions. The method of working was almost 
exclusively room-and-pillar. In the smaller seams the loaded 
mine-cars were pushed by the miner from the face to the room- 
switch. In the larger seams animals or gathering motors 
pulled the loads and placed the empties at the working-face. 
The room-track was laid by the miner as the place advanced, 
and was commonly insecure and defective, and this had its 
effect upon the most popular gauge and size of the mine-car. 

Derailments along the main haulage-roads, which were 
commonly in good condition, were quickly corrected by 
*' replacers," while derailments in the working-places, where 
they were more likely to occur, were diflBciilt to replace, on 
account of the absence of appliances ; in fact, the getting together 
of the necessary material took more time than the actual work. 
The heavier the loaded car was, the greater was the trouble; 
hence the tendency on the part of the majority of the operators to 
limit the size of the car. The commonest car held from 1^ to 
2 tons (gross). These sizes of car were not difficult to re-rail, con- 
sidering the short wheel-base. Granting the popularity of these 
smaller cars — and they were by far the most prevalent — the 
necessitj^ for wide gauges vanished, and the commonest gauge 
proved to be 36 or 42 inches. These sizes pertained to the 
large majority of mines, even though the thickness of the seam 
and the roof permitted of larger equipment. jS^aturally, the 
■equipment of the smaller coal-beds approached this car capacity 
as closely as the thickness would permit. 

There was another strong argument iu favour of the 36 or 42- 

TOL. LXVT.— I9I5-I9J6. 10 E 



138 THAXS.VCTIOXS THE NOinil Ol' KNCI.AM) IXSTITITK. [A'nllxvi. 

inch gauge: for the same radius of curvature the switch leiigtl» 
was shorter, with less s]Kire reijuircd uiisui)i)orte(l at the braucli- 
roads and room-necks; in phu'es of unusually bad roof (locally) 
the working-places could be driven narrower, and the track wa.s 
more flexible in pillar-work. The frequent occurrence of local 
f^rades made the excessively large car difficult to handle by animal 
power, and accidents and delays more frequent. 

The ultimate economy of the large car (over 3 tons) and 
standard-gauge track (56 J inches) was generally questioned by 
mining men ; and if popular opinion was of any value, the vast 
jjrevalence of the moderate equipment should imply its greater 
efficiency. Correspondingly, the Ki-jxiund steel track was com- 
moner upon all animal haulage-roads. 

The strong argument in favour of the large-sized mine-car 
was the greater percentage of coal in the gross weight and the 
greater efficiency in the haulage. The maximum efficiency on 
the main haulage-roads was not consistent with the maximum 
efficiency in the working-places ; the most economic was the happy 
mean, which was difficult to determine except by experiment. 
The size of the mine-car had its influence over the total daily 
tonnage loaded by the miner; he should be able to load the car 
furiously, resting between cars, and not wear himself out with 
too much uninterrupted exertion on one car. His experience had 
been that mines equipped with large cars did not produce as 
great a tonnage per miner as those mines that were equipped 
with a smaller car. The greater tonnage per man resulted in 
greater satisfaction among the miners. The smaller mine-car 
required a cheaper room-track. These points were of more value 
than efficiency (in the maximum) on the main haulage-roads. 

Of the mining machines in use in West Virginia, 62 per cent, 
were of the chain-breast type, the next most popular being the 
puncher type, followed by the shortwall machine. The short- 
wall machine was fast replacing the puncher, as they both 
worked in a small space between the face and the timber. He 
(Mr. Brackett) failed to see where the shortwall was replacing 
the chain-breast, except in mines where the rooms and working- 
places could be driven wider than 30 feet. For widths less than 
this, they were not as efficient as the chain-breast machine. The 
arcwall and turret cutters were being introduced, although the 
conditions under which they could be used were more restricted,. 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSION — A^rEKICA^- COAJ, -MIXING METHODS. 139 

and their cost higher, than in the ease of the eluiin-breast 
machine. 

The heavier and hirg-er mine-cars, the broader gauges, the 
new types of mining machines, the gasolene hauhige-motors. 
and tlie electric gathering motors of various types might be 
looked upon as experiments — not as indicating the future gen- 
eral practice. The most conservative operators clung to com- 
moner methods. The more complicated and expensive the 
mechanical equipment became, the greater would be the delays 
due to breakdowns, and a larger output would be curtailed by any 
single break ; consequently, the conditions would be less satis- 
factory to the force of employees. There was, in all things, an 
economic mean beyond which it was not policy to step, except 
to prove that the limit was reached. Many coal-miners pre- 
ferred pick or hand-mining to loading machine-cut coal, and it 
was readilj' seen that a pick-operated mine situated in the 
neighbourhood of machine-operated mines had some advantage 
over the latter in times of labour and railroad-car shortages. 
The pick-miner was less troubled with delays, as he could 
make surplus coal, and much of his time was spent in under- 
cutting. Although the price paid to the miner for pick-work 
coal was in excess of that paid for machine-cut coal, the relation 
of the overhead expense and the tonnage might offset this incre- 
ment. Some operators in West Virginia regretted or doubted 
the present policy of excessive machine equipment in contrast 
with the older pick-work basis and its better class of more skilled 
labour. The ultimate outcome was uncertain, but it would 
probably remain as it was now, namely, some of each class of 
equipment, so as to accommodate the various preferences and 
skill of the miners. Although the increase in the percentage of 
machine-cut coal was great when a period of 15 years was con- 
sidered, the contrast was not so vivid for the past few years, as 
would be seen from the following table: — 



Total niim 
of 
mines. 


ber 


Number 

using 
machinej. 


Per 

cent. 


Percentage 
of tonnage 
machine-cut. 


790 




498 


63 


48-84 


817 




424 


52 


51 13 


850 




469 


55 


53-97 



1911 

1912 

1913 

The increase wgs not so great as it would be if the circum- 
stances were decidedly in favour of the power-equipped mines. 



140 TRANSACTIONS THE NOKTII OV ENGLAND TXSTTTfTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

Both i)ifk and iiKU'liine-oiJeratcd mines had tlieii- ad\aiita}^e.s, 
and tli^ availability of labour was one worthy of consideration. 
He had endeavoured in an article in i\\e ColJicnj Engineer* 
to estimate the additional cost of operating the complete elec- 
trically-equipped mine over and above the pick-mine. The 
labour cost was higher in the former obviously. Under some 
existing rates of wages it was not an economy to use coal-cutting 
machinery, the only advantage being the better grade of lump- 
coal from the machine mines. This advantage was due only to 
the difficulty in securing a sufficient number of skilled pick 
miners. 

Mr. Benedict Shubart (Denver, Colorado) wrote that Mr. 
Dean's very interesting paper on American coal-mining methods 
was well worthy of thought and discussion. 

Beside the question of equipment, there were other factors, 
even more vital, that entered into the larger output per man in 
American mines. The United States was a young country, it 
had a most heterogeneous and growing population, its labour 
was of a changing character, and it had not become set in its 
ways, as was the case in England. Furthermore, there was an 
entire lack of caste that hindered a man from rising above the 
station in which he Avas born. On the contiary, every man was 
continually advised of the fact that he was as good a man as he 
could make himself, that he was entitled to the position and the 
benefits that his earnings could bring him, and that these were 
not in any way hindered by his birth or accident of position. 

This was not a glorification of American institutions, but he 
had seen so many men, imbued with this ambition, rise from 
the lowest positions to the highest. Almost every worker in the 
mine felt that a better position was within his reach, so that this 
was one of the greatest compelling forces in mining operations 
in the United States. 

In a few fields where the worst type of unionism was 
rampant, there was a lack of this energy, together with a 
diminution of output, and a curtailment of the amount of work 
possible with' machines — in general conditions such as ob- 
tained to a large extent in the English mines. On the other 

* "Comparative Costs of Operating," Colliery Eiujineer, 1915, vol. xxxvi. , 
page 132. 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSION AMERICAN COAL-MINING METHODS. 141 

linud, where the union recognized the pos.sibilities of advance- 
ment in their worker.s, tlie condition.s of large output and 
miniiiiuni cost.s prevailed. 

This had made possible the use of mining- machines. The 
use of mining machines to so large an extent had encouraged 
their improvement to a very high degree, and the energy and 
ambition of the miner had created a class of high-grade mining- 
machine operators who had the ability to handle machines 
economically and effectively. Xeedless to say, these men did 
not work upon a day-wage basis, but on contract at a given 
price per ton of coal, or per foot of face undercut. 

Unquestionably, the better wages paid in the mines, as 
compared with other industries, tended to attract a very good 
class of mechanics, who become machine-drivers or locomotive- 
drivers. The loading of coal by contract, as well as the cutting 
by contract, together with the pyschological effect of ambition, 
unquestionably spurred tlie men to greater effort and greater 
output. 

As an example of the feeling of the men towards a large 
output, he had repeatedly seen men leave the mine because they 
were obliged to wait for cars. The American miner, particularly 
the miner working on contract, would not permit a curtailment 
of liis output by reason of lack of cars ; and here unquestionably 
the American idea of large cars and few turns gave the miner a 
larger percentage of loading time, together with less wasted 
time, than was the case with the very small tubs in use in 
Britain. 

To say that pit-cars in America were all large would be 
untrue, except when a comparison was made between their size 
and those in use in Britain. In his opinion, it seemed that the 
size of the pit-car was almost in proportion to the capacity of 
the mine. A mine with a capacity of about 500 tons per working 
day would use a car of 3,000 to 4,000 pounds capacity; a mine of 
1,000 tons capacity would use a car of approximately 5,000 
pounds; and where an output of 1,800 to 3,000 tons was required, 
a car with a capacity of 6,000 to 7,000 pounds would usually be 
found. Of course, exceptions occurred, but these would not 
disturb the general rule. 

He did not at, all agree with Mr. Dean's enthusiastic cham- 
pionship of the roller-bearing mine-car wheel. Except in a 



142 THANSACTIONS THE NOKTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

lar«>(> mine, where the mechanical force was of hij^h wrade, 
tl»<^ roller-lx'aring wlieel was apt to be a failure. His own 
personal experience was for a railway type of truck, where 
round axles were used with one wheel fitted tig-ht, the other 
self-oiling and loose, and the axles rotating in a half-brass box 
fixed rigidly to the car. In the long run, tliis type of wheel 
would show very low maintenance cost, a vei-y low average 
friction, and very great dependability. 

With regard to the gauge of the tracks, standard gauge 
(56A inches) was awkward, except where the mine output was 
very large, and the mine laid out on a large scale with wide 
cui-ves. The average mine would do better with a gauge of 
approximately 42 inches, as this width lent itself well to 
capacity, and also permitted of the use of proper electric 
locomotives. Under American mining conditions, a gauge of 
less than this was apt to cramp the haulage capabilities. 

Deep undercutting was a recent development, and was, in 
his opinion, more or less of a caprice, although occasionally 
places were found where deep undercutting would be of ad- 
vantage. In general the rule that the undercut should not 
exceed the thickness of the coal was not a bad one to follow. 
There were grave mecKanical disadvantages in the use of a 
lOj-foot cutter-bar, and, unless the floor was perfectly level, 
the physical disadvantages w-ere obvious. 

Mining machines had been brought to a high state of 
strength and simplicity. The entire mechanism of the Good- 
man shortwall machine contained only five gears and five 
pinions. The use of heat-treated hardened-steel gears, a 
hardened-steel bushed cutting-chain, and extraordinary large 
motor capacity, all assisted in producing a machine that gave 
a minimum amount of trouble. 

At the mines of the Crystal Salt Company and the Inde- 
I>endent Salt Company, both at Kanopolis (Kansas), Goodman 
shortwall machines were undercutting rock-salt to a depth of 
5j feet, and winning an average of 120 feet of face per day. 
This was to his knowledge the hardest test to which a mining 
machine had yet been subjected. 

The Goodman straight-face and the Jeffrey arcwall 
machines would unquestionably cause more or less of a revolu- 
tion in mining methods. Their immense capacity (thirty 



1915-1916] DISCUSSIOX AMERICAN COAL-MIXIXG METHODS. 143 

places cut per 8 hours) showed cutting possibilities that were 
unthouglit of with the older types of inacliiiies. Here, again. 
recurred an incident in the writer's experience at Clear Creek, 
Utah, where, following a cut with a straisrht-face machine, 
the room was shot, loaded out, and recut in a period of six 
hours, three miners loading a total of -j-D tons from this room. 

As to the cost of mining machines, the chain-breast machine 
now sold for £250 ; the shortwall machine, either with a direct 
or with an alternating-current motor sold for £'}80 ; and the 
straight-face and arcwall type of machine cost about £700. 

He must take distinct exception to Mr. Dean's remarks con- 
cerning the lack of beauty of American surface jjlaiits. With- 
out question the past would supi)Oi't his criticism, but also 
unquestionably the future would disproye it. The tendency 
to-day was toward good housing, pleasant surroundings, and 
good treatment. Many of the mining towns started in the last 
ten years would form models for any industrial community, 
and more and more of the operatois were realizing the .value of 
pleasant environment. 

Mr. Carl Sciiolz (Chicago, Illinois) wrote that Mr. Dean 
had described in a very interesting manner American mining 
methods and equipment, but he could not agree with him in his 
statement that " the principal reason why the United States of 
America leads in production per man is because large-capacity 
mine-cars are used in American mines." He did not think that 
it would be any more difficult for a British mining engineer to 
adopt such cars, if he were ordered to do so, than it would be for 
an engineer in the United States to be compelled to use the 
British cars; indeed, he thought that the latter task would be 
the easier of the two. 

There were many reasons why men produced more coal in 
the United States per working day than in Europe, and he 
wished to enumerate a few which occurred to him ofp-hand : — 

(1) The veins m the United States were uniformly much 
thicker than in Europe. The large producing mines in Illinois 
and West Virginia had veins from 7 to 9 feet thick. 

(2) Xearly all the veins in the United States lay level, or 
with a sufficient dip for economical haulage operations. The 
major portion of the Continental coal lay in pitching veins, 
ranging from 10 degrees to almost vertical. 



144- TUANSACTIONS THE NOinil OK ENGLAND INSTITUTE. ["Vol. Ixvf. 

(8) The ininiuo' metliods on the Continent necessitated the 
complete extraction of the coal, which called for more labour 
and reduced the output per man. The labour required in fillinpr 
worked-out places in Germany and Belgium represented an ex- 
pense of about Is. (25 cents) per ton, which necessarily meant a 
material expenditure of labour. This was due mainly to the 
fact that tlie coalfields on the Continent were situated in thickly- 
populated districts, where the ])uilding"s on the surface must be 
protected against subsidence. This coiulition did not exist in 
the United States. The West Virginian fields, for instance, 
were situated entirely in mountainous country where the surface 
had no value whatsoever, except for grazing and as timber land, 
and the question of settlement, therefore, did not receive any 
consideration. 

(4) In Continental mines the work of mining coal was divided 
between tlie miner and the loader. The miner's entire time was 
devoted to getting the coal and timbering tlie face. The loader's 
time was given to filling the cars. Tin's condition undoubtedly 
led to more or less waste of time, but it was an apprentice 
system which had become an established custom. In the United 
States any man upon obtaining employment was permitted to go 
to the face, to mine and load the coal, and also to timber his 
working-place. The great difference in conditions made this 
practice possible. 

(5) Greater precautions were taken for the prevention of acci- 
dents and more foremen and supervisors were employed than 
in European mines as compared with American practice. In 
Europe there was a mine-foreman for every twenty or twenty- 
five miners ; in the United States there was one to every 100 
or 150 miners, depending upon the size of the mine. 

(6) The increased difficulties in mining coal from greater 
depths, the handling of large volumes of water, and the method 
of mining a number of different veins from the same shaft (a 
condition which was very common abroad), increased greatly 
the forces required against the simpler operations in the United 
States, where a great many drift-mines produced coal without 
the use of any mechanical power, where the mines were self- 
draining, and where cars were run by gravity from the working- 
face to the tipple. 

(7) The restrictions against shooting from the solid and fre- 



1915-1916 ] DISCUSSION AMERICAN COAL-MIXING METHODS. 145 

quently the entire elimination of explosives in coal-j?etting, as 
compared with the solid shooting- methods in the United States. 
Where powder performed the major portion of the work, this 
necessarily resulted in a greater production per man. 

From the above comparisons, it would seem that mine-cars 
had not so much to do with the increased production per man 
as the great difference in physical conditions. As a matter of 
fact, in longwall mines in the United States small cars and 
narrow gauges proved more successful than large cars, on 
account of the great cost of " brushing." Where the conditions 
more closely reseni])led those in Europe, owing to thinner veins 
or pitches (as was the rase in Missouri, Oklahoma, and 
Michigan), the tonnage per man was greatly reduced, and did 
not exceed very much that produced in Europe. 

It was undoubtedly true that very close supervision had made 
men more cautious, and, perhaps, less aggressive. That they 
were less daring and less willing to take chances was well 
reflected in the lower accident rate, and there was a tendency in 
the United States to work in this direction. There was no ques- 
tion that the " safety iirst " slogan tended to reduce the output 
per man, but also lessened the loss of life. The mine-operators 
and manufacturers in the United States together had been more 
active in the design and employment of labour-saving devices, 
chiefly undercutting machinery, a condition which was largely 
due to the relatively high rate of wages ; but the physical con- 
ditions had contributed their share towards making these tests 
more encouraging. 

While American practice had been in the direction of large 
output and heavy production per man, this practice had carried 
with it a large loss of coal in the ground. The Continental 
mines, on the other hand, took out all the coal that they could, 
and obtained results in directions which had not been aimed at 
generally in the United States — namely, the utilization of fine 
coals by destructive distillation, briquetting, and better prepara- 
tion by sizing and the removal of impurities — all of which called 
for more men and reduced the output for each employee. 

The low selling price of coal, furthermore, had not prompted 
economies in its use as a general proposition, as was the case in 
Europe. It was true that all the newer plants were designed 
and built with the view of greater economy ; but it appeared that 
the United States with its large agricultural interests in 1911 



146 'I'HAXSACTIOXS THE N()l{ I'll OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. fVol. Ixvi. 

<'onsume(l 454 tons per id pita. Germany, whicli was essentially 
a manufacturmg- nation, had, on the other hand, consumed only 
2'03 tons per capita ; and France only 1"44 tons. Jiist where the 
correct answer lay was a matter of speculation. 

Mr. George N. Lantz (New Straitsville, Ohio) wrote that 
the section of the paper which dealt with the size of mine-cars was 
of particular interest to American mining men at the present 
time, as a correspondent in Coal Age had recently suggested a 
change to the lighter and simpler car of former days. The 
correspondent's objection, however, was not founded on the 
capacity of the mine-car, but rather on its weight. 

It might be true in some cases that excess weight was 
carried. He was convinced, however, that in nearly all cases 
the use of larger and heavier cars was justified. The evolution 
of the American mine-car had been a natural process. From 
the time w'hen the coal-mining industry was new, and the 
bituminous mine in particular was regarded as " a hole in the 
ground with a hen-coop over it," to the present time when 
equipment must be installed for a large tonnage and easy 
preparation, capacity and weight had been added to mine-cars 
only when the need for a more serviceable car became apparent. 

Just as the railwa}' companies had been able to reduce the 
cost per ton-mile by the use of heavier equipment, so the mining 
companies had found it expedient to lay heavier track, instal 
more powerful locomotives, and stronger and larger cars, in 
order to move a larger tonnage in a shorter time with less power. 
Steel cars, or cars with thicker wooden sides and bottoms, had 
been installed, the greater initial cost and the greater weight 
being justified by less frequent repairs. Heavier binders had 
served to hold the car more rigidly, and to keep it to its proper 
shapej and, in the case of wooden cars, to prevent the machine- 
cuttings from spilling in the roadway. Heavier and thicker 
car-bumpers had prevented buckling, and had been the means 
of reducing the number of derailments on curves . Larger axles 
and heavier axle-binders had served to maintain proper align- 
ment, decreasing the cost of repairs, and requiring less power, 
by eliminating friction between the rails and the flange of the 
car-w^heel. It had been found easier for the loader to move 
by hand car-wheels of a large diameter than wheels of small 



1915-1916.] DlSCrssiOX AMERICAX COAL-MIXIXi; METHODS. 147 

diameter. Roller-bearing self-lubricating- wheels, while somewhat 
heavier than the simpler wheels, had justified their use. Cars 
equipped with such wheels had been known to start on a 
^-per-eent. grade. Engineers tests had shown them to be so 
wonomical as to save a half in power consumption. 

In general the larger cars in use throughout America had 
proved their value directly. They had also an indirect value in 
the saving that might be effected in labour. Larger cars were 
as easily moved by hand under proper conditions as smaller cars. 
A motorman and trip-rider could haul much more coal at the 
same labour cost by the use of larger cars and larger loco- 
motives. On the tipple the same force that would be needed 
for small cars could dump the larger cars. Obvioush-, in a 
tipple equipped to handle entire trips at a time, the machinery 
would manipulate a large tonnage as easily as a small tonnage. 
In the less pretentious tipples, where dumping was done by 
hand, a dumper could dump a hundred cars containing three tons 
each in the time it would take him to dump a liundred cars 
containing 1^^ tons each, thus doubling his productiveness at the 
same labour cost. Part of this saving would necessarily be added 
to a slightly increased cost of labour for trimming and cleaning 
the coal, but the entire transaction would show a lower cost per 
ton. 

The loader was able to produce a higher tonnage by the use 
of larger cars, as he would spend less time in waiting for cars, 
changing cars, and cribbing his car. In general, the size of the 
car was limited only by the abilitj' of the loader, and by the 
natural conditions of the mine. The cars must not be too high 
or too long, or the loader would not be able to load easily. The 
width of the entry or the length of the car would limit the 
width. The height of the vein did not always limit the height 
of the car. 

English visitors in America were probably more familiar 
with the higher veins than with the low coal that abounded in 
some districts, but it had been found in many instances that 
taking up bottom, or taking down top, to permit of the entrance 
of a larger car, reduced the cost of mining per ton. 

There might be changes in the construction of the mine-car 
in America : there might be changes in type, or slight changes 
in the various makes so as to conform to a certain standard ; but 
the large-capacity mine-car had come to stay. 



148 TRANSACTIONS THE NOKTII OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. | Vol. Ixvi. 

Prof. George J. Young (University of Minnesota, Minne- 
apolis) wrote that the paper was an excellent presentation of 
modern mechanical equipment used in the coal-mines of the 
United States of America. The title of the paper was somewhat 
misleading, since it covered the mechanical appliances used in 
breaking", undercutting, transportation, etc. The term "mining 
method " was generally used in a broader sense — the lay-out of 
the mine, the system of mining, the support of the ground, and 
the underground mechanical equipment. The mining methods 
in common use were so well understood that tlieir omission from 
the paper would not be taken as a serious objection. 

Mr. Afdley Hart Stow (Pocahontas) wrote that he had read 
Mr. Dean's paper with much interest. The impression left was 
that the subject had been covered clearly, yet concisely. Only 
one criticism occurred to the writer. 

Unquestionably, the general tendency in modern coal-mining 
was to adopt railroad standards in so far as was practical. The 
result of this had been a marked improvement in several respects. 
However, in regard to the gauge of the track, it was doubted 
whether the standard railroad gauge of 56i inches would ever 
become popular. The, statements in this connexion, as given by 
Mr. Dean, were correct. It was only the impression gained in 
this connexion from reading the paper to which exception was 
taken. The writer happened to be familiar with this phase of 
the subject in the district under consideration. 

The wide gauge unquestionably had certain advantages, and 
also a few advocates; it, however, unfortunately also had certain 
disadvantages, which were not altogether trivial nor to be lightly 
disregarded. Its advocates were thought to be largely in the 
minority as the extensive developments of the present day were 
practically all adapted to the narrow gauges. With regard to 
gauge, it was believed that the railway standard would never be 
generally adopted. In all probability 48 inches would be the 
maximum. 



1915-1916] DISCUSSION-AMEKICAX COAL-.IININC. MKTUODS. l49 



THE KORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE OF MINING AND 
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



GENERAL MEETING, 

Held in the Wood Memorial Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 

February r2TH, 1916. 



Mr. T. Y. greener, Prksiuent, in the Chair. 

The Secretary read tlie minutes of the last General Meeting, 
and reported the proceedings of the Council at their meetings 
on January 29th and that day. 

The following gentlemen were elected, having been pre- 
viously nominated: — 

Mr. YASUKurTuTruBAYASHi, CoUierv Manager, Daixnyokoji, Karatsun.achi, 

Sagaken, Japan. Kr^crineer The Maikop Pipeline 

Mr. John Clark Templeton, Mechanical Kngmeer, Ihe ■ P ^ 

& Transport Company, Limited, Apsheron sk ay a, near Maikop, Kuban 

District, South Russia. 
M, „...rB:™r.:Fo...-over..„, 41. Wes.co.. Ko,d, T,..e .oC. BO., 
M. j'hTcSm:":; come., «„.«>.» >„„ a,*..,. 0™„,„,„ 35. Sutio,, 

Colliery, South Sluelds. 

DISCUSSION OF MR. ^^^^^^^, ^^^, ^^^^HOD^ 
-MODERN AMERICAN COAL-MINI>G MEIHODS, 

WITH SOME COMPARISONS. •* 

Mr S.MUEL Dean (Delagua, Colorado) wrote that it was n 

pleasure to him to find that his paper had been discuss.d by so 

' Trans. InsL M. E., 1915, vol. 1., pages 179 and 3SS. 

HE 

YOL. LXTI.-1815-1916. 



150 TUAXSACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi 

hiifi'e a liumher of mining men in diii'erent countries, and he 
liojx'd that what might he now called the " pit-car controversy " 
would not he allowed to die. 

Mr. E. W. Parker and others disagreed with his statement 
that the princi})al reason why the United States of America led 
in jnoduction i)er man lay in, the size of mine-cai\s used, and 
gave the credit to the employment of mechanical coal-cutters. 
He (Mr. Dean) claimed that even if there were not a single coal- 
cutter in use in the mines, America would still lead in output 
per man, and when the members had read his remarks they 
would understand why he made this statement. He agreed, 
however, that the extensive use of mechanical coal-cutters was 
one of the reasons why the United States was so far in the lead 
in that direction. 

He wished particularly to direct attention to the remarks of 
Mr. Alfred J. Tonge, who was formerly a well-known English 
colliery manager. Mr. Tonge stated that there was need for 
serious reflection on the part of British colliery engineers as to 
how far they could go towards increasing the mine-car capacity, 
the improvement of rolling-stock, the permanent way, and the 
haulage facilities underground. One saw improvements in the 
surface equipment at Br-itish collieries, and recognized many 
Continental features. At a neM- colliery — say, Horden, on the 
south-east coast of Durham — thanks to German draughtsmen, 
there was a modern-looking heapstead building; but the under- 
ground methods were not much in advance of those of 30 years 
ago. These underground problems should not be allowed to rest 
until they had been threshed out and solved, and, naturally, after 
that improvements would continue indefinitely. 

Mr. Tonge stated that the use of electric locomotives would not 
be considered likely in British mines, without giving his reason 
for this opinion ; but the writer failed to see why that should be 
so. Such locomotives could be employed with comparative safety 
in all mines w'here open lights were used in the roadways, and 
there were open-light mines in Great Britain. Trolley-locomo- 
tives also would be permissible in all mines where other than 
permitted explosives were used for blasting purposes. It was a 
simple matter to treat haulage-roads with stone-dust, so as to 
prevent explosions of coal-dust through short-circuiting or from 
the arcing of trolley-wires This matter was dealt with in the 



1915-1916.] DlSCrSSIOX AMERICAX C()AL-MI.\I\(; METHODS. 151' 

discussion of a previous paper.* In mines giving oft' large quan- 
tities of gas nuieli could he done by increasing the height on the- 
secondary roads, and by employing' three to six-horse or mule- 
teams (six mules in a team), driven at top speed, and pulling- 
fairly long trains of large tubs, with roller-bearing wheels over 
heavy rails. The leading mule would carry a permitted " bulls- 
eye " electric lamp on the collar, which would resemble a minia- 
ture searchlight; or the compressed-air locomotive could be used. 
This was not a terrible machine to have in a mine, and any aver- 
sion to its use vanished on closer acquaintance. If subsidiary 
rope haulage on secondary roads were preferred, the mule teams 
could be employed on such roads during periods preceding the 
installation of the rope-haulage. Single mules could be used be- 
tween the furthest iu-bye partings and the faces. A mule could 
" rough it" better than a horse underground; his "mine life " 
was longer ; he knew M'hen he was overloaded ; and sometimes dis- 
played a nearly human sense of danger. 

It was doubtful whether endless-rope haidage was as efficient 
as it was stated to be. It was slow, and required a " little army " 
of men and boys to attend to it. In his opinion main-rope or 
main-and-tail-rope haulage, pulling up main down-brow or dip 
haulage-roads, with traction haulage on the levels, would beat it. 

Mr. Tonge had spoken of the amount of brushing which would 
be necessary in British mines, and at first the brushing of both 
the top and the bottom in thin seams in America had appeared to 
him (Mr. Dean) to be an unnecessary expense ; but he knew now 
that it was the proper course to follow, and that it "paid." 
Where new seams were being opened up, and face-conveyors 
employed, it would be madness not to use tubs of large capacitJ^ 

Different writers had drawn comparisons between " large " 
and " small " cars without stating the respective capacities of the 
cars, and he wished to explain that when an American spoke of a 
" small " car, he meant a car of from 1 to 2 tons capacity. 
From a British point of view a 2-ton car would be a large one. 

Mr. W. E. AVilson had covered the ground in a very intelli- 
gent manner. He had drawn a moving picture of a man loading 
two tons of coal in a mine when 10-cwt. tubs Avere used. That man- 
would fill his first tub, and would then wait until it had beeit 

* Trans. Inst. M. E., 1913, vol. xlvi., page 387 ; and vol. xlvii., page 136. 



152 TRANSACTIONS — THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

removed and replaced by an empty tub, or he would remove it 
himself and return with an empty one. He would repeat this 
operation four times, and each period of waiting or tramming 
would doubtless be of longer duration than the time required to 
fill the tub. On the other hand, if he received a 2-ton tub and 
filled that in the time required to fill two 10-cwt. tubs, including 
the periods of waiting or tramming, which was quite likely, it 
was at once apparent that his output would be doubled, and that 
only half the number of men would be required at the face to 
produce the same quantity of coal. A .similar picture could be 
drawn all the way from the face to the shaft-bottom. When a 
putter, drawer, trammer, or driver took a 10-cwt. tub from the 
flat, shunt, siding, or parting, he travelled a certain distance to 
the coal-face and back, returning with half-a-ton of coal. If he 
had taken a 2-ton tub, he would have covered the ground in the 
same period of time, but would have returned with 2 tons of 
coal. In handling the tubs between the furthest in-bye parting 
and the shaft similar comparisons held good, and the number of 
haulage hands could be reduced at least 50 per cent, and yet deal 
with the same quantity of coal. 

There was little difficulty in dealing with large tubs in deep 
shafts : they had been in use in the deep mines of South Wales 
for over half a century, as Mr. W. H. Eoutledge had pointed 
out; but it was difficult to induce the miners there to fill them to 
their fullest capacity, and on account of super-unionism the 
advantages of large cars had not been allowed to become known. 
In the United States over 35 per cent, of the bituminous output 
came from shaft mines where large cars were used. 

Mr. G. S. Brackett spoke of the characteristic which went to 
extremes, and Mr. I. C. Parfitt had certainly gone to an extreme 
in his contribution to the discussion. He had painted life in the 
mining camps in very drab colours, yet it was true that many 
companies were building .superior houses for their employees, and 
others were improving existing conditions ; but about these 
improvements and the brighter side of the picture Mr. Parfitt 
was silent. That there was plenty of room for improvement he 
(Mr. Dean) would not deny, but Mr. Parfitt, having gone so far, 
might have explained the political system which permitted any- 
one to go into the " coal-mining business," and, in an effort to 
get rich quickly, to throw up a number of wooden ' ' shacks " or 



1915-1916.] DISCrsSlOX — AMKKICAX C(JAL-M1XINC; MKTIIODS. 163 

huts, and employ a butclier or a l)aker as superintendent or 
manager of the " mine." In a previous paper* he (Mr. Dean) 
had described and illustrated a modern mining village at 
Marianna, Pennsylvania. 

The writer j\ould now deal with the remarks of Mr. H. W. G. 
Halbaum, who had stated that the supposed superiority of the 
American miner sank to zero or became a minus quantity in thin 
seams, and that the general output of the British filler was 11 to 
13 tons per sliift in 3-foot seams. He (Mr. Dean) was delighted 
to hear this, but he was probably correct in assuming that these 
fillers did nothing but fill ; they did no datalling, and many 
things that they might do for themselves were done for tlieni by 
others. He (Mr. Dean) had not forgotten what he had to do for 
them. After serving his apprenticeship with a firm of mining 
engineers, he had secured employment as a dataller at some 
Lancashire collieries. As the colliers advanced, it was part of 
his duty to follow and take up " bottom " for them (the local 
mine term was "warrant"), and they made him carry props, 
etc., for them. lie had long ago forgiven them for this, but, as 
conditions were to-day, they might do much of this work them- 
selves, say, while waiting for empties, and at other times. Later 
on, he found that in the county of Durham the hewers had to 
employ deputies even to set their props for them. He mentioned 
these matters so that Mr. Halbaum might know that he had a 
little knowledge of coal-mining methods on both sides of the 
Atlantic. If the conditions were the same to-day — and he did 
not suppose that they had changed — his suggestion was that the 
staffs of datallers or shifters might be cut down, and that some of 
ihem might be sent to the coal-face. The services of so many in 
these departments were not at all necessary, and, if his sugges- 
tions were adopted, the national output would be raised. That 
tliis was possible was shown by tlie fact that one man alone was 
capable of loading 25 tons in an 8-hour bank-to-bank shift. Mr. 
Halbaum used the term " county average," and it occurred to 
him (Mr. Dean) when he read of the filler who loaded 25 tons (and 
it was assumed that he was not loading on to a conveyor) that Mr. 
Halbaum had omitted to relate the conversation which this man 
had with the clieckweighman on the following day. It was very 

* " Coal-mining in the State of Pennsylvania, United States of America," 
Trana. Init. M. E., 1914, vol. xlviii., page 367. 



154 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [^"^ol. Ixvi. 

likely that Ww filler would be told tluit he had done something 
which was contrary to " comity custom." 

Mr. Halbaum knew, of course, the significaDce of these terms, 
" county custom," or " local custom," and that the reason why 
10-cwt. tubs were used was partly to be sought in local custom. 
But did he know, when he spoke of high outputs per man at the 
face in thin seams, as high as or higher than the production per 
man in American 6-foot seams, that, instead of bolstering up the 
case for the 10-cwt. tub, he had simply ruined it? If the output 
at the face was so high, why was it that the output, for all men 
employed, was so low? It showed that thousands of men and 
boys were required to move those small tubs, backwards and for- 
wards, between the coal-face and the pit-bottom, where, if tubs 
of larger capacity were used, hundreds could do the work and 
send the same quantity of coal to the surface. 

Mr. Halbaum could imagine — and Mr. Carl Scholz also — how 
many " sea tubs " and men would be required, and how much 
time would be occupied, to move the live and dead " freight" 
across the Atlantic, in normal times, if cockle-boats were used 
instead of " Aquitanias " and " Olympics." 

Mr. Scholz had made some interesting comparisons between 
the conditions prevalent in Germany and those in America, and 
had stated that it would be easier to adopt British cars in America 
than vice veisa. There was no doubt about that : there would be 
ample room for 10-cwt. tubs in American mines, but Mr. W. R. 
Peck had explained what the result would be. 

Mr. Scholz's mines were situated in Illinois, Indiana, and 
Oklahoma, where the United Mine AYorkers Association of 
America was in control, and the coal was shot from the solid 
with black powder — a reprehensible practice. In Oklahoma it 
was difficult to obtain shot-firers at 20s. a day for a few hours' 
work. He (the shot-firer) was like a man going down into the 
jaws of hell when he entered the mine to touch off the heavy 
charges after the other employees had gone home. At some 
Oklahoma mines all the shots were coupled up to electric wires, 
which were carried to the outside, and when the switch was 
thrown in they' a 11 went off together in the whole of the mine, like 
the simultaneous firing of massed batteries of field guns. Every- 
one was out of the mine when this took place, but the outside 
world did not know how many dust explosions and fires occurred. 



1915-1916.] DlSCrSSIOX AMERICAN COAL-MIXIXG METHODS. 155 

In the State of Colorado — to make another comparison — 
where the United Mine Workers Association was not recognized, 
nothing l)iit permissible explosives were allowed in the open-light 
coking-coal mines, and the coal nnist be undermined to a greater 
depth than the shot-hole. 

Mr. Scholz had given a number of reasons why the output per 
man was higher in America than Europe. But he (Mr. Dean) 
was prepared to prove that, taking seams of similar thickness 
worked on the room-and-pillar or pillar-and-stall sj'stem, includ- 
ing only men employed in mining and filling and haulage work, 
America was in front of any other country, and the reason for 
this lay in the size of the mine-cars used. 

Eeferring to the 6-foot seam, which the writ-er spoke of and 
by which he stated that an average output of 10 tons per man 
could be kept up easily if the men received a regular supply of 
empties, it might be of interest to add that the machine cut out 
5 inches of slate, but there were three other bands of slate in the 
seam, and this slate was picked out by the fillers before they 
loaded the coal. This work took up a great deal of their time. 
Few of the fillers were what could be called "skilled " miners, 
and they were made up of the following nationalities : — 

Per cent. 
Austrians ... ... ... ... ... ... '2 



Italians ... 
Greeks ... 
Bulgarians 
Japanese 
Mexicans 



18 
22 
10 
8 
.30 



In addition to cleaning the coal and loading it, they 
systematically cross-barred and timbered their working-places 
according to the State law, laid their own track, drilled their 
own shot-holes, and removed any roof slate which fell at the 
face. They worked 8 hours, and' their earnings averaged 
13s. 6d. per shift, although some of the men averaged 20s. (4-80 
dollars) a shift. The earnings of some of the Mexicans often 
fell to 10s., because at the slightest opportunity a native of that 
country south of the Eio Grrande would stop to roll and smoke a 
cigarette in an open-light mine. He was also fond of visiting if 
other men of his nationality were employed near him, and was a 
philosopher in a way, because he always looked to the future 
(manana). 



156 THAXSACTIONS — THE XORTII OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

Mr. Halbaiuu had surmised that he (Mr. Dean) would not 
wehome a comparison of tlie results of British maoliine-mining 
with those of American machine and hand-work, but he was mis- 
taken. Such a comparison would probably convert even Mr. 
Halbaum, and it was invited — showing outputs for all men 
employed. It would be interesting to see how the work of the 
ignorant agricultural emigrant from Eastern and Southern 
Europe compared with that of the " practical " miner now in the 
bondage of trade unionism. 

He agreed, to use Mr. Halbaum's words, that safety was an 
essential condition of modernity, and the modern mining man 
in America realized that; but each State had its own mining 
law, and no two were alike. In addition, the State Mine In- 
spector was placed in office by the politician : the two worked 
hand in hand, and the high death-rate in American mines was a 
monument to that "combination." However, conditions were 
slowly changing for the better, and the future would see a much 
lower accident-rate. But large cars and locomotives were not 
the cause of numerous fatalities. Locomotives were used in 
Westphalia, and big trams in South "Wales, and the accident- 
rates were not unduly liigh in those two coalfields. He could 
say, after Si years" experience in American mines, that the dan- 
gers of electricity were much exaggerated by labour politicians 
in Great Britain. There were hundreds of miles of mine road- 
ways in America containing bare and insulated conductors, the 
bare wires being from 4 to 6 feet above the rail. One unaccus- 
tomed to sucli conditions would imagine tliat the roadways were 
exceptionally dangerous ; but it was remarkable how quickly 
even a " greenhorn " learned that he must keep away from bare 
live wires. And, where the voltage was not over 250, men wear- 
ing ordinary cotton gloves frequently handled such wires. 

In looking over the /^ejso;'^ of the Committee upon Mechanical 
Coal-cutting, published by The North of England Institute of 
Mining and Mechanical Engineers, and the Yellow Book No. 7, 
issued by Messrs. Mavor & Coulson, Limited, of Glasgow, he was 
sorry to find that tlie figures given did not compare very favour- 
ably with Mr., Halbaum's 11 to 13 tons at the face in 3-foot 
seams. The following particulars were taken from the Report 
of tlie Committee upon Mechanical Coal-cutting : — 



\ 



1915-1916.] 



DISCrSSlOX AMERICAN COAL-MINING METHODS. 



157 



Pages. 


District. 


Thickness of 
Seam. 


Output per man 
at face. 


Output per man 
at face. 






Machine-holing. 


Hand-holing. 






Ft. Ins. 


Tons. 


Tods. 


34-35 


Scotland 


3 2 


5 


— 


34-35 


Lancashire 


4 6 


4 


3 


34-35 


Yorkshire 


5 5i 


5-25 


3-75 


34-35 


Lancashire 


3 6 


3-15 


1-87 


38-39 


Derbyshire 


6 6 


4-5 


3 


40-41 


Warwickshire 


5 6 


4 


2 


40-41 


Yorkshire ... 


4 4 


36 


3 


40-41 


Staffordshire 


4 


7-5 


2-5 



The following figures were from Messrs. Mavor & Coiilsou's 
Yellow Booh No. 7, and related to machine-mining: — 



Page. 


Thickness of Seam. 


Output. 


47 
54 
66 
75* 

78t 
89 


Ft. Ins. 

3 6 

5 2 
5 2 
1 9 
1 6i 

4 3 


Output to haulage per man per shift, 3 "7 tons. 
Coal filled per filler, 5 tons. 
Output to haulage per man per shift, oh tons. 
Coal filled per filler, 4 tons. 

,, ,, ,, 8 to 9 tons. 

,, ,, ,, 4 tons. 



A Belgian colliery. 



j A Continental colliery. 



Mr. Halbaiim had criticized what he cou.sidered the iuefii- 
ciency of machine-mining in America, and had spoken of 
machines " eating their heads olf," and of methods which would 
cause the bankruptcy of British collieries. It was not necessary to 
explain to members possessed of a liberal knowledge of machine- 
mining that the time consumed in flitting (room-and-pillar 
work), unloading and loading the machine, pulling up to and 
back from the face, oiling, changing bits, clearing small falls, 
removing and resetting props, etc. (a dataller was not provided 
to do this work), was much in excess of that required to cut 
across the places. When the machines were actually cutting, 
the speeds per minute were those stated in the tables. The lineal 
cuts per shift were not by any means record figures, and, if 
they were below British averages, he (Mr. Dean) was glad to 
know it. Comparisons were not odious : this was a platitude 
often used by persons who did not understand its meaning. A 
comparison was of practical utility : it served to ascertain the 
true relation of objects. Odious signified hateful, and he felt 
sure that hate did not exist in the minds of the writer of the 
paper or of the gentlemen who had taken part in the discus.siou. 



158 TRANSACTIONS — ^TIIE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTK. [Vol. Ixvi. 

On the contrary, the desire was to aid and assist. A man could 
only gain from the experience of others by making- comparisons. 

The writer wished to thank heartily all the gentlemen who 
had taken part in the discussion. His object in writing the 
paper was not to make comparisons unfavourable to Great 
Britain; he had something- much larger in view, and he 
appealed to young- British mining men, when they went abroad 
to India, China, South xVmerica, Africa, and other countries, 
not to take their 10-cwt. tubs and narrow gauges with them. 

Just as the timid men of to-day eclipsed the still more timid 
men of 30 years ago, so would the men of to-day be eclipsed in 
their turn by their bolder sons, who would presently increase 
output and profits by the simple means of doing all the " inept " 
and " unpractical " things which their fathers labelled im- 
possible. The fruits then reaped would justify the comparisons 
that were now being made. 

Mr. Simon Tate (Trimdon Grange) wrote that the members 
were much indebted to Mr. Dean for his very interesting and 
instructive paper. In offering the following observations, he 
would like it to be understood that lie did< so, not in a spirit of 
captious criticism, but for the purpose of stimulating a full and 
exhaustive discussion, to elicit further information, and to ascer- 
tain whether it were possible to adopt all or any of the sugges- 
tions set forth in the paper, with the view of improving the output 
of British collieries, the production of the workmen engaged 
therein, and of lessening the cost of working. 

The subjects dealt with by Mr. Dean were familiar to all 
the members, and the question of reducing the cost of working- 
coal was one that was daily before every colliery manager, 
engineer, and agent. It was one of the principal ideas set forth 
in the Inaugural Address of the first President of the Institute 
at the first meeting, when he stated that one of the purposes of 
the Institute was that of advancement in the science of mining 
and the economical working of coal. Personally, he considered 
that this was the main object which ought ever to be before the 
eyes of mining engineers, especially those who were members of 
this Institute. 

The writer of the paper had adduced statistics to prove that 
the American methods of producing coal were more efficient in 



1915-1916.] DISCUS810X AMERICAN COAL-MIXIXG METHODS. 



159 



obtaining a large output per man than were the methods adopted 
in other countries. When he stated that the annual output per 
man employed in the bituminous mines of the United States 
had been raised in 23 years from 579 to 837 tons, equal to an 
increase of 44 per cent., the result was so startling that British 
mining men were bound to investigate the reasons, and to 
ascertain whether it was possible for them to adopt such of the 
American methods as were applicable to the conditions prevail- 
ing in British mines. Mr. Dean had given altogether four 
principal reasons for their success, namely : — 

(1) The use of large-sized mine-cars, rendered possible by the 
adoption of loose wheels and axles. 

(2) The use of coal-mining machines, generally electrically 
driven . 

(3) The use of electric and comp.ressed-air locomotives for 
underground haulage. 

(4) The provision of strong, heavy underground railroads, 
properly engineered, correctly aligned and graded, well and sub- 
stantially laid throughout. 

(1) Mr. Dean gave it as his mature opinion that the principal 
reason why the United States was so far ahead in the output 
per mail was due to the use of large-capacity mine-cars. This 
was an important assertion, probably the most important in the 
whole of his paper. 

Probably no one would question the correctness of the theory 
that it was advisable that the capacity of the vehicle used for 
carrying coal or similar material should be as large as practicable, 
and that the net weight of such a vehicle should be as small as 
possible, compatible with sufficient strength to stand wear and 
tear : for, all other factors being equal, the greater the difference 
was between the load carried and the tare of the vehicle, the 
greater would be the useful effect obtained. 

It appeared to him (Mr. Tate) that the benefit of using large 
cars was cumulative, for every time that the car, whether laden 
or otherwise, was moved by man, horse, or mechanical means, a 
proportionate gain accrued. 

He was strongly of opinion that in the Xorth of England 
tubs of too small a capacity were often used, and that in many 
cases larger tubs, following somewhat American ideas, would be 
an advantage. If the American car carrying 4 tons was com- 



160 TRANSACTIONS — THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. ["Vol, Ixvi. 

pared with the English tub carrying 10 cwts., it woulcl be found 
that for tlie same load of 4 tons the following result would be 
obtained : — 



1 American Car. 

Pounds. 
Weight of one empt}' car ... 3,000 

Load of 4 tons carried ... ... 8,960 



Total weight of one loaded car 1 1,960 



8 Engltsh Tcbs. 

Pounds. 
Weight of eight empty tubs 

(6 cwts. each) ... ... 5,376 

Lovd of 10 cwts. per tub ... 8,960 



Total weight of eight loaded tubs 14,336 



This was equal to 20 per cent, less weight to draw on the full 
tub, and 79 per cent, on the empty tub, every time that the tub 
had to be forcibly moved, and further, each time that the large 
car was in service it was eight times as effective as one 10-cwt. 
tub. 

In Xorthumberland and Durham the weight of coal carried 
in a tub was not quite as 2 to 1 ; in fact, sometimes with very 
small tubs it was as low as 1| to 1. In America with the big 
tubs it was as 3 to 1, which was 50 per cent, better than British 
ordinary practice. 

Moreover, there was in the one case only the friction of four 
large-sized wheels to overcome, as against thirty-two small 
wheels in the other case r and, taking into consideration the fact 
that the one had roller-bearings with a minimum amount of fric- 
tion, and that in the other there were thirty-two wheels with 
bearings generally of a very crude character, the difference in 
favour of the larger tub must be enormous. 

In the case of a train of twenty of these tubs, which would 
be equal to a train of 160 of the British small tubs, the drawing 
power required to haul the train would probably not be more 
than half that required to haul the train of small tubs. 

Mr. Dean had mentioned especially the advantage of the 
large tub in keeping the fillers fully employed, and had stated 
that these men filled about 15 tons per shift of 8 hours. AVhilst 
not wishing to belittle this statement, he (Mr. Tate) would like to 
mention that he had, during the last 30 years, some putters and 
fillers filling and putting, from a seam averaging 2 feet 3 inches 
thick, 10 to 12 tons per shift, using small tubs of a capacity of 
7| cwts., and putting the tubs an average distance of about 70 
to 80 yards. This arrangement of labour had the following 
advantages: — {a) constant employment; (h) change of work 



1915-1916] DISCrSSlOX AMERICAX COAL-MIXIXO METIIOD> 



ICl 



almost equal to a rest ; and (c) no waste of labour iu changin.!^ 
" led " tubs. The putter in most cases could reach the flat sooner 
than he could change the tub, for it must be remembered that 
every time that a putter changed a tub he travelled the distance 
between tlie siding and the face four times — twice with a tub 
and twice without one; in fact, all his exertions in changing the 
tub were directly and positively wasteful. 

This system of filling and putting was, in his opinion, better 
than keeping a filler coustantlj- employed at the face at one class 
of work, because the work was not so monotonous, the filler had 
a necessary change of work and position, and, instead of sitting 
down to rest, he received to some extent the rest that he needed 
by the change of labour ; if ordinary care were taken to main- 
tain a supply of tubs, the work of the putters and fillers was 
practically continuous from start to finish of the shift. He (Mr. 
Tate) considered that it was bad practice to have a long distance 
between the flat and the face. 

When Mr. Dean gave it as his deliberate opinion that the 
large increase in the output per person employed in American 
mines was principally due to the adoption of tubs carrying 4 tons 
of coal, he (Mr. Tate) was somewhat sceptical. He could realize 
that in thick seams or in longwall working, where conveyors 
were in use under suitable conditions as to the inclination of the 
seam, etc.. such tubs could be favourably used : but lie could not 
imagine such manifold results as did Mr. Dean. For, after all, it 
was principally a question of getting a hewer's or a filler's work 
out, and if he was supplied with an unlimited number of 10-cwt. 
tubs, this was equal to (or better than) being supplied with a full 
quantity of 4-ton tubs. In British seams and under British con- 
ditions, one could never hope to approach tubs of a capacity of 
4 tons. 

He thouglit that if he had to lay out a new pit he would 
certainly endeavour to adopt to some extent the American idea 
of providing a considerably larger tub than was generally used 
in Britain. He had no doubt that a tub built on the American 
principle, to carry 15 or 20 cwts.. with loose wheels and roller- 
bearings, would be as light and as easy to move as the present 
ordinary tubs, and would travel in less height and therefore save 
making height. 

He need hardlv sav that the larger size of American car could 



102 TRANSACTIONS — THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

not readily be adojjted at tlie old collieries ; in fact, in order to get 
room in a shaft for two cages sufficiently large for some of tlio 
cars, a circular sliaft 22 feet in diameter would be required. Sucli 
a change might possibly be effected in some of the shallow pits, 
but in deep pits it would be too great an undertaking. 

(2) The writer had mentioned the extensive use of coal- 
cutting machines, and here he (Mr. Tate) thought that he was on 
safe ground, because in these days of restricted physical effort 
he believed that mechanical coal-cutfers were absolutely essen- 
tial wherever the work of coal-getting at the face was at all 
laborious. It mattered not whether the seam was thick or thin, 
holing by manual labour in strong material was fast becoming 
impracticable. 

In this country the passing of the Minimum Wage Act had 
been the death-knell to strenuous coal-hewing, the great 
majority of coal-hewers preferring to earn the minimum stan- 
dard wage on easy terms to earning a moderately good wage for 
which they had to work laboriously ; and in future it would be 
necessary that the coal-getting must be made easy work, either 
by altering the method or the system of work, or by installing 
machinery to do the strenuous part of the coal-hewer's duty. 

American mining engineers seemed to be far ahead of their 
British brethren in machine-mining. Mr. Dean had stated that 
one electrically-driven Arcwall machine had cut in one shift of 
10 hours twenty rooms each 20 feet wide with a depth of holing 
of 7 feet. This was equal to an area of 311 square yards, and 
with a seam, say, 3 feet thick, one machine would yield about 
220 to 250 tons of coal. It seemed more like a fairy tale than 
honest coal-mining, and yet the statement was further verified 
by the number of fillers allotted to each machine. Surely, with 
such facts before them, it was time for British mining engineers 
to alter their ways and methods. 

The North of England was the home of bord-and-pillar 
working, which system seemed particularly adapted to the 
American method with machines, and in " whole-mine " work- 
ing it would be possible in many cases to use electricity with 
perfect immunity from danger, whereas in longwall working in 
the same seam it might be considered highly risky. 

At the present time, owing to the scarcity of hewers and 
stonemen, it was of vital importance that strong efforts should 



I 



1915-1916.] DlSCrSSIOX AMERICAN CUAL-MIXIX(; METHODS. 1C3 

be made to use macliines wlierever possible, in order to maiutaiu 
the output : aud, as it was necessary that as few hands as pos- 
sible should be employed in .stone-work and shift-work, it was 
advisable to work the coal into pillars by coal-cutting machines 
wherever the coal was hard. The writer had not mentioned Ihe 
use of power-drills, which were useful and labour-saving- 
machines when used either in coal or in stone. 

It .should be borne in mind that, owing to the war, it might 
be many years before the full complement of men returned to 
the mine ; and, as it was of the utmost importance to obtain as 
large an output of coal as possible, it was one's duty to intro- 
duce machinery wherever possible to take the place of human 
labour, and especially so for all such laborious work as coal- 
hewing in hard seams. 

He (Mr. Tate) had recently installed some compressed-air 
pick-machines and power-drills, and found that by their use he 
could materially increase the output per man; but, owing to the 
obstructive tactics of the workmen, the benefit in costs which he 
ought to have received had been much discounted. 

(3) In the free use of electricity American mining engineers 
had undoubtedly a great advantage over their British brethren, 
as they were not fettered by stringent and restrictive electrical 
laws such as were in force in Great Britain ; consequently, they 
were able to take full advantage of its adaptability and cheap- 
ness for all their manifold mechanical requirements. They 
could use trolley-locomotives, and self-propelling coal-cutting 
machinery which travelled from place to place under its 
own power; in fact, for all purposes where steam or compressed 
air would otherwise be applied they used electricity. Xo one 
could appraise the full value of this freedom and liberty to the 
mining engineer in adapting and using self-propelling electric 
machinery for such purposes as coal-cutting, and locomotive 
haulers for conveying the coal from the working-face to the 
surface. 

If the electrical restrictions at present imposed upon British 
mining engineers could be relaxed and altered so as to give 
greater facilities for its use wlierever safe, it would doubtless 
greatly facilitate the coal output, and do more material good 
than 50 per cent, of the enactments that had during recent years 
been placed on the statute books; and in some measure it would 

VOL. LXTI.-I915-191>;. ]2E 



164 TKAXSACTIOX.S — THE NOinU OF EXGI,ANU IXSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

make up for the loss of output which liad resulted, and would 
continue to result after the war, owing' to so large a number of 
men having joined the forces. 

The American legislators evidently did not wish to hamper 
their mining- industry with all sorts of mischievous and grand- 
motherly legislation such as was recommended in this country by 
popularity-hunting members of Parliament and amateur mining 
experts, who were unfortunately supported by political aspirants. 
If onh- they would be content to confine their great powers for 
mischief to sanitary measures and the proper distribution of 
sanitary pails, etc., instead of meddling with all sorts of 
teclinical subjects, it would be better for the coal-trade and the 
country generally. 

(4) Owing to the use of heavy cars in the United States, it 
followed as an absolute necessity that there should be good rail- 
roads. But he questioned whether American practice was very 
much ahead of British practice, except as to the strength of the 
rails used, which, of course, was simply a question of the pro- 
portionate strength of the rail to the load drawn ; in fact, he 
questioned whether in America the strength of the rails in 
proportion to the load was any better than in Great Britain. 
Further, he doubted whether the speed of their trains was any- 
thing like what it was fn some of the pits in this country. He 
considered that in the matter of good haulage-roads many British 
collieries would not be easily excelled. At some pits the trains 
were travelling at about 20 miles an hour, and this fact alone 
proved the excellence of the engine-roads. He considered, there- 
fore, that it was not in this branch of equipment that British 
mines fell short. 

He was afraid that the disability that existed in Northum- 
berland and Durham to compete with America in the output per 
person employed was almost beyond the power of the mining 
engineer to overcome entirely, as the physical conditions of these 
coalfields were unfavourable, inasmuch as they were now prac- 
tically fully exploited, and in many cases very thin seams were 
being worked. It was not uncommon in the west of the County 
of Durham to work seams 20 inches thick, and in some cases as 
thin as 18 inches. 

There were other factors which operated against coal-mining 
in Great Britain, such as stringent Acts of Parliament, all tend- 



1915-1910] DISCUSSIOX AMERICAN COAL-MIXIXG METHODS. 



165 



iug to have a detrimental effect upon tlie output, costs, etc. ; 
trade-unionism with all its restrictive influences; old customs; 
restrictions of employment of both young and old ; short hours of 
labour; too many holidays, including the fortnightly pay Satur- 
day; in fact, the restrictions were almost innumerable, and 
many of them were practically insurmountable. It was not only 
America which was leaving the Mother Country so far behind, 
but even her Colonies were forging ahead. 

It was well known to all mining engineers that the restrictive 
influences previously mentioned had a serious detrimental effect 
upon the output per person employed, and although it was quite 
impossible for the writer to apportion the due amount to any of 
the individual adverse influences at work, yet when it was found 
that the output per person employed in mining in this country 
was sinking continuously, it became imperative that the matter 
should receive careful attention, and, if possible, that means 
should be devised to remedy the defects. He appended in 

Table I. some comparative figures bearing upon this question 
which were strikingly ominous : — 

Table I. — Tons of Coal Produced Pee Annum Per Person Employed in 
Various Countries. 



Period. 


United Kingdom. 


United States. 


Australia. 


New Zealand. 


Canada. 


1886-1890 


312 


400 


333 


359 


341 


1906-1910 


275 


596 


462 


470 


439 


1911 


260 


613 


485 


487 


395 


1912 


244* 


660 


542 


503 


472 


Increa.se per cent. 


— . 


65 


63 


40 


38 


Decrease per cent. 


lit 


— 


— 


— 


— 



Strike year. 



t Calculated from 1886 to 1911. 



It would be observed that the output of the United Kingdom 
was steadily decreasing, and, even omitting the year 1912, which 
was the great strike year, the output had fallen 17 per cent, from 
1886 to 1911 ; in America the output had increased 65 per cent, 
from 1886 to 1912 ; whilst that of the Colonies mentioned in the 
table had also gone up 63, 40, and 38 per cent, respectively. 

IS^aturally, if there was a restricted supply of any article of 
general use the first effect of the shortage was to enhance the 
price of the article. This was clearly shown in the case of coal, 
for. while the outj)ut per person employed had lessened, the price 



ICG TK.VNSACTIONS THE XOimi OF EN(;i,A.\l) IXSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 



or value per iou at tlie i)it-iuou11i had increased, so that there wa.8 
probably the same margin of profit at the best collieries, where 
the labour cost bore a smaller proportion to the total cost ; but 
this was not the case at those collieries where thin, hard, and 
difficult seams had to be worked. The effect of the reduced out- 
put at tliese latter collieries had been serious, and had resulted 
in the stoppage of man^- such pits. 

The high cost of coal had a baneful and far-reaching effect 
on the manufacturing trade, and it probably accounted for the 
slow advancement in iron-production, which for many years had 
been practically stagnant : for, whereas is the year 1805 Great 
Britain made five times as much iron as Germany, Germany had 
passed us in 1910, and made 50 per cent, more than we did. In 
the production of steel we were still further behind. Table II. 
showed the production of iron and steel in Germany and the 
United Kingdom. 

Table II. — Productton of Ikon and Steel in Germany and the United 

Kingdom. 



Year. 


Iron production. 


Steel production. 


Germany. 


United Kingdom. 


Germany. 


United Kingdom. 


1865 
1870 
1875 
1880 
1885 
1890 
1895 
1900 
1905 
1910 


Tons. 

975.000 

1,391,000 

2,029,000 

2,729,000 

3,687,000 

4,658,000 

5,465,000 

8,521,000 

10,988,000 

14,793,000 


Tons. 

4,896,000 
6,060,000 
6,432,000 
7,802,000 
7,369,000 
8,033,000 
7,827,000 
9,052,000 
9,746,000 
10,380,000 


Tons. 

100,000 

170,000 

347,000 

624,000 

894,000 

1,614,000 

2,830,000 

6,646,000 

10,067,000 

13,699,000 


Tons. 

225,000 

287,000 

724,000 

1,321,000 

2,020,000 

3,637,000 

3.312,000 

5,130,000 

5,984,000 

6,107,000 



Mining engineers could, however, excuse themselves to a 
certain extent, because he found that in other industries the 
United Kingdom was behind America to a similar extent. In 
about twenty-six trades he found that the production per worker 
per week was from two to three times more in America than in 
Great Britain. 

Why was, this country being left so far behind? In the life- 
time of several of the present members of the Institute the United 
Kingdom had produced more coal than all the rest of the world 
combined; in fact, in the year 1845 she produced twice as much. 
Now she was only second in the race. 



1915-1916] UlSCrSSIOX AMERICAN COAL-MIXIXG METHODS. 167 

In his opinion there were three principal causes for this back- 
wardness. First, the coal-owner had often been too conservative 
in his ideas of business, too indifferent to the changes which had 
been g-radually taking- place in the labour world, and also to his 
dual interests in the working man's good offices, namely, his 
labour and his vote. Secondly, politicians of both parties desir- 
ing to obtain votes had increasingly flattered both masters and 
men, and, instead of preventing the workers from reducing their 
output to a minimum, had actually encouraged them in that 
suicidal policy by restrictive legislation. By striving after 
popularity and votes, and by passing pernicious laws, 
the politicians had encouraged idling on the part of the work- 
men, with the result that this countrj^ had fallen much more 
rapidly than she ought to have done from her position as the 
premier coal-producing country to a secondary position. At the 
present rate of decline in the output per man it would 
be found that Great Britain would be handicapped as 
the supplier of the markets of the world, and that other 
countries would obtain her position as the greatest trading 
nation. Thirdly, there was the restrictive policy of the trade 
unions. During the last fifty years great improvement had 
taken place in all kinds of mining machinery for increasing the 
output and reducing the more laborious part of coal-mining, and 
great economy was expected to follow; but unfortunately the 
whole benefit expected had been nullified and absorbed by the 
policy of trade unions. These bodies by every means in their 
power, assisted by legislation, had endeavoured to restrict the 
output per man, not always by the bald system of ordering a 
member to do only a certain "stint" of work, but rather by 
limiting his opportunities for producing his maximum duty, by 
limiting his hours of labour, by taking away the incentive to put 
forth his best efforts when difficulty arose, and generally by 
obtaining a greater payment than was warranted for his labour, 
a payment much higher than that made for similar duties per- 
formed by other labouring classes. The result was that British 
coal-miners had succeeded in reducing the output of coal per 
man and in creating an artificial scarcity with spuriously 
augmented prices, which must have a detrimental effect on our 
manufacturing industries, and would some day result in a 
reduced demand for both our manufactured goods and for our 
coal and iron. 



168 TKANSACTIONS TIIK NOKTII OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

He was fully aware that at the present time the British coal- 
trade as regarded prices was in a flourishing condition. The 
only great drawback was the shortage of labour; consequently 
the necessary incentive existed for mechanical improvements, so 
as to helj) to meet the present abnormal demands, and also to 
educate mining engineers and workmen alike in th-e use of such 
macliinery as would enable us to improve both our present and 
future output. 

In the present abnormal state of the coal-trade in this country 
coal must be produced at any cost ; in fact, even if it were at 
some loss it was imperative that as large an output as possible 
should be produced. He thought it would be found that for the 
current year the output per person employed would be consider- 
ably increased, owing, not to any extra effort on the part of the 
miner, but rather to the shortening of hands, the stoppage of all 
exploring work or extensions, and, to a considerable extent, to 
the stoppage of the less favourable portions of our mines. 

The great difference in the methods practised in America and 
in Great Britain seemed to be that in America the wages paid 
were in proportion to the output, whereas in Great Britain they 
were in proportion to the selling price. The result was that in 
America every effort was put forth to obtain a big output 
cheaply, whilst in Great Britain enhanced wages had to be paid 
because of restricted supply. In other words, in America the 
harder the men worked the higher were their wages, whilst in 
Great Britain the smaller the output was the higher were the 
wages. 

He would like to mention that in the compilation of the data 
and figures in his remarks he was much indebted to an article by 
Mr. J. Ellis Barker in the Nineteenth Century and After * 

Mr. E. 0. FoESTER Brown (London) wrote that the questions 
raised in the paper and in the subsequent discussion could not 
fail to be of great benefit when problems of mine haulage and 
coal-cutting were being considered, especially in the case of new 
coalfields. 

He could "not agree with Mr. Dean's opinion that the prin- 
cipal reason why the United States led in production per man 
was because mine-trams of large capacity were used, as com- 

* 1915, vol. Ixxviii., page 1233. 



1915-1916] mSCUSSIOX AMERICAN- COAL-MIXIXG METHODS. 



169 



pared with those in use at German, Belgian, French, and British 
mines. The principal reason why the United States led in pro- 
duction per man was, in his opinion, because a greater proportion 
of the coal worked in that country was obtained from thick 
seams with good roofs, lying at comparatively shallow depths 
and at a slight inclination, and because of the few restrictions 
against taking electricity up to the coal-face. The use of large 
trams undoubtedly enabled better advantage to be taken of such 
natural conditions than would be the case if small trams were 
employed, but this feature could hardly be claimed as the prin- 
cipal reason why the output per man was high. 

A point which did not appear to have been raised in dis- 
cussing the relative merits of large and small trams in the two 
countries was that, while in this countiy and on the Continent 
collieries were usually laid out with a view to eventually 
working several seams of varying thickness, so that the trams 
had to be designed to fit the thinnest seam as well as the thickest, 
in the United States it was far more common to find collieries 
laid out to develop one seam only. To cite cases from personal 
experience, he might mention the Pittsburgh Seam, from 4 to 
(') feet thick ; the Connelsville Seam in the Pennsylvania coal- 
field, varying from 7 to 10 feet in thickness; and the Big Vein 
in the Georges Creek coalfield, 12 feet thick. A large number 
of collieries were laid out to work these seams alone, and, in view 
of the .strong competition, it was improbable that they could 
afford to work seams of inferior thickness or with less favourable 
natural conditions, even when such existed in the same property 
— at any rate, not until the thicker seams mentioned were to a 
large extent exhausted. 

Theoretically, where the natural conditions permitted, the 
case for large trams would appear to be a very strong one. A 
question on which further information would be valuable, how- 
ever, was as to the best means of handling large trams between 
the main haulage-roads and the face. His experience was that 
it was a comparativly easy matter to form an opinion on the 
expense justifi.ed in making and in maintaining a good main 
haulage-road to handle a large tonnage ; the difficulty was to 
determine how much it was worth while spending on secondary 
haulage-roads in order to keep and maintain a good road and track 
in view of their temporary character. As a rule, secondary haul- 



170 THAXSAC'TIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

asi-e cost a <^reat deal more i)er ton than main haulage, although 
the distances to be traversed by the former were very much less, 
while derailments occurred mucli more frequently. With larger 
trams, for the same quantity of coal handled as by small trams, 
more money must be spent on secondary haulage-tracks and 
curves in order to avoid derailments and excessive friction. The 
adoption of trams beyond a certain size, except in very flat seams, 
would appear to eliminate the question of horse, mule, or manual 
haulage on the secondary roads ; and where electricity could not 
be used near the face, the choice would appear to lie between 
secondary rope or compressed-air locomotive haulage. Infor- 
mation on the application and cost of these or other similar 
systems in the United States, and the measure of success which 
had attended them, would be useful. 

He could confirm from personal experience the care taken 
in laying and keeping in good condition the main haulage-tracks 
at American colliei'ies. These often compared favourably with 
standard-gauge tracks kept by some of the railway companies in 
that country. 

Mr. Samuel Hare (Bishop Auckland) said that Mr. Tate 
appeared to agree with the writer of the paper that the 
labour-saving machines — especially coal-cutting machines — 
in America were responsible to a large extent for the larger 
output per man as compared with England. He also gathered 
that Mr. Tate did not think that English mining engineers had 
done as much as American mining engineers in adopting labour- 
saving machinery. For some years past he (Mr. Hare) had been 
watching American mining, and had admired the ability of 
American mining engineers in overcoming the difficulties in con- 
nexion with labour by developing machine-mining. He had 
tried their very latest machines, and he believed that he had had 
at one of his collieries the best American operator — at least, he 
was said to be — sent to demonstrate to them what an American 
machine could do when operated by an American, but the experi- 
ment had been an absolute failure. This expert operator could 
not do any better than their own men, and the particular machine 
gave no better results than they were already achieving, so that 
the experiment had to be abandoned. 

He thought that most of them would agree that English long- 
wall coal-cutting machines were as good as the American 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSION" AMEIIICAX COAL-MIMXG METHODS. 171 

macliines. He liad used both kinds, and, whilst he could not praise 
too highly the best American longwall machine, he believed 
that long-wall machines were being produced in this country 
whicli were equally as good. In the case, however, of bord-and- 
pillar working, the condiiions were different. They had only to 
look at the illustrations in the paper to see the different conditions 
under whicli the American machines worked. In a vast space 
there was hardly a stick of timber, a condition which was abso- 
lutely impossible in England. Owing to the bad roofs, they had 
to timber nearly up to the face, and, in addition, they had to 
contend with the Government regulations, so that it was prac- 
tically impossible to use the American bord-and-i)illar machines 
in an ordinary English pit. 

Then there was the question of depth. He could not imagine 
pits of the average depth of English mines being- worked with 
the small amount of timber that was used in America, and he 
took it that the coal-cutting was done at very limited depths. 

He had tried rails weighing- 70 pounds to the yard, in order 
to get the machines transferred quickly from place to place ; but, 
although he had employed American operators, it was found 
impossible under English conditions to do this. A very import- 
ant matter with regard to coal-cutting- machinery in connexion 
with bord-and-pillar working was the fact that it was absolutely 
necessary, in order to get these machines moved quickly from 
place to place, that naked wires should be used. This was 
contrary to the Government regulations in Great Britain, and 
he would be sorrj" indeed to adopt this practice, even if it were 
allowed. 

He thought that no comparison could be made between the 
working conditions in the two countries, and it would be very 
unfair to charge English mining engineers with being behind 
American mining engineers in up-to-date practice. He was per- 
fectly certain that if they had anything like the same conditions 
as those obtaining in America, they had in England mining 
engineers who fully realized the advantages to be gained by a 
more extended use of machinery in connexion with mining, and 
who possessed the necessary ability required to design and iustal 
it. 

He agreed with Mr. Tate in other re.spects, and congratulated 
him on the excellence of his criticism of the paper. 



172 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. fVol. Ixvi. 

Mr. John H. Merivalk (liroomLill) said that he was inclined 
to agree that the principal reason for the larger output in 
America was due to the conditions there, namely, the thicker 
seams and better roofs. At the same time, there were many 
important points to which attention had been drawn by Mr. 
Dean and emphasized by Mr. Tate which they might very fairly 
consider. First, there was the question of larger tubs. There 
was no doubt that if a larger tub could be used it would be an 
immense benefit, although he was not prepared to say that a 
larger tub could be used in very many cases. There was a 
point in connexion with tubs which had not occurred to him until 
looking at a copy of the Nineteenth Century and After* he was 
surprised to find it stated, according to Board-of-Trade figures, 
that only \ per cent, of the life of a railway-wagon was employed 
usefully, and for the remaining 99i per cent, of its life it was 
standing about or running empty. He thought that they would 
find that only about 3 per cent, of the life of a tub was employed 
usefully — that is, running full. If that was so, anything which 
would enable them to get more work out of their tubs by increas- 
ing the beneficial load and decreasing the dead load, as in the 
case of a larger tub, would be an advantage. 

There was no doubt ihat they did not use machinery as much 
as they might, nor as much as was done in America. This 
was not entirely due to the different conditions of working, but 
to a great extent to difficulties experienced with the workmen. 
Before new machinery could be introduced to supersede manual 
labour, arrangements had to be made with the men, and very 
properly so in his (Mr. Merivale's) opinion; but difficulties were 
always raised, and when the workmen were requested to give 
reasons for their objections, the general reply was that the new 
machinery was an innovation. " It had never been done be- 
fore " was a stock answer. The men would not do anything 
that their grandfathers had not done before them. He thought 
that matters would be greatly changed after the war in that 
respect. There would be a shortage of men, and owners would 
be bound to use more machinery than they were doing at 
present. Thfere was an idea simmering in the minds of scien- 
tists, which, if it came to fruition, would be of great advantage, 
namely, the transmission of power by wave motion. Mr. Tate 

* 1916, vol. Ixxix. , page 470. 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSIOX AMERICAN' COAL-MIXIXG METHODS. 173 

liad tlra"svn attention to the fact that they were hampered by 
Government regiihitions which restricted the u.se of electricity. 
In many ways those regulations were wi.se. as inidonbtedly 
electricity had its dangers. If, however, they could get a sub- 
stitute, if they could get power conveyed by ineans of liquid 
waves, they would have a means of transmitting power to 
their coal-cutting machines which was simpler, fool-proof in 
fact, and at the same time it was incapable of doing damage by 
causing an explosion. It was absolutely safe. 

Finally, there was the other point to which Mr. Tate had 
drawn attention, namely, their method of regulating wages, and 
he thought that they hardly realized how insane that method 
was. They paid their men according to the selling price of the 
product; in so many words they said: '"Produce as little coal 
as you can: it will raise tlie price and put up your wages.'' He 
(Mr. Merivale) objected to this arrangement. Whilst admitting 
that it was a great advance upon former methods for the regula- 
tion of wages, he thought that the time had now arrived when it 
should be superseded and wages be based on the difference between 
the selling price and the cost. There would be no more difficulty 
in arranging a sliding' scale on that basis than there was in 
arranging a sliding scale on the selling price. He looked for- 
ward to the day when that method would be adopted, and the 
effect of it would be to induce men to produce as much as they 
possibly could, and at as low a price as they could. They would 
then have a direct interest in making the mine a success, to the 
benefit of themselves, the coal-owners, and the country. 

The President (Mr. T. Y. Greener) said that Mr. Tate had 
given them much food for thought. He had not gathered that 
Mr. Tate was casting any reflection on the British mining 
engineers, but rather thought that he was emphasizing the fact 
that the reasons why the outputs in America were larger than in 
this country were that the conditions were very much better, 
there was less legislative interference, trades unions did not 
restrict the output to the same extent as in Great Britain, and 
last, but not least, the method of payment was better. 

Mr. Simon Tate said that when the paper was read lie thought 
that it had been somewhat overlooked bv the mining cnnineers 



1 74 TUAXSACTIONS THE XOKTII OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

in the Xortli of England, luid that tliere were points in it well 
worthy of their attention. Tlie object of his remarks had been 
to call their attention to these points, and he thought that 
bis remarks had met with so much approbation from the 
members that his puri)ose had been fully realized. He would, 
however, be pleased to discuss the nuitter further at the next 
meetino'. 



Mr. Hiram H. Hirsch's paper on " The Hirsch Portable 
Electric Lamp" was taken as read, as follows : — 



1915-1916] HIESCH THE IIIRSCII I'ORTABLE ELECTEIC LAME. 175 



THE HIESCH PORTABLE ELECTRIC LAMP. 



By HIRAM H. HIRSCH. 



Introduction. — The writer has pleasure in suhinittina; a short 
description of the Hirsch lamp,* which, thoug'h largely used in 
the United States of America, has not yet been adopted in 
Great Britain. 

The lamps, which consist of (1) the watchman's lamp and (2) 
the miner's lamp, are portable, and have been designed to pro- 
vide a safe and reliable light for use by watchmen, and in mines, 
rescue-work, powder-works, oil-refineries, and other places where 
special precautions become necessary on account of the presence 
of explosive materials or gases. The lamps are in each in- 
stance operated by a storage-battery contained within a casing, 
and this supplies the current necessary for a miniature 
incandescent lamp. Each safety-lamp forms a complete unit, 
and can be carried from place to place or held in any position. 

(1) Miner s or Watclnnans Hand-lamp (Fig. 1). — This lamp 
consists of a storage-battery placed on an asbestos cushion in a 
cast-aluminium casing provided with a hinged top. The top piece 
is also of cast-aluminium, and is provided with a hook, a 
reflector, and terminals for making contact with both poles of 
the battery. The reflector unit consists of concentric safety 
shells, an incandescent lamp, a safety glass, a crystal, and a 
switch. 

Battery. — The battery consists of two horizontal lead plates, 
each about an inch thick, placed in the bottom of a hard- 
rubber jar and separated by wood and perforated hard rubber, 
the bottom plate being positive. The positive and negative 
leads extending from the battery plates are enclosed in glass 
tubing. The solidified electrolyte consists of a gelatinous sub- 
stance developed by the manufacturers. The battery is sup- 
plied with a vent-plug, and the top of the battery is sealed 

*See Trans. Inst. M. E., 1915, vol. xlviii., page 384. 



176 TRANSACTIONS THE XORTll OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

with an iiisulatiiig- compound. Botli the negative and the posi- 
tive teriuiuals consist of autimonious lead. 

Casing. — The casing- for the battery is made of cast alumin- 
ium about i inch thick. It is open at the top, the top edges 
being provided with tapered or bevelled edges. A magnetic 

spring lock is housed in on 
the bottom casing, and a soft 
rul)])er cushion is placed in 
tlie bottom. 

Cover. — The combined 
cover with reflector-holder is 
made of cast-aluminium 
about J- inch thick. The 
sides are provided with 
bevelled or tapered edges to 
lit to the bottom casing, and 
a hook is attached to the top 
of the reflector casting. One 
end is drilled and tapped for 
a screw, the end of which fits 
into a clearance hole in the 
casing and secures the two 
parts in place. Spring-clip 
contacts are insulated and 
secured to the underside of 
the cover, and make contact 
Avith both terminals of the 
battery ; it is connected by 
a short length of insulated 
wire to the central contact- 
screw of the miniature lamp- 
socket. 

Rtfledov. — The reflector 
is constructed with three 
concentric shells, the inter- 
mediate shell being insulated from the other two and connected to 
the negative pole, and the other two shells to the positive pole of 
the battery. The distance between these shells varies at different 
points from ^V to i inch. The shells are so arranged thdt if 




Fig. ]. 



■Minek"s or WatchjiaiS's 
Hand-la.mp. 



1915-1916.] HIESCH THE HIRSCII POIITAHLK ELKCTBIC LAMP. 177 




Hie reflector slioukl be t-rusliecl oi puiictiucd, the current to the 
lomj) is cut off by tlie shells being- short-circuited between tlie 
battery and the lamp before the lamp-bulb can be broken. The 
inner shell is fastened to the screw-shell of the lamp-socket, and 
the intermediate shell is fastened under the central contact of 
the lamp-socket. A brass screw passes through an insulating- 
bushing in tlie back of the top piece, threads through a square 
brass nut, then 
through an insulat- 
ing cylinder, and 
into a brass hexa- 
gonal nut forming 
the centre contact of 
the lamp-socket. A 
contact spring, 
clamped under the 
square nut. but insu- 
lated from it and 
making contact with 
the top piece, pro- 
jects outward and 
makes contact with 
the outer shell of the 
reflector. The outer 
end of the reflector 
shell is provided witli 
a thread to receive ;i 
ring that secures a 
convex crystal ap- 
proximately g inch 
thick against a soft 
rubber jacket. 

Lnmp-hulh. — The 
incandescent lamp 
used is of the 2-volt 
0-55-ampere tungsten-filament type, with a miniature lamp-base. 

Safety-glass. — The safety-glass consists of a piece of window 
glass 2fV inches long, 1 inch wide, and about 005 inch thick, 
supported across the' reflector-shell back of the crystal. 




Fif!. 2. - Miner's Cav-lami-. 



1 78 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH Ol- ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

Sicitc/i. — The switcli on the watchman's lantern consists of 
a screw-switch fastened to tlie outer case of the reflector and a 
knurled-head screw, which tlireads through tlie outer shell and 
makes contact with the spring. The tension of the spring 
is sucli that it presses against the contact-spring in the corner 
of the battery-case. 

(2) 3Iii2e/s Lditip (Fig. 2). — This lamp consists of a storage- 
battery placed in a cast-aluminium box designed for mounting 
on the miner's belt. The box is supplied with a handle, and 
contains the necessary contact-springs for making contact with 
the battery-terminals. Through the npper part of the box 
the armoured cord extends. The other end of tlie armoured 
cord is fastened to the headpiece. This headpiece is similar in 
construction to the reflector of the watchman's lamp, and 
consists of an incandescent lamp, a reflector, safety-shells, a 
safety-glass, a crystal, and a switch. 

Battery. — The battery is of the same construction as that of 
the watchman's lamp. 

Casing. — The casing for the battery consists of a cast^ 
aluminium case about 5 inch thick, made with a detachable 
hinged cover to lock to tlie bottom of the case. The top is pro- 
vided with a wire handle, and on the back is an opening 
through which the miner's belt passes. Two copper springs 
insulated and fastened to the top of the case make contact with 
the negative and positive terminals of the battery. 

Headpiece. — The reflector, which is used as a headpiece, is of 
the same construction as the reflector provided for the watch- 
man's lamp, except that the central contact for the miniature 
receptacle consists of a hexagonally-headed screw, which passes 
through an insulating cylinder and threads into a nut. This 
nut forms the central contact of the inner insulated wire which 
is on the inside of the armoured cord. The inner wire is 
negative. 

Lam p-hulh . — The incandescent lamp used is the same as in the 
watchman's lamp. 

Armoured Cord. — The cord consists of a single piece of flex- 
ible single-braid rubber-covered wire, made up of sixteen strands 
of No. 30 B-and-S-gauge copper wire. The outer armour con- 



1915-1916.] IIIKSCH THE HIRSCH PORTABLE ELECTBIC LAMP. 179 

sists of a single strip of formed brass, which overlaps and locks 
itself beWeen succeeding- turns of the strip, and is known as 
a flexible brass tubing. 

The weight of the lamp complete is 3i pounds, and of the 
battery only 1| pounds. 

Advantages. — The following claims are made for both the 
lamps : — 

(a) The storage-batteries are easily and quickly handled in 
charging, easy to take apart and repair when necessary, and all 
parts are quickly accessible. 

(h) The sediment that tends to loosen from the positive or 
bottom plate still remains part of the plate. 

(c) The jarring or upsetting of the battery will not affect the 
plates as in the batteries having thin vertical plates. Short- 
circuit of the battery will not injure the plates. 

(d) The battery will not upon short-circuit arc sufficiently to 
ignite gas, black powder, guncotton, cartridge powder, alcohol, 
or other vapours. Immediately on short-circuit the voltage 
drops to zero, on account of the peculiar characteristics of the 
battery plates. 

The above statements are made as the result of tests carried 
out at the Frankford Ai-senal and at the Drexel Institute, Phila- 
delphia. 

The solidified electrolyte always remains in contact with the 
plates, no matter how it is handled, whether upside down or 
not, and when in any position will not ruin a man's clothes 
by the spilling of electrolyte. 

The batteries will give an average light of 5 candle-power 
for 12 hours or more on each charge. 

If the crystal and safety-glass should get broken in an explo- 
sive atmosphere, the lamp is extinguished by the safety-glass 
opening the circuit at the switch and thereby eliminating the 
risk of igniting anything explosive on account of breakage of 
the lamp-bulb. The lamp becomes extinguished before the 
bulb breaks. 

The arrangement of the three shells in the reflector or head- 
piece will prevent any danger from the bulb igniting anything 
explosive if the shells should be crushed or punctured, as the 
shells short-circuit the lamp and the light is extinguished before 
the bulb is broken. 

VOL. LXVI.— I9I5.1916. 1"^ E 



180 TRAXSACTIOXS — THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

Conclusions. — Tlie tests made at the laboratories of the Drexel 
Institute and at the Frankford Arsenal (Appendices II. and 
III.) prove that these lamps are properly designed and sub- 
stantially constructed, and that they are suitable for the use 
intended ; also that the arcing- which it is possible to obtain 
from the battery under conditions of service will not ignite 
explosive gases or materials. 

Tests show that the heat from a man's body would not be suffi- 
cient to liquefy the solidified electrolyte and allow the solution 
to drip out of the battery to the ruin of clothing, or of possible 
personal injury. 

These lamps provide a source of light which maj" be used in 
the presence of explosive vapours, gases, or other materials with 
a high degree of safety, even under extreme conditions of rough 
usage. 

The breaking of the safety-g"lass, or the denting of the outer 
case of the reflector, will, in everj^ case, extinguish the incandes- 
cent bulb. It should be understood that the breaking of an 
incandescent bulb, even of small candle-power, may, under 
favourable conditions, cause an explosion of a surrounding gas 
that has a low temperature of ignition. 



Appendix I. — Insthtjctions fob Charging and Care of Hirsch Electric 
Mine-lamp Batteries. 

General Instructions when Beceived. — When a new lot of batteries is 
received, put about a teaspoonful of distilled water in each, and put on charge 
as per No. 1 charging rate. 

The small round terminal on top of the battery is the negative terminal; 
the flat copper clip on the side of the battery is the positive terminal. 

Charging Current. — Use only direct current (in no circumstances alter- 
nating current), and make sure that the resistance is sufiicient, using either 
lamps or rheostats in series with the batteries. 

Charging J?afe.— Remove the hard rubber vent-plugs before placing on 
charge. Before charging, if the solidified electrolyte is too dry, add half-a- 
teaspoonful of distilled water in each. Start the charge at IJ amperes for 2 
hours, then reduce it to 1 ampere for 4 hours. If the batteries then read 3 
or 3*1 volts, reduce the charge to f ampere, and continue to charge for about 
2 hours until the batteries again read 3 or 3"1 volts. 

After Charging. — The solidified electrolyte should always cover the plates 
to a depth of about ^ inch, and must be moist and jelly-like. 

After charging, allow the batteries to rest for three-quarters of an hour 
to solidify, after which pour off all excessive liquid. Then insert the vent- 
plugs. 



1915-1916.] HIRSCII THE IIIRSCII PORTABLE ELECTRIC LAMP. 



181 



Cleaning. — After eacli charge, wash the outside of the batteries iu a 
solution of a tablespoonfnl of washing-soda and 2 gallons of water. Do not 
remove the vent- plugs. Wipe the batt^eries dry before placing them in the 
aluminium cases. Grease both the positive and the negative terminals of the 
batteries with vaseline immediat-ely after washing; the terminals in the cases 
should also be kept clean and grea.sed. 

Place the batteries in 
the aluminium cases before 
handing the lamp to the 
user; also see that the con- 
tacts are firm and clean. 

Add a teaspoouful of No. 
1,200 electrolyte in each cell 
every two weeks. 

Benewing the Electro- 
lyte and Solidified Solution. 
— If at any time it is neces- 
sary to renew the electrolyte, 
remove the sealing compound 
with a heated screw-driver, 
then pull up by both terminal 
leads at one time both plates 
with the cover. Wash the 
plates under a stream of 
distilled water; replace the 
plates in a jar, covering 
them with No. 1,200 acid; 
reseal with sealing com- 
pound, and place on charge 
at the same charging rate as 
No. 1 at IJ amperes at first 
until 29 volts are recorded 
across the terminals; then 
remove from the charging- 
rack, and drain off all 1,200- 
specific-gravity acid. 

Immediately take No. 
1,300 electrolyte, into which 
first dissolve an average tea- 
spoonful of ammonium sul- 
phate to a gallon of electro- 
lyte; shake thoroughly, then 
mix six parts of this electrol3-te 
with one part of solidified 
solution of a specific gravity of No. 1,180. Stir quickly and thoroughly, then 
immediately jDOur 2 ounces of the electrolyte into each battery, covering the 
plates about 5 inch. Let the battery rest for 1 hour, and then again place 
it on charge as per No. 1 charging rate. 

Caution. — Never bring an open flame into close proximity with the 
batteries during the time when the batteries are charging or the solidified 
material is settling. ' 

Batteries not in use should be recharged every 60 daj's, so as to keep 
them in good condition. 




P3 



fR 



1 82 THAXSACTIOXS — THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 




^■^i4i,,,..„i 










^ 



Fig. 4. -Lamp-rack. 




Fig. 5. — Storage-battery Charging-rack. 



All connexions on the bat- 
tery and in the battery-cases 
should be kept bright, clean, 
and greased. 

Short-circuits. — A. short- 
circuit is indicated by the 
battery registering in charge 
circuit between the ter- 
minals 2 volts or less for a 
continued period. Carefully 
remove the sealing com- 
pound, and slowly remove 
the plates from the jar. A 
careful examination will 
reveal the trouble, which 
may lie in the fi-eezing of 
the active material between 
the positive and negative 
grids in consequence of 
broken leads, or in the car- 
bonization of the wooden 
separators (should they 
exist). This trouble is due 
to abuse or lack of care in 
charging, either an over- 
charge in amperage, or an 
excessive long-continued 

charge at too low an amper- 
age, or failure to examine 
the batteries at stated 
jjeriods for the proper 
amount of moisture, the 
battery being too dry. 

A special charging-rack 
(Fig. 3) is made, consisting 
of a series of formed flat 
brass springs mounted on a 
board. When a battery is 
inserted in the proper way, 
the springs make contact 
with the battery terminals, 
and when the battery is 
withdrawn the springs auto- 
matically form a closed 
circuit. 

Figs. 4 and 5 are views 
of the racks used for the 
lamps and storage-batteries 
res}3ectively. 



1915-1916.] HIHSCH — THE HIRSCII PORTABLE ELECTRIC LAMP. 188 

App'endix II. — Explosion Test of a Hiesch Electric Cap-lamp. 

Drexel Institute, Philadelphia, 

Februartj 24t/i, 1914. 
Test No. 1. 

Alcohol, Ether, Air, 

1 volume. 2 volumes. 20 volumes. 

We tried to explode this mixture with a bunsen flame. No result. 

Test No. 2. 

Alcohol, Ether, Oxygen, 

1 volume. 2 volumes. 20 volumes. 

We tried to explode this mixture with a bun.sen burner. Result — a violent 
explosion. 

Test No. 3. 

Alcohol, Ether, Oxygen, 

1 volume. 2 volumes. 20 volumes. 

We tried to explode this mixture with the spark produced by the Hirsch 
cap-lamp in series with the Hirsch storage-battery. Result — no explosion. 

Test No. 4. 

Alcohol, Ether, Oxygen, 

1 volume. 2 volumes. 20 volumes. 

Same as Test No. 3, except that a spark was produced in this case by 
opening a dead short circuit on the Hirsch storage-battery alone. Result — no 
explosion. 

The mixtures of Tests Nos. 3 and 4 were carried to a bunsen flame after 
a spark test, and a violent explosion took place. The volumes in each case 
were not very accurately measured — the total volumes being 250 cubic 
centimetres. 

J. L. Beaver, Instructor in Electrical Engineering. 
Leon D. Stratton, Instructor in Chemistry. 



Appendix III. — Report on Hirsch Electric Mine-lamp. 

Frankford Arsenal, Philadelphia, 

February 28th, 1914. 

It gives me pleasure to make the following report on the Hirsch electric 
mine-lamp. 

The current of the battery gives 2 volts and about half an ampere. The 
object of the test was to ascertain if, on breaking the circuit, the spark 
had sufficient intensity or heat to ignite the service explosives or the inflam- 
mable vapours or gasses that might be present in the magazines or store- 
houses. 

The circuit was repeatedly broken while the ends of the conducting wires 
were embedded in — 

(1) Nitrocellulose service small arms '30 Cal. powder (rifle). 

(2) Small arms '38 Cal. (revolver) powder. A very fine-grained powder 
containing 60 per cent, of nitrocellulose and 40 per cent, of nitroglycerine. 

(3) Short-fibre (fine) nitrocellulose (plain guncotton) containing 12 per 
cent, of nitrogen (approximately). 



184 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

In no case wore any of these ignited or inflamed, though the circuit was 
repeatedly made and broken, us was demonstrated by the extinguishment 
and re-ignition of the lamp, which was included in the circuit. 

To test whether the spark would ignite the volatile vapours of 
alcohol and ether, sometimes found in magazines or powder stores, a copper 
vessel with glass front was evacuated by an air pump, and filled with the 
vapour of ether, volatilized from liquid ether contained in the copper vessel. 
Again the circuit was broken (as shown by the extinguishment and re-illumina- 
tion of the lamp), but the ether vapour was not ignited by the spark. 

These experiments demonstrate that the Hirsch electric lamp will be 
safe in any powder-magazine, casemate, or storage-house, if the circuit should 
be broken by some unforeseen accident and the circuit should fail to be 
short-circuited by the means jjrovided in the lamp for this purpose. 

W. J. Williams, F.I.C. 



Appendix IV. — Extract from Technical Paper No 75.* 

Tests of the Hirsch Lamp. 

The Hirsch lamp is designed for cap service, and was the second approved 
by the Bureau as jjermissible for use in gaseous mines. The safety devices 
with which this lamp is equipped are mounted in the headpiece and consist 
of an open-circuiting device that protects the lamji against blows from the 
front, and a short-circuiting device that protects the lamp against blows from 
the side, llie open-circuiting device is operated by the breaking of a slip of 
window-glass, that is mounted directly across the inner surface of the bull's- 
eye glass, with which the lamp is provided. The breaking of this slip of glass 
releases a spring that interrupts the electric circuit of the lamp. The short- 
circuiting of the lamp is accomplished as follows: — The headpiece is made up 
of three concentric shells, separated by narrow spaces. Tlie outer and inner 
shells are connected to the positive pole of the battery, and the intermediate 
shell is attached to the negative pole. These shells, of course, completely 
surround the lamp bulb, and the theory of the safety device is that the bulb 
can not be broken without so jamming these shells together that they will 
short-circuit the battery and thus extinguish the filament before it can ignite 
gas. 

Forty-five tests were made upon this headpiece by striking it with the 
following tools: — A hammer, a wooden mallet, a tool sha]3ed like a miner's 
pick, a piece of iron pipe, and a wooden club. Some of these tests were made 
while the headpiece was rigidly supported in various ways, and others were 
made while the headpiece was swinging from the end of its cord. The blows 
were struck with sufficient force to crush the headpieces, to shatter the glass in 
almost every trial, and to punch holes completely through the shells, but 
every time that the lamp bulb was broken the safety devices extinguished the 
filament. In some of the tests the lamp was protected by the circuit breaker 
and in others by the short-circuiting device. 

These tests y\eve not made in gas. The extinction of the filament was 
taken as the measure of safety, since the filament, if extinguished at all, is 
extinguished before the lamp bulb is broken, because the blow that breaks 

* " Permissible Electric Lamps for Miners," by H. H. Clark, Technical 
Paper No. 75, Bureau of Minei, Pittsburgh, U.S.A. 



1915-1916.] HIESCH THE HIRSCH PORTABLE ELECTRIC LAMP. 185 

the bulb must first destroy the slip of glass or jam the shells. As a matter of 
fact, the bulb was broken in only 7 of the 45 tests made, although one or the 
other of the safety devices acted in each test. 

In order to find out whether or not the safety devices would extinguish the 
lamp unnecessarily, the headpiece and its cord were dropped 10 times upon 
a concrete floor from a point 6 feet above the floor. The safety devices acted 
in only one test, and the action was considered to be necessary, as the blow 
that tripped the circuit breaker also shattered the outer glass of the head- 
piece. These tests therefore seemed to prove that the safety devices are 
so designed that they will not cause the lamp to become extinguished unless 
it is desirable that it shall be extinguished. 



Mr. SiMox Tate proposed and Mr E. Seymour AVood .seconded 
a 1161111:3' vote of thanks to Mr. Hirsch for his paper, which was 
•cordially carried. 



Mr. JoHX Gibson's paper on " The Logic of Trams "' was taken 
as read, as follows : — 



186 TRANSACTIONS — THE NOETII OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. fVol. Ixvi. 



THE LOGIC OF TEAMS. 



By JOHN GIBSON. 



Introd'uctioii. — A glance at the Transactions of the Insti- 
tution and mining' journals will show that while appliances 
for winding-, pumping', hauling, ventilation, and other purposes 
have been exhaustively treated, the tram or tub has been much 
neglected. It is the " Cinderella " of mining appliances and 
'* the maid of all work." 

Collieries may exist without pumps, mechanical haulage, 
or winding-engines, but all possess one article in common — 
the tram. It is the appliance with which the workmen are 
brought most closely into contact. Perhaps on account of this 
it enjoys the most varied nomenclature, "wagon," "box," 
"tram." "tub," "hutch," " whirley," " corve," and "car" 
being some of the many names given to it. No scheme has 
been applied to the planning of it ; and no co-ordinated thought 
has been devoted to its construction. In one colliery a 2-ton 
tram may be used, while under not dissimilar conditions a 
4-cwt. tram may be employed in another. In one colliery a 
14-inch gauge may be used, and in another a 42-inch gauge. 
Neither in the size of the tram nor in the width of the gauge 
can such differences be reconciled with reason. The differences 
are the result of haphazard design and want of thought. 

The writer hopes to prove that the economical tram is of 
even greater importance than, say, the economical engine, and 
as no difficult and involved calculations are required, and all 
the governing facts are simple and well known, the former is 
more easily attainable than the latter. 

Perhaps thousands of different types of trams and many 
widths of gauges are in use in this country. The waste and 
expense of such a want of system is appalling. Can it be said 
that the conditions are so diversified that all these types are 
necessary? Is it not easily practicable to reduce the number 
of these types to scores or even tens, and to standardize their 



1915-1916.] GIBSOX — THE LOGIC OF TRAMS. 187 

manufacture so tliat tliey can be turned out in thousands at 
a minimum cost ? 

In the tirst section of this paper the factors that determine 
the size and the construction of the tram are examined ; whilst 
in the second section the road on which it runs is dealt with. 
The author earnestly begs that "it be noted that these parts are 
not dependent the one on the other. The recommendations 
advocated in Section (2) may be partly or wholly adopted, 
althoug-h those in Section (1) are rejected, or vice versa. 

(i) What Governs the Size of the Tram ? — If a man were 
set to move coal a distance of 10 feet, the easiest and cheapest 
way would be to shovel it. If the distance were 10 yards, a 
wheel-barrow would be the most convenient article to employ, 
because it is easily tipped. If the distance were 100 yards, 
a side or end-tipping- wagon holding 20 or -30 cwts. would 
perhaps be best. It follows then (other considerations apart) 
that the greater the distance is the larger the wagon should be. 
This rule is subject to important exceptions, however. If the 
gradient is more than 1 in 40, a man working single-handed 
would have great difficulty in pushing or controlling a wagon 
holding 20 or 30 cwts. It is therefore clear that inclination is 
an important factor, because in every colliery every tram is 
more or less man-handled. When the tram is underground, 
another important factor mu^st be considered — the dimensions of 
the road. 

The ordinary haulage-roads are usually big enough to take 
very large trams, but not so the gate-roads. In thin seams a 
predetermined minimum height and width of gate-road is set 
up by the size of the tram. If this be too large, either repairs 
of the road are excessive or new crossgates are frequent. In 
both cases the size of the tram governs the dimensions of the 
road, and is responsible for all unnecessary expense. 

A man has no great difficulty in travelling in a road having 
a minimum height of 3 feet above the rails and a width of 3 feet 
between the narrowest timbers, and the writer suggests that 
the minimum or smallest sized tram should be 2\ feet high 
and 2| feet wide. 

AVhere the gate-road branches off the crossgate, the tram 
must often be turned at right-angles, and this is frequently 
and conveniently done on a turuplate. The width of the 



188 TUANSACTIONS THE XOKTII OV KNCJLAND IXSTITITE. [V^ol. Ixvi. 

road at this point deteriiuii'e.s tlie length of the tram, and one 
2| feet wide by 4| feet in leng-th overall can be turned on a road 
6 feet wide and still allow of some little freedom of movement 
to the workman between the tram and the timbers. Such a 
tram, then, 4i feet long by 2| feet in width by 2A feet in lieii^ht 
may be termed the No. 1 or minimum size. Wheels, etc., will be 
considered later, but if a weight of 8 cwts. be assumed in 
the meantime, it might now be considered what can be done 
with this tram. 

In gate-roads it is (and more especially if the roof is tender) 
cheaper to draw by hand to the limit of inclination, rather 
than resort to self-acting inclines of any kind, because these 
require greater width ; as a consequence, the handling of extra 
debris, heavier timber, etc., of course entails greater expense. 

For short distances a well-developed young man can exert 
a force of 120 pounds. The writer has found that a force of 
60 pounds can be usually given through a distance of 110 
yards in 2f minutes without great exhaustion. This is equal 
to O'2-l horsepower. A lad of 14 to IT can exert two-thirds of 
this force, that is, 0'16 horsepower. Assuming the co-efficient 
of friction to be a sixtieth, the man can push an empty tram 
weighing 3 cwts. up a road rising 1 in 6 for a distance of 110 
yards in 2^ minutes. A lad can tackle a gradient of 1 in 9i. 

It is worthy of notice that under unfavourable conditions, 
with the tare of the trams high comj)ared with the gross load 
and a high co-efficient of friction, a self-acting incline would 
work on this road. 

Consider now the relative importance of weight and fric- 
tion. If the weight were increased from 3 to 4 cwts., the limit 
of inclination in the road mentioned would be 1 in 85 instead 
of 1 in 6. With a 3-cwt. tram, if the friction were doubled, 
the limit of inclination would be 1 in (i'9 instead of 1 in 6. 
It is clear, then, especially in roads rising towards the faces, 
that to keep the weight low is of far greater importance than to 
keep the co-efficient of friction low. Where the roads dip 
towards the faces, the case is slightly different. With a loaded 
tram weighing 10 cwts., the gradients are as follows: — 

With one man behind the tram. 

Weight. Friction. Limit of Inclination. 

10 cwts. ttV 1 ill 49 approximately. 

10 „ A 1 »27 



1915-1<)16.] 



GIBSOX- THE LOGIC OF TRAMS. 



189 



With two mkn behind thk tram. 

Weight. Friction. Limit of Inclination. 

10 cwts. tjV 1 ill 13 '5 approximately. 

10 ,, «V 1 „ 11 

Roads (lipping- to the face are the exception rather than 
the rule. It is therefore clear that, especially in small trams, 
the weight must be kept down as low as sound construction 
permits, even if it involves a certain amount of increased 
friction. With larger trams the greater height of road permits 
of the use of ponies. 

The writer is assuming that, where the trams are mechani- 
cally hauled on main roads, whether 100 or 150 horsepower is 
expended is of little consequence if the advantages gained close 
to the face where the trams are man-handled are sufficiently 
great. It is also clear that, as the weight and the carrying 
capacity of the tram increase, the importance of friction 
becomes greater. 

It follows that wlieels of small diameter and simple bear- 
ings are suitable for small trams, and that large wheels should 
be fitted to large trams. When a diameter of 14 or 16 inches 
is reached, friction may be most suitably reduced by ball or 
roller-bearings and high-class lubricating arrangements. In 
the case of the small tram referred to, perhaps an 8-inch wheel 
would be most suitable. 









Proposed Scale 


OF Standard 


Trams. 










Overall measurements. 


1 


Inside measurements. 












1 








Diameter 
of wheels. 














Size. 


Length. 


Brea<Uh. Height. 


Length. ! Breadth. 

1 


Height. 


Capacity. 






Ft. 


Ins.' Ft. Ins. 


Ft. Ins. 


Ft. 


Ins.i Ft. Ins. 


Ft. Ins. 


Cwts. 


Inches. 


1 


4 


6 2 9 


2 6 


3 


10 2 7 


1 6 


6 


S 


2 


4 


9 2 11 2 S 


4 


1 i 2 9 


1 7i 


71 


9 


3 


5 


3 1 


2 10 


4 


4 2 11 


1 9" 


8f 


10 


4 


5 


3 3 3 


3 


4 


7 3 1 


1 9 


9| 


11 


5 


5 


6 3 5 


3 2 


4 


9 3 3 


1 10 


Hi 


12 


6 


5 


9 3 7 


3 4 


4 


11 3 5 


1 11 


123 


13 


7 


6 


3 9 


3 6 


5 


2 3 7 


2 


14| 


14 


8* 


6 


6 


4 


3 8 


5 


(i 3 10 


2 2 


18 


14 


9* 


7 





4 3 


3 10 


6 


4 1 


2 4 


23 


14 



* In sizes over 6 feet overall, the length, breadth, and height would increase 
by 6 inches, 3 inches, and 2 inches respectively. 

Note. — The inside measurements and capacities are approximations onlj-, 
and would vary according to the material used and the method of construction. 

The above capacities are water measure. 



190 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. fVol. Ixvi. 

The writer has no desire to lay down axioms as to what 
sizes ot standard trams should be adopted, but he puts forward 
the precedino" proposition as a basis for discussion. Starting with 
a tram 4| feet long by 21 feet wide by 2h feet high, in each 
succeeding size up to 6 feet overall the length, breadth, and 
height would be increased by 3 inches, 2 inches, and 2 inches 
respectively. 

It would, of course, be easy, in the event of standards being 
adopted, to increase or decrease the depth of a tram so as to suit 
particular conditions. Thus one colliery finds that No. 9 is quite 
suitable except for the height, which is too great; or another 
colliery requires No. 3, but could take greater height. It is 
possible that standard trams would be somewhat unsuitable in 
some particular cases ; but, even then, the advantages would be 
exceedingly great. A short examination of the present condi- 
tions will prove that statement. 

When a colliery is about to be started, the owner may possess 
from one of his other collieries wheels, pedestals, under-frames, 
etc., and may determine to use the same or a similar type of tram 
in order to utilize the material and prevent repair and spare-part 
complications. The tram is almost certain not to be suitable for 
both the old and the new collieries. If the owner sets up a new 
type of tram, two classes of spare parts have to be stocked, and 
repairing generally becomes more expensive. Not only so, 
but, if No. 1 colliery urgently requires for a period extra 
trams. No. 2 colliery cannot render help, because the types are 
different. Or, again, a colliery is sunk to win a 7-foot seam and 
a 2-foot seam. The same tram cannot suit both. A compromise 
arrangement may suit neither, and the cost of changing is pro- 
hibitive. When a colliery is working, trams have to be bought 
at first cost; but when the colliery is exhausted, they are of little 
use to anyone, and are sold at scrap prices. It is not uncommon, 
therefore, to find that in collieries nearing- exhaustion the trams 
are allowed to get into a state of low efiiciency. With a stand- 
ard tram the value at any period of its life would be well known. 
If, therefore, it were found that a particular tram was un- 
suitable for a, certain colliery, another type would be obtained in 
exchange at a very small cost. Indeed, if the change were from 
a larger to a smaller type, the coal-owner might receive hard 
cash in addition to new trams. A different type might be used 
in every seam in the same colliery. 



1915-1916.] GIBSON — THE LOGIC OF TEAMS. 191 

In a paper read before the Mining Institute of Scotland* the 
author stated that — 

" A very common practice in Scotland is to pay the miner a hewing rate 
which includes drawing to a lye perhaps 500 yards out-bye. It will usually 
be found that two men are engaged in each place, one of whom hews the coal, 
throws it to the roadhead, stows the debris, and sets the timber. The other 
man fills the coal and draws it to the lye. Then if the tonnage rate is 3s., 
and 5 tons are produced daily, the wage rate is 7s. 6d. If Is. per ton 
be taken as fair remuneration for the actual filling of the coal into the tubs, 
then the 3s. is apportioned as under : — 

s. d. 

Hewing, etc. ... 1 6 

. Filling 1 

Drawing ... ... ... ... ... ... 6 



Total 3 



"If the road is 220 yards long, the rate per ton-mile is equal to 4s." 

Three points may be noted : — (1) If the tram is krge, a man 
of full physical strength is required, even on easy gradients, to 
provide for derailments ; (2) while a lad has two-thirds the 
strength of a man, he is usually paid only half the wages; 
and (3) a drawer is but partly occupied, as waiting takes up 
more or less of his time. It follows, then, that if a third of a 
drawer's time is lost, the loss due to a man at 7s. 6d. per day is 
2s. 6d., while that due to a lad at 3s. 9d. is Is. 3d. 

In the foregoing case, if trams suitable for a lad were 
adopted, the output for a man and a lad would be five-sixths of 
5 tons, or, say, 83 cwts. The cost would be lis. 3d., or approxi- 
mately 2s. 9d. per ton — a saving of 3d. per ton, or Is. 3d. for 5 
tons, being the difference quoted above as due to difference in 
pay between a man and a lad. 

Taking another case, in which the general gradient of the 
seam decreases from 1 in 8 to 1 in 12, with trams 10 per cent. 
larger the output would increase nearly 2^ per cent, for the 
same energy expended. 

Again, it may be found that with a given size of tram road- 
repairs amount to 3d. per ton. It may be possible to reduce the 
drawing by Id. per ton with larger trams by increasing the road- 
repair figure to 3Jd., or, by adopting smaller trams, road-repairs 
may be reduced to 2d., and drawing costs increased by ^d. In 

*" Mining Economics: Some Notes and a Suggestion," by John Gibson 
Trans. Inst. M. E., 1914, vol. xlvii., page 258. 



192 TRANSACTIONS — -THE NORTH OF ENtiLAXD JXSTITUTK. [Vol.lxvi. 

either case the saving- of ^d. per ton is effected. In addition, if 
the roof becomes tender this may make the temporary adoption of 
smaller trams economical. If the roof becomes stronger this may 
have the opposite effect. 

Output and Length of Road. — The tram having now been 
considered from the points of view of gradient, friction, size, 
etc., the question of outpnt and length of road may be briefly 
considered. 

Example No. 1. — In a collierj- equipped with endless-rope 
haulage, where the distance from the shaft to the face is 25 miles, 
let it be assumed that, the seams being thin, a 5-cwt. tram is 
used and the output is 1,000 tons. Each tub will make 2^ 
trips per shift, and will therefore carry 12^ cwts. of output. 
At least 1,G00 trams must be used. With 2-ton trams at least 
200 would be required. The difference in capital cost would 
be roughly £2,000 against the small trams ; maintenance would 
also be higher with these; but witli an output of 1,000 tons 
these would be small matters. 

Exam^ple No. 2. — A road 1 mile long is equipped with main- 
and-tail-rope haulage for an output of 450 tons in 7J hours. With 
a speed of 6 miles per hour only 15 trips per shift could be drawn, 
or 30 tons per trip. Allowing 5 feet for the length of each tram 
(with a capacity of 5 cwts.) and the coupling, with 120 trams in 
the set it would take lyes 200 yards long at each end of the road 
to marshal the sets — that is, nearly a quarter of the total length 
of the road. By doubling the speed and halving the time for 
changing, this would, of course, reduce the figures by half. It is 
clear that large outputs on long- roads by small trams are imprac- 
ticable with main-and-tail-rope haulage. If small trams must be 
used at the faces, and the road does not permit of the installa- 
tion of endless-rope or such like haulage, it follows that the 
best policy would be to use small trams near the faces and 
very large trams out-bye. 

The writer hopes that he has put forward not unfairly the 
case for standardization. 

No mention has been made as to the material, whether iron, 
wood, or composite, of which the box and under-frame should be 
made. This is unnecessary, because once standardization has 
been adopted, trams could be made and stocked in all materials. 



1910-1916,] - GIBSON-- THE LOGIC OF TRAMS. 19S 

Of course, the further tlie purchaser travelled from ordinary 
material, the g'reater would be his risk of obtaining' a favourable 
sale or exchan.ye, unless his particular material or combination 
was successful. 

With reg-ard io construction, it must remain simple, 
especially for the smaller sizes. Spring-s such as are used for 
railway-wagons and protuberances such as grease-boxes and 
brakes are inadmissible, for these are unlikelj- to stand the rough 
usage. 

(2) The Track. — Terminological difficulties in plenty crop up 
at every turn when the question of the rails on which the tram 
runs is considered, and particularly when the trams are man- 
handled. While Scottish idiom is usually rich and expressive, 
yet the terms used underground are often singularly inept. 
Thus, a " drawer " is a person chiefly employed, not in drawing, 
but in pushing. " Frog " and " heart '' mean the same thing, 
unlikely as that may seem, and " wings'' have not the slightest 
resemblance to anything used in flight. It is a great pity that 
terms for ordinary things differ so much in each coalfield 
throughout the country. The same word has frequently different 
meanings. Thus, in some districts, the person employed " draw- 
ing* "" is called a " putter,'' which name elsewhere denotes a 
person who assists the " drawer " at steep parts of the road. 
Again, " road " may mean the whole of the tunnel, gallery, or 
excavation leading from one point to another, as, for example, 
" gate-road," but may also mean the rails. Eoad, in short, is 
both a general and a particular term, and leads to such confusing- 
information as " there are three sets of timber broken on the 
road," and the " trams are off the road." It therefore happens 
continually that the manager receives from his subordinates a 
requisition expressed in pit vernacular which he translates into 
the trade name before passing it through to the order clerk. 
Mistakes and delay must of necessity frequently arise. Prob- 
ably with standardization adopted, and the name of each article 
stamped or cast thereon, this confusion of terms Mould abate 
or disappear, and terms common to the United Kingdom would 
be used throughout. 

It is significant that for coal-cutter parts, electrical plant, 
and such like new appliances, the common trade names or scien- 
tific terms are used. 



194 TRANSACTIONS — THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. , ["Vol. Ixvi. 

The Americitu " track " is a distinctive term which the writer 
will use. A " slioii crossing " will be taken as the name of cross- 
ings of small radius, such as are used to lead from crossgates to 
gate-roods, and" long crossings " will be applied to tliose of long 
radius used on haulage-roads, avixiliary or main. The ideal 
track may be defined as composed of two parallel rigid conduc- 
tors of suitable g-auge, form, and material, lying in the same 
horizontal plane. If this could be attained in practice, derail- 
ments would be infrequent, and these are responsible for much 
of the cost of transit. Derailments on main haulage-roads need 
not be considered, because these tracks can be well constructed 
and maintained. Neither need the difficulties arising from soft 
floors be considered, these being particular difficulties and not 
common to all seams. Taking the case of derailment under 
ordinary circumstances for 200 yards out-bye from the face, it 
will be found that these are due to (1) faulty gauging and nail- 
ing, and (2) to defective sleepers. Even this inefficiency is 
expensive, because sleepers are used for timbering purposes, and 
nails are mislaid and buried in dehi-is; indeed, not infrequently 
they reappear in the hoofs of the horses. The writer sees no way 
out of these difficulties, except by adopting some form of steel 
sleeper. Scarcity of timber and the great rise in price of wooden 
sleepers may bring this' change about in the near future. 

The length of the rails is a subject that receives little atten- 
tion, and muddle often results as a consequence. For example: 
{!) the rails in a track are reputed to be 18 feet in length, and 
after a derailment one is f^een to be defective and requires to be 
at once replaced. Then it is discovered that the new rail will 
not go in. Measurements show that while the defective rail is 
IT feet 11 inches long, the new one is 18 feet 1 inch. (2) A 
replacement similar to the above cannot be done, because the 
rails are not uniform in type, and cannot take the same fish- 
plate, or because perhaps the fishplate bolt-holes are not at 
equal distances from the ends of the rails in both rails. (3) A 
long crossing has to be laid, and a length, say, of 24 feet of 
the track has to be lifted to do so. The points are each, say, 
2 feet 5 inches long, then 12 feet or more of rails are laid, after 
which the crossing 2 feet 11 inches long is laid. To " square " 
or bring even the crossing two pieces of rail each 2 feet 11 inches 
long must be used. It is then found that in order to join up the 



1915-1916] ' i;iBSOX--THE LOGIC OF TRAMS. 195 

original gap of 24 feet, two rails each 6 feet 8 inches Jong have to 
be used (Fig. 1, Plate III.). (4) A short crossing has to be 
laid into a narrow gate-road. The rails on the crossgate are too 
far in. If one length of rails be taken out, the rails are then 
too far out, and patchwork of short pieces of rail, or indeed wood, 
has to be resorted to. If the rails are too far in, the side of the 
gate-road has to be hewn, and the rails there form an awkward 
twist, as shown in Figs. 3 and 4 (Plate III.). 

It is fairly evident that forethought and system can obviate 
all these drawbacks. By the adoption of a rail unit length and 
by making everything to suit that, economy and efficiency can 
be secured. Supposing that 4 feet is adopted as this unit, be- 
cause it is an even number of feet, and because it is the longest 
rail that can be put into the minimum size of tram, and so taken 
safely and conveniently (which means cheaply) through the 
lowest road to the face : then light rails would be supplied in 
one-unit (4 feet) and one-and-a-half-unit lengths, in eciual quan- 
tities of each ; medium rails for auxiliary haulage in three-unit 
lengths (12 feet): heavy rails for main roads in three-, four-, or 
five-unit lengths, as was found most convenient ; and gate-roads 
would be measiired off by the rail-unit length, and not by feet 
or yards. Thus, if the practice were to set off gate-roads every 
15 yards, that would be reduced to 11-unit lengths (44 feet) or 
increased to lli-unit lengths (46 feet). All castings for cross- 
ings, turnplates, etc., would be made to suit. Thus, turuplates 
4 feet square would be cast in halves, each 4 by 2 feet ; short 
crossings 8 feet long would be cast or made in 4-foot lengths; 
and for long crossings, where rails are interposed between points 
and crossings, castings 4 feet long would be suitable (Fig. 2, 
Plate III.). 

The simple principle underlying the proposed arrangement 
is that of having every rail and fitting of a known and predeter- 
mined length, and each long piece a multiple of the unit length. 
If the laying of the track is made simple and easy, rail-cutting 
and wood-patching is avoided. The actual work will be quicker, 
cheaper, and more efficient. 

If the tram cannot be standardized in the near future, an 
effort should be made with the rail-gauge. Even in these times 
of national stress the passing of a one-^^'lause Mines Amending 

VOL. LXVI.— ;915-l:i]G. I'i ^ 



196 TllANSACTIONS — THE NOHTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

Act as under, setting' up a standard gauge, should be no difficult 

matter, if once general agreement were attained : — 

'* In the case of every mine or seam newlj' opened after the commencement of 
his Act, no rail-gauge other than one approved by the Secretary of State shall be 
adopted or used for the transit of minerals. " 

If only one of the great coal-owners' associations, or even 
if a few of the large combines were to agree on the necessity 
and suitability of a standard gauge, the reform would gradually 
and aiitomatically come about. 

The possibilities for cheapness, convenience, and efficiency 
are tremendous. Standard wooden sleepers would result; im- 
proved universal steel sleepers would follow, and at least 
economize nails ; standard crossings, turnplates, pointer-plates, 
fishplates, etc., would all come in turn. 

If and when the next step, the introduction of standard 
trams, was reached, the possibilities would be almost boundless. 
Standard oilers, controllers, and tipplers would result. Stan- 
dard hydraulic decking arrangements would be easy. Then, 
why not standard cages, leading on to headgears? The idea 
is not Utopian, but perfectly practical. If, before sinking was 
commenced, the coal-owner could say: " I shall use No. 3 up 
to No. 7 trams, and purpose using a three-decked cage holding 
six trams," it would be simply a matter of replying : " You 
require a shaft so many feet in diameter to take the standard 
cage, and the distance from pulley to pulley of the standard 
headgear for these cages is so many feet." There would be no 
fear of stereotyping and stagnation, because the cages, etc., 
though standardized in build and size, would permit of special 
fittings to suit newer ideas, and these, if satisfactory, would be 
incorporated on standard types. 

The saving of clerical work would in itself be considerable, 
and liability to error in ordering would be much reduced. 
The manager would be saved from many petty worries, while 
the draughtsman would get useful work to do. 

To revert to the standard gauge alone, each colliery must 
at present have all crossings, etc., specially made to suit the 
gauge. Here is an example of the waste involved. Some time 
ago a new form of crossing for a special purpose was suggested 
to the writer. He sketched it, and the work then passed through 
the hands of the draughtsman, the patternmaker, and the iron- 



1915-1916.] GIBSOX THE LOGIC OF TRAilS. 197 

founder. Then the fitter adjusted it as far as possible, and the 
job was satisfactory, but capable of improvement in detail. If 
this appliance is of any value to anyone, it ought to be available, 
but except for those with the same g'auge it is not, and in order 
to be adopted for another gauge the routine of tlie draughtsman, 
patternmaker, etc., is required all over again. 

Controversy may not arise on the general but on the particu- 
lar proposition, and as the writer is anxious that this should not 
occur, he approaches the question of discussing what the gauge 
should be with much diffidence. If it be assumed that 5 cwts. 
and 40 cwts. are the minimum and maximum capacities likely to 
be required, a basis for reasoning is available. He has mentioned 
14 and 42 inches as about the minimum and maximum gauges at 
present in use, and the question which of these or what inter- 
mediate size should be adopted now arises. Taking the 14-incb 
gauge first, it is too narrow for use with horses and mechani- 
cal haulage, and it is quite unsuitable for a large tram. As 
for the 42-inch gauge, it is unsuitable for a small tram, and 
in narrow gate-roads with a fireclay or soft shale roof (or sides) 
the rails are normally obstructed by small debris. The stand- 
ard gauge must be something between these. On light railways 
it is quite good practice to run wagons of more than 5 tons 
capacity over a 36-inch gauge, and on ordinary railways 32-ton 
wagons work on a gauge of 56 J inches. It is reasonable, then, 
to suggest that a 2-ton tram on a 24-inch gauge is a practical 
proposal, and that is the gauge which the writer respectfully 
suggests. 

Reference might now be made to the length of wheel-base. 
It is \\ell known that large trams rec^uire a longer wheel-base 
than small trams, and steep workings a longer wheel-base than 
flat workings. It is also well known that a tram with a long 
wheel-base requires a curve of rails of longer radius than does 
one with a short base, and this suggests a difficulty in stan- 
dardizing crossings, etc., because, while a short-based tram 
would pass round any of the standard crossings, the long-based 
tram would not. This difficulty would be easily overcome either 
by making all curves such as would pass any tram, or by using 
standard crossings of, say, four classes to pass trams with wheel- 
bases of 2, 2i, 3, and.3i feet. All except the longest based tram 
would go round at least two classes of curves. 



198 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OK ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

Much is heard nowadays of natioual efficiency and of the 
organizing ability of the Germans. Here, in the subject of 
tliis jiapor, is just such a fiehl as wouhl suit tliom. If stan- 
dardization would reduce the cost of production, the Briton, 
if he adopted it, would be armed for the better conduct of the 
economic war which will probably ensue, and would enjoy the 
added satisfaction of having beaten the enemy at his own game. 



Mr. William M. Kilpatrick (Larkhall) wrote that Mr. 
Gibson's paper bristled with ideas and suggestions. Doubtless 
the author had made a strong effort to set forth the advantages 
that might accrue on the standardization of trams ; but, in his 
(Mr. Ivilpatrick's) opinion, the commendable feature of 
the paper lay in the author's insistence that considerable 
economy might be effected if the various more essential fittings 
used in the construction of trams could be more uniformly 
standardized so that under seemingly varied conditions these 
might be more easily reduplicated. He feared, however, that, like 
many otherwise capable advocates, in his endeavour to pursue 
this point, the author had travelled just a little too far and 
a little too fast. Mr. Gibson seemed to leave so little room for 
natural and individual predeliction, in a field, too, in which, 
according to the very nature of things, variety must ever pre- 
dominate, that some of his more praiseworthy ideas and sugges- 
tions ran a danger of being overlooked in the irritation that 
might result from their apparent impracticability. For example : 
he (Mr. Kilpatrick) would never allow the size of the tram to 
govern the size of the side road, even if by accident that did seem 
to happeii once in a while ; and, if he were asked to give standard 
dimensions for a tram, he would never, no matter what its 
capacity was intended to be, construct it so that it would stand 
more than 40 inche ; above the rail. The principle that would 
guide him in this matter would be economy of the energy required 
to load the tram. From this point of view alone he would endea- 
vour to keep the tram as low as, under the particular conditions, 
would be practicable, so that he might even make the minimum 
height less than 2 feet above the rail. Moreover, if he were set to 
win two seams, one 7 feet and the other 2 feet thick, through the 
same shaft, and presumably from the same bottom level, he 
would not introduce two different standard trams. The compli- 



7)ie InstiM/iion., ofiiinii:;/ Engineers 



Voi.IJ.I'L.\TEm 



7b iHzLS&rUe M^Ja?z7i Gibson Js Paper on 7he Lo gic ofTrarrfs " 

Fig. 1.— Showing how when Points and Crossings of Various 
Lengths are used. Rails of Various other Lengths 

HAVE to be cut AND USED FOR "SQUARING" AND 

"Closing." 




-ia' n'if -- 6' 8' -- V, 

CROSSINS CLOSING RAILS. 



Fig. 2.— Showing how by using Points and Crossings of 
Standard Unit Lengths, no Rail-cutting is necessary. 




Fig. 3.- Showing the Rail-joints on Crossgate too far Out- 
bye. AND Patchwork of short Rails or Wood used. 
y////////////////////////////////////////v////^^^^^ 



W^mmzm^ 




Fig. 4.- Showing the Rail-joints on Crossgate too far In- 

BYE, which necessitates HEWING THE SIDE OF THE 

Gate-road, and an Awkward Twist on the Rails of 
THE Gate-road. 



Y//// m////////m//////////////////////////m^^^^^^ 




Hortk of Erujlij^d TnstUuU of Ki^ur,.;/ & Ke^>h/znu>aZ ^rioine'e^s 
Traiisa/:tLons. 1915 If)J6. 

Ar.dT'ReidiCoinpTL'f Newcastle upon Tyne 



Voj,.LX[7,Piate]I. 



1915-1916.] DlSCrSSIOX TIIK LO(tIC OF TRAMS. 19'J 

cation tliat tlii.s would involve, both at the pit-l)ottoni autl on the- 
surface-tracks, to say nothing of cages, tipjilers, etc., would, to 
him, be a sufficient deterrent. 

The amount of work, too, which Mr. Gibson assumed he 
might legitimately anticipate as being available from a healthy 
man, namely, 024 horsepower, seemed somewhat high — 
especially when it was remembered that a Clydesdale horse was 
credited with being capable of performing only about two-thirds 
of the standard lioiseixiwer. He did not think that it would be 
wise to expect three men to be equal, even under the best of con- 
ditions, to a Clydesdale horse in the matter of " sheer haulage." 

He (Mr. Kilpatrick) was not much in favour of " Govern- 
ment regulations " directing what track he should lay, or how he 
should lay it. There was one point, however, in connexion with 
the laying of these tracks that seemed too often to escape 
notice. He referred to the tilting-up of curves, e^specially on 
horse-haulage roads. It was sometimes painful to notice how 
persistently the outside of a curve was tilted up, no consideration 
having lieen given to the point whether the tram had got to be 
hauled round that j)articular curve or passed round by gravity. 
Hence it frequently hapj)ened that no effort was made to keep the 
resultant of what might l)e two almost opposing forces, under 
which the tram was being conducted, leading between the rails, 
with the troubles and losses consequent on many unnecessary 
derailments. To suggest to many mining officials that under 
certain conditions the inside of a curve should be tilted up was — 
strange though :t might seem — to invite their ridicule. 

Mr. W. H. EouTi.EDGE (Abergavenny) wrote that several 
papers had been written on this matter and published in Mon- 
mouthshire and South Wales, one by Mr. J. Fox Tallis being- 
of special value.* 

He (Mr. Routledge) submitted that the views expressed by 
Mr. Gibson did not quite coincide with the modern practice of 
mining engineers in the United Kingdom. It had been for 
many years the universal custom at all large pits or groups of 
pits to instal a certain t^-pe of tram or tub and a certain width of 
gauge of tramway to suit the most economic requirements 
of the particular mine, and to extend as far as possible 
with minor improvements what had been decided upon 

*" Colliery Trams," by J. Fox Tallis, Proceedivgn oj the South Wales 
Institute of Eii'j/iieers, 1900, vol. xxii., page 37- 



\ 



200 TRANSACTIONS — THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

as experience showed. The installation and maintenance of the 
type of tram and gauge of tram-road was duplicated as much 
as could be made convenient in tlie making-up of a tram or 
tub and the tramway upon which they travelled. 

When it was considered that the use of trams or tubs and 
iron rails dated from the year 1767 at Coalbrookdale, and ex- 
tended to other parts of the country shortly afterwards, he could 
not ag-ree with the assertion that " perhaps thousands of different 
type of trams and widths of g-auges are in use in this country." 
Many types of trams or tubs, it must be acknowledged, were in 
use, and followed the results of improvements, which had their 
particular intrinsic value, as in all other mechanical appliances. 
This was obviously the result of each engineer's own observa- 
tion, which he converted into practice. 

There were, however, two notable features in regard to the 
use and type of tram or tub — that since the advent of the coal- 
face mechanical conveyor, which enabled the management to 
dispense with many roadways, the introduction of a larger tram 
had been of advantage in the cost of working. A new condition 
also arose in designing a tram or tub to comply with the new 
Mines Act, which made it compulsory that the tram or tub 
should be reasonably dust-proof. 

Mr. Gibson evidently had not suffered by recent legislation 
when he suggested that the Mines Act should be amended to set 
up a standard for underground tramways. The settlement of 
the gauge, if it were ever seriously entertained, would be prob- 
ably more difficult than the celebrated " battle of the gauges," 
which raged for some years in the early history of railways, 
between the well-known civil engineers. Stephenson and Brunei. 
The members of the Institute were ever ready to receive 
suggestions for the improvement of mining, and the practical 
remarks made by Mr. Gibson deserved their consideration. 

Mr. John Watson (Kilmarnock) wrote that the importance 
of standardization of methods of manufacture of all kinds of 
material which were required in large quantities was too well 
tnown to require further emphasis ; and it seemed strange 
that so late in the day it should be open for anyone to point out 
to mining engineers that there was still a field among such 
well-known objects as colliery trams for simplification of manu- 
facture and for standardization of types and sizes. It might. 



1915-1916.] DlSCrSSIOX — THE LOGIC OF TEAMS. 201 

of course, be argued that it was more convenient for each colliery 
to make its own trams and to develop its own type, because the 
conditions under which the trams were to be used were known 
to the managers and to them alone, and that consequently the 
article best suited for the purpose in view would be produced. 
To extend this assumption, it would follow that each colliery 
should design and produce the rails and crossings best suited to 
its purpose, but that would be readily admitted without discus- 
sion to be impracticable. 

On careful examination collier^'-owners would no doubt find 
that it was quite practicable and decidedly advantageous that 
they should purchase rather than make their trams. It appeared 
to be possible to fix on a moderate number of standard types to 
cover the requirements associated with the coal-seams in the dif- 
ferent districts. When this had been done, a specialist in the 
manufacture of trams would be able to produce both better and 
cheaper trams than could be made readily at a colliery. Of 
course, the work of repair would still have to be carried out at 
the colliery; but even that might be simplified, as the specialist 
would be able to supply every piece, either of metal or of timber, 
of the correct size and ready for application to the damaged tram. 
There had undoubtedly been great economies eifected by the 
standardization of other material, and there was no reason, so far 
as he could see, to apprehend tliat similar economies would not 
be effected in the standardization of trams. 

On the question of nomenclature, it ajipeared advisable to 
have standard names as well as standard articles. There was no 
<loubt that much confusion arose, especially in buying, from the 
great variety of names used to describe the same thing. A work- 
man or his foreman requisitioned material from the office by a 
word well known and understood, and could not appreciate that 
the use of this word which he understood so well should present 
any difficulties to a supplier in a distant part of the country, 
where a totally different word was cherished as being properly 
descriptive of the thing in question. Confusion often resulted, 
and it was much to be desired that, if standard sizes and types 
should be arrived at, then standard names for the parts and 
the objects themselves should also be associated with them. 
Much could be done in this way by stamping on each part its 
proper name, so that when replace parts were required no con- 
fusion need arise. 



202 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. fVol. Ixvi. 

In tile fourso of ilic work on a catalog'ue at present in course 
of ])reparation, the writer had experienced considerable difficulty 
in avoiding the use of a variety of words known to him and 
descriptive of machinery in use in coal-mining, many of wliich 
would convey nothing to readers in distant parts. The difficulty 
of arriving at words that would be universally understood had 
been a very real one. 

Mr. AViLLiAM Smith (Dalmellington) wrote that the subject 
dealt with by Mr. Gibson had not received attention commen- 
surate with its importance. Often a certain size of tub was 
adopted at a new colliery, not because the nature of the roof, 
height, and inclination of the seam had been considered, but 
because a neighbouring pit or seam was nearly exhausted, and a 
supply of tubs would be available. Mr. Samuel Dean* had attri- 
buted the high production per man in America to the use of cars 
of large capacity. Other American mining engineers had put it 
down to increased use of coal-cutting machines. Possibly both 
played an equally important part. That the size of the tub 
used had a certain bearing on output and wages cost was un- 
doubted, even in the faulty and troubled areas worked in Scot- 
land. For instance, in many cases a miner determined his day's 
work by the number of 'tubs filled. Assuming that he filled daily 
six tubs weighing 12 cwts. each, and earned 10s. per day, he 
required a rate of 2s. 9hd. per ton. If a tub holding 10 cwts. 
were used, or if the roof were allowed to come down so that a 
tub holding 12 cwts. only held 10 cwts. ^ater-measure, then 
the tonnage-rate must be increased to 3s. 4d. per ton so as to 
enable the miner to make the same wage. Thus the tonnage-rate 
had to be increased 3id. for each cwt. less that the tub carried. 
In a case known to the writer a tub holding 8 cwts. was grad- 
ually replaced by one carrying 10 cwts. ; the men continued 
to fill the same number, the output rose 25 per cent, and wage 
disputes were considerably reduced. Managers who had been 
able to adopt underground conveyors had the importance of 
the subject strongly impressed on them. Tubs which formerly 
seemed adequate were found, with a conveyor at work, 
altogether inadequate, proving that, where hand-drawing was 
reduced to a minimum, one of the principal factors against 
increasing the size of the tub was removed. 

* " Modern American Coal-mining Methods, with Some Comparisons," by 
Mr. Samuel Dean, Trans. Inst. M. E., 1915, vol. 1., pages 179 and 388. 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSIOX THE LOGIC OF TRAMS. 203 

With reference to the " track," it was certainly an advantage 
to hare the rails in exchangeable lengths, say 18, 9, and 4^ feet ; 
but he considered that the manager had already more than suffi- 
cient statutory responsibility to desire to run the risk of a pro- 
secution for using a track over or under the statutory gauge, as 
might happen under the " Amending Act " suggested by Mr. 
Gibson. 

Mr. SiMOX Tate proposed and Mr. Tonx H. Merivale second- 
ed a vote of thanks to Mr. Gibson for his interesting paper, 
which was cordially adopted. 

Mr. John Gibson (Kilmarnock) wrote that he was grateful to 
the members for the kindly reception given to his paper, 

Xo serious reasoned objection had been made to the proposi- 
tion that the gauge of the track should be standardized. Excep- 
tion had been taken by Messrs. E-outledge, Kilpatrick, and 
Smith to the iu^stitution of a .standard gauge by means of an Act 
of Parliament. In the first place, there was an alternative 
method advanced in the paper, namely, by voluntary agreement 
and arrangement. Even if legal enforcement was necessary, it 
would follow and not precede agreement. Secondly, the standard 
gauge of 56^^ inches was legally enforced, and no one could sug- 
gest that this had been found irksome. The strictures passed on 
the recent mining legislation under which collieries were work- 
ing should be made, not on its general wisdom, but on its 
application in all circumstances. 

The regulations with regard to safety-lamps applied equally to 
the deep fiery mines of Glamorgan and to the shallow mines of 
Ayrshire, where firedamp was very infrequently found. This 
was undoubtedly an evil ; but he awaited with interest an ex- 
planation of the reasons why tlie same gauge would be unsuit- 
able for both counties. 

Mr. Routledge bad stated that he could not agree with the 
assertion concerning the existence of thousands of different 
types of trams. He (Mr. Gibson) wished, by two different 
ways, to show him that there was no exaggeration. 

(1) It was admitted that at present everyone was at liberty 
(of which full advantage was taken) to design his own tram and 
gauge. Every tram had at least three dimensions, and it might 
be made of metal or wood, or both combined. The underframe, 
drawbar, pedestals, axles, wheels, rails, gauges, etc., might be 



204 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

(and were) made in many varieties. There were thousands of 
pits in Great Britain, and until his endeavour to co-ordinate the 
known facts and lay down simple general principles, there was 
little or no guidance for owners and managers in choosing 
amongst this great variety of method and material. He had 
stated, therefore, that there were thousands of types of trams. 
This was a ])erfectly accurate statement, and to deny it was to go 
against all liuman experience : because, as there were many com- 
binations of material and many heads to consider them, the types 
increased by geometrical progression. This could not be other- 
wise. 

(2) To take a concrete case : a colliery group consisting of 
eight winding shafts had five different trams, yet there were only 
three different gauges, two different pedestals, four underframes, 
etc. Mr. Routledgc might hold that there was only one type, 
because the method of construction was somewhat similar, or he 
might say in view of the pedestals that there were only two 
types, or perhaps three if judged by the gauge. He (Mr. 
Gibson) submitted that interchangeability was the only true 
test, and that the types were five. 

He hoped on a future occasion to reply to the other points 
raised, as, for instance, jthat raised by Mr. Kilpatrick concern- 
ing the amount of work which a man was capable of doing. Mr. 
Kilpatrick had stated that he (Mr. Gibson) had taken too high 
a figure when putting 024 horsepower as the work which a 
fairly well-developed man could perform through a period of 2h 
minutes. The figures were, however, founded on many years' 
observation. Text-books asserted that a man was capable of 
4,300 foot-pounds per minute, if suitably applied for a period 
of 480 minutes. His own finding was that a drawer could 
under suitable conditions give 7,920 foot-pounds per minute 
for 2i minutes. AVas that at all incredible ? It seemed as if 
Mr. Kilpatrick had forgotten the time factor. 



A '' AViddas " patent incline chock was exhibited, described, 
and demonstrated by Mr. Percy AA^iddas. 

A safety mine-cage arrester was exhibited, described, and 
demonstrated bv Mr. Thomas Pearson. 



1915-1916.] TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. 205 



THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE OF MINING AND 
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



GENERAL MEETING, 

Held in the Wood Memorial Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 

April 8th, 1916. 



Mr T. Y. GKEENER, President, in the Chair. 



The Secretary read tlie minutes of the last General Meeting, 
and reported the proceedings of the Council at their meetings on 
March 25th and that day. 



The following gentlemen were elected, having been previously 
Jiominated : — 

Members — 
Mr. Ernest Edward Noble, Mechanical Engineer, 30, Ashleigh Grove, 

Fulwell, Sunderland. 
Mr. William Fenwick Reed, Mechanical Engineer, 16, Princes Gardens, 

Monkseaton, Whitley Bay, Northumberland. 
Mr. David Wilson Robertson, Colliery Manager, c/o Messrs. A. Goninan & 

Company, Limited, Wickham, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia. 
Mr. John James Tdhnbull, Jun., Junior Inspector of Mines in India, 

Asansol, E.I.R., Burdwan, Bengal, India. 

Associate Member — 
Mr. John Harry Ramsey, 17, Victoria Road, Darlington, 

Associates — 
Mr. Geor(;e Donald Gould, Overman, c/o Mrs. John Gould, 58, Ebers Road, 

Nottingham. 
Mr. Henry Charles Hubert Hanlon, Underground Surveyor, 7, Mark Lane, 

Whitehaven, 
Mr. William Oliver, Overman, 4, Quality Row, Harton Colliery, South 

Shields. 



VOL. LXTI— 7915-1916. 15 E 



206 TRANSACTIONS THE XOUTII OK KXGLAXl) I XSTI TITK. [Vol. Ixvi. 

DISCUSSION OF MR. SAMUEL DEAN\S PAPER ON 
"MODERN AMERICAN COAL-MINING METHODS, 
WITH SOME COMPARISONS."* 

Mr. Samuel Dean {Delagua, Colorado, U.S.A.) wrote that^ 
after readino- Mr. Hare's remarks, he was inclined to believe 
that men who were successfully employing bord-and-pillar or 
shoiiwall machines in mines with difficult pitches and bad roofs, 
wonld not place the blame for the failure mentioned at Mr. 
Hare's mine upon the American operator, but upon the shoulders 
of the mine manager. As Mr. Hare's remarks appeared to evince 
a lack of knowledge of machine-mining, and a bitter feelings 
towards American machine-runners, it would be interesting to 
have a frank statement from this particular operator as to the 
reasons for the failure. 

Mr! Hare had stated that English longwall machines were 
as good as American machines, and upon this statement the 
writer did not intend to comment. He held no brief for any 
particular machine, but what many people considered the best 
shortwall machine in America was not advertised in Great 
Britain, and possibly the machine had never been used in any 
mine in that country. 

When Mr. Hare asserted that in bord-and-pillar working it 
was absolutely necessary to use naked wires in order to move the 
machines quickly from place to place, he (Mr. Dean) was com- 
pelled to say that Mr. Hare apparently did not fully understand 
the problem. All the wires could be insulated : the power which 
enabled the machine to travel from place to place was received 
■ through the trailing-cable, and the cable was automatically 
wound up on the reel, or let out, as the machine went back- 
wards or forwards. 

The use of 70-pound rails at or near the face was quite un- 
necessary ; 20-pound rails were heavy enough for a shortwall 
machine when the speed at which it travelled was taken into 
consideration ; and TO-pound rails were for use on main haulage- 
roads along which heavy locomotives and long trains of cars 
travelled at top speed. 

If Mr. Hare had given a plan of the district of his mine where 
the American machine was a failure, showing the width of all 

* Trans. Inst. M. E., 1915, vol. 1., pages 179 and 388 ; and 1916, vol. li.,. 
page 35. 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSION AMERICAN COAL-MINING METHODS. 207 

the places — say, every 30 feet — the position of the props and 
other roof supports, the position and gauge of the track, the 
section and pitch of the seam, and other data, one might then 
have been able to adduce some reasons for the failure. If both 
the bords and walls were narrow, and the mine worked three 
shifts a day, the machineman would be frequently " held up " 
by the ponies, or hand-putters, and little tubs, as the roadways 
would then be congested with traffic. 

Mr. Hare thought that no comparison could be made between 
the working conditions in the two countries, and he (Mr. Dean) 
would add that this statement was perfectly true where 10-cwt. 
tubs were used in British mines. No matter what results were 
obtained with machines, the output per man would never ap- 
proach the American figure so long as 10-cwt. tubs were 
employed. 

It would be of some interest to learn what was the capacity 
of the tubs in use in the workings of the new 20-foot seam near 
Coventry, and what the output per man was expected to be. 
These frequent remarks about more difficult conditions in Great 
Britain were not always justified. In the case of Bentley 
Colliery, it was seldom necessary for a man 6 feet high to stoop 
when walking from the shaft to the coal-face; the pitch was 
" just right " to facilitate haulage; the roof permitted of double 
tracks in the gateways; the seam was 5 feet 4 inches to 6 feet 
thick, and was perhaps the easiest seam to work that the writer 
ever saw, as the coal fell over in large slabs when the miner in- 
serted a long iron bar behind the facings. The output per man 
at the face was about 5 tons, and 14-cwt. tubs were used. The 
output per man in a similar seam in America would be 10 tons, 
and about half the number of men would be employed to move 
the coal from the face to the shaft-bottom. The gauge of the 
track at Bentley was 26 inches, the rails weighed 28 pounds on 
main roads and 18 pounds at the face, and props at the face 
were set 5 feet apart. 

To enable Mr. Hare to realize the situation, he might take, 
say, the Hutton Seam in the County of Durham, where it was 
approximately 6 feet thick and easy to hew by the scalloping 
process, and compare the output per man for all men employed 
in the workings of that seam with the output per man in 
American seams 6 feet thick. The figures would probably 



S08 TRANSACTIONS THE NOllTH OF EN(;LAXD IXSTITLTE. [V^ol.lxvi. 

startle him, and he wouhl not he ahle to console himself with 
the statement that the Eiic^lish conditions were unfavourahle. 

To return to the machine proposition : it M'as futile to 
expect an immediate success hy placinj^ all the responsibility 
upon the machine-runner, and that man a stranger in a land of 
old customs and prejudices. Did Mr. Hare's officials assist the 
operator? AVere they able to assist? Or did they sit at the 
" kist " and say: "Now, let's see what the Yankee can do?" 
If they did that, or anything like it, his failure was already 
assured. 

The cause of success or non-success with machines rested with 
the manager of the mine. The manner in which he planned 
the lay-out of his workings, his organization, and the way in 
which he watched daily operations were the factors that 
governed the results. When a new American coal-cutting 
machine arrived at a colliery, the mechanics should immediately 
take it to pieces and build it up again, and should thoroughly 
satisfy themselves that they understood its mechanism. In the 
evenings the manager, under-manager, and overmen should 
attend at the workshops, a mechanic should put the machine 
into operation there, and afterwards take it to pieces, and the 
different underground officials should build it up again. This 
work should be continued every evening until each man under- 
.stood how the machine worked, and how to remedy defects in it. 
That was the way in which German mine officials were taught 
their business at Boclium. When the writer visited the C.E.A.G. 
electric lamp-works at Dortmund, he saw all the American cap- 
lamps lying on a table dissected, and efforts being made to im- 
prove upon them. The object then was to produce a German 
electric cap-lamp to be placed upon the American market. 

When the official understood the mechanism of the machine, 
he took a deeper interest in its operation at the coal-face. If 
the machine " would not work," he ought, after an examination, 
to be able to state the reason why. If he could not, of what 
value was he in a mine where the coal was undercut by 
machines? When a machine was first introduced, the welfare 
of the paachirie and operator should be the first consideration. 
In the event of a breakdown, mechanics should be sent to the 
coal-face without delay to effect the necessary repairs, or to 
bring the machine to the shop. 



1915-1916.] DISCIJSSIOX AMERICAN COAL-MINING METHODS. 



209 



As a rule, machine-runners knew little or nothing" with regard 
to laying out the workings of a mine so as to facilitate machine 
operation, and this was where the mining engineer should come 
in. American shortwall machines might be more successful in 
a mine laid out on the South Wales single-stall method than 
on the Durham bord-and-pillar method. 

Mr. Hare had stated that the illustrations to his (Mr. Dean's) 
paper showed " vast spaces," with hardly a stick of timber, and 
immediately seized that peg on which to hang another excuse. 
It so happened that some of these photographs were taken in 




Fig. 1. — An Entry in an American Mine, Showing the Entrance to a Room 

AT THE Left. 



mines where the roof was good, and he would admit that a large 
number of mines in America possessed good roofs. But, in 
order to show that machines and large cars were used in mines 
with bad roofs, he (Mr. Dean) immediately after reading Mr. 
Hare's remarks had some photographs taken in a mine with a 
bad roof, situated within a mile or two of his residence (Figs. 
1, 2, and 3). 

Mr. Hare had said that it was practically impossible to use 
the American bord-and-pillar machines in an ordinary English 
pit, and he (Mr. Dean) did not propose to allow that statement 



210 TRANSACTIONS — THE NORTH OF KNtiLAXD IXSTITLTK. [Vol. Ixvi. 

to go unchallenged, or to fail to deny it. Surely, the English 
Government Kegulations did not prevent the use of electricity 
altogether!"^ The United States Bureau of Mines had already 
placed certain electric shortwall machines on the permissible 
list for use in gaseous mines, and tiie liureau would never have 
done this if naked wires were necessary. 

AVith regard to timbering close up to the face, Mr. Hare 
must have seen props set 6 feet off the face and the intervening 
roof supported by collars resting on props at one end and 
" needled "' into the coal-head at the other. A passage-way 6 
feet wide was ample for the latest shortwall machines. 




Fig. 2. — An Electric Shortwall Machine Travelling In-bye in a Rooji. 



Fig. 1 showed an entry in a mine where the coal was 5 feet 
thick ; on the left the track was shown leading into a room- 
neck ; the duplex trailiug-cable of a shortwall machine would 
be seen on the floor on the left-hand side, and the car seen in the 
entry had a carrying capacity of 2 tons. 

Fig. 2 showed the shortwall machine travelling in-bye in 
the room. The reel and the insulated trailing-cable were 
plainly in view, and it would be seen that there were no naked 
wires, and that the roof had to be supported. The loose props 
on the left were for the use of fillers at the face. 



1915-1916.] niSCUSSIOX AMERICAN COAL-MINING METHOnS. 



'11 



Fig. 3 .showed the shortwall machine cutting across the face 
of a " crosscut " oif the room. A crosscut was a place driven 
through the pillar to connect between rooms, and in the County 
of Durham would be called a " wall." In the same county a 
room would be called a " bord." This particular crosscut was 
12 feet wide, and the rooms were 20 feet wide. 

One foot of draw-slate generally came down with the coal, 
■and the roof above was full of slips and pot-holes. The maxi- 
mum distance allowed between props under ra]i-pieces was 5 feet. 




Fig. 3. — A Shortwall Machine Cutting Across the Face of a Crosscut, or 

Narrow Place. 



The roof over the track had to be supported with cross-bars and 
lagging. 

^o .special arrangements were made when the photographs 
for Figs. 1, 2, and 3 were taken. He (Mr. Dean) entered the 
mine with the photographer, and the pictures were taken just 
where the machine happened to be. There were many places in 
the mine far more closely timbered than those shown. This 
particular machine cut to a depth of 7 feet, and averaged about 
100 lineal feet of face per day. It gave so little trouble that the 
management hardly knew that there was a machine in the mine. 
It had been in u.se 18 months, and previous to that time the 



212 TRANSACTIONS — THE NORTH OF KXCiLAXJ) IXSTITLTK. [Vol. Ixvi. 

opinion was that tli'e roof was not suitable for macliiues. When 
it was introduced, the " old timers" predicted failure. It was 
(luite possible that 75 per cent, of the coal produced from this 
mine would eventually be cut by machines. 

He would not close his remarks without congratulating Mr. 
Simon Tate upon the excellence of his criticism of the paper. 
If Mr. Tate's statements failed to convince the majority that 
drastic changes were necessary, then one could not look hope- 
fully to the future. It was unfortunate that what Mr. Tate 
had written had not received greater publicity. He (Mr. Dean) 
did not agree with his statement respecting the size of tubs in 
new pits. If he (Mr. Dean) were to start a new mine, he would 
aim at having tubs of a capacity of 35 cwt. or 2 tons, instead 
of 15 cwt. or 1 ton. When once the workman learned how to 
re-rail quickly a 2-ton car, it gave him very little trouble, and 
brakes enabled a man to handle the car on varying gradients 
without difficulty. It was more than a question of getting a 
hewer's work out : to keep him supplied with an unlimited 
number of 10-cwt. tubs involved the services of an excessive 
number of haulage hands ; and in a large mine, where all the coal 
was undercut by machines it would be, to use Mr. Hare's words, 
" practically impossible " to supply the filler with an unlimited 
number of 10-cwt tubs. When face-conveyors were used, 10-cwt. 
tubs were out of the question. 

Mr. Samuel Hare (Bishop Auckland) said that he was sur- 
prised to read the following in Mr. Dean's reply to his (Mr. 
Hare's) remarks : — 

" He was inclined to believe that men who were successfully employing- 
bord-and-pillar or shortwall machines in mines with difficult pitches and bad 
roofs would not place the blame for the failure mentioned at Mr. Hare's mine 
upon the American operator." 

He (Mr. Hare) thought that everyone who had read his re- 
marks would agree that he had no intention of placing the blame 
on the operator, but that he quoted the case in question in order 
to prove that the conditions of English mining were so different 
from those prevailing in America that one of the best American 
operators was 'unable to obtain satisfactory results when using 
one of the latest types of American heading machines. Mr. Dean 
then stated that " what many people considered the best short- 
wall machine in America was not advertised in Great Britain, 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSION AMERICAN COAL-MINING METHODS. 213 

and possibly the macliine had never heen used iu any mme in 
that country."' in reply to which he (Mr. Hare) would mention 
that the machine used was made by what he was informed was 
the largest company in America eng-aged in this work, and he 
could not speak too highly of it. He would also mention that he 
had several long-wall machines in use made by the same firm, 
and the results obtained from them were most satisfactory. 

Mr. Dean also referred to a statement which he (Mr. Hare) had 
made, that in bord-and-pillar working it was ahsolutcJy necessary 
to use naked wires in order to move the machines quickly from 
place to place, and had concluded his sentence by stating that 
"Mr. Hare apparently did not fully understand the problem." 
If this were correct, then he could onlj- say that apparently one, 
at least, of the best American operators was equally ignorant, 
seeing that he had given it as one of the principal reasons for his 
want of success that he was not provided with naked wires for the 
purpose of "flitting" his machine. Mr. Dean had then ex- 
plained how it could be done by means of an insulated cable, a 
method which every novice in mining fully understood, but Mr. 
Dean did not say that the flitting by this method could be car- 
ried out quickly. 

Although (speaking from memory) Mr. Dean had not given 
much information in the paper as to whether naked wires or 
insulated cable were used in connexion with the machine de- 
scribed by him, he (Mr. Hare) had arrived at the conclusion 
(assisted by the illustrations) that bare wires were being used. 
If, however, Mr. Dean, with a better knowledge of American 
mining methods than he (the speaker) could claim to possess, 
stated that heading machines could be flitted quite satisfactorily 
by insulated cable, then he was bound to accept that statement, 
and must come to the conclusion that the different conditions at 
the face were entirely responsible for the failure of this particu- 
lar machine. 

Mr. Dean had called attention to the Hutton Seam in the 
County of Durham. As at one time he (Mr. Hare) had been 
manager of the largest pit in the county working the Hutton 
Seam extensively, it might interest Mr. Dean to know that at 
this particular colliery, and at most of the others with which he 
was acquainted where the Hutton Seam was being worked, 
neither naked nor insulated wires of any description would be 



214 TRANSACTIONS- — THE XORTII OV KXGLAXl) INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

tolerated in any part of the mine. How then could any compari- 
son be made between the output per man from the Hutton Seam 
■ — lying- very often at <ireat depths, witli great roof pressures, 
and also witli firedamp present in larcje qiiantities — and machine- 
mining' in comi)aratively shallow mines of good section, where 
electricity could be used with impunity ? 

He thought that he might fairly dismiss witliout comment 
Mr. Dean's sug-gestion that the operator might not have received 
sufficient assistance from the officials. Needless to say, every 
suggestion made by the operator was most promptly and willingly 
acted upon. 

Mr. Dean had referred to his (Mr. Hare's) allusion to the 
*' vast spaces '' containing hardly a stick of timber, but Mr. Dean 
himself was surely responsible for any one arriving at that con- 
clusion. A glance at Figs. 27 to 32, 36, 38, and 40 to 46, would 
demonstrate that the conditions shown in these illustrations 
could not possibly be found in any English colliery. 

Mr. Dean had now presented three additional illustrations, in 
an attempt to prove that there was not much difference between 
the face conditions prevailing in England and in America. It was 
not necessary, howcA^er, to examine these new illustrations very 
closely to find that Figs.l and 2 were not views of face workings 
such as those shown in the paper, but were evidently roadways, 
which one might naturally expect to be timbered. 

As to Fig. 3, it was the only illustration out of seventeen that 
showed any timber at all at the working-face, and he thought 
that it might be fairly assumed from this that in this particular 
place there was some abnormality present^ — possibly a fault or 
hitch which had affected the roof. 

In comparing American and English mining practices, there 
were several other points that Mr. Dean ought to have taken into 
consideration before making such sweeping allegations — for 
instance, the gradients met with in both countries. He (Mr. 
Hare) had always understood (and here again the illustrations 
would bear him out) that the American Coal-Measures were 
almost horizontal, whereas in Great Britain in several of the 
coalfields they were highly inclined. In some of the pits under 
his charge the gradients varied from 12 to 24 inches per yard, 
and under these conditions machine-mining with bad roofs 
became almost an impossibility-. 



1915-191G.] DlSrUSSIOX AMERICAX COAL-MIXIXG METHODS. 215 

In couclusioii. lie could only repeat what Le had already stated 
ill coiiiiexion with Ameriean mining- practice he recognized and 
adiuiieil the skill shown by American mining engineers in the 
design and application of machinery to mining, but, at the same 
time, he claimed that Mr. Dean had failed absolutely to prove 
that it was possible to obtain anything like the same result-s in 
Great liritain. even bj' applying the best mining machines, and 
to the same extent, as in America. 

The Pkesidext (Mr. T. Y. Greener) said that it must be 
obA'ious to everybody who had considered the matter that the chief 
reason why the output per man in the American coalfields was so 
much larger than that in Eng-land was not due to want of skill on 
the part of English milling' engineers, but to the dift'erent condi- 
tions prevailing in the two countries. America was now in very 
much the same position as Britain was 40 or 50 yearsS ago. The 
Americans were now working their best and thickest seams, and, 
apart from that, they had all the advantages of the appliances 
that had been discovered during the last 30 years ; they had also 
the advantages arising from the use of electricity and other 
power; and these were sufficient to account for the difference in 
the output of the two countries. 

He gathered that there was a very general idea in America 
that the use of large tubs was the solution of the difficulties with 
which the}* in England had to contend. He wondered what Mr. 
Dean or anj'one else would say to the use of large tubs of, say, 2 
tons capacity in the thin seams which were being worked in 
various parts of the country to-daj'. Those seams varied from 20 
to 22 inches in height, and he thought no one would suggest the 
use of trams containing 2 tons under such conditions. To begin 
with, the cost of making the roads would be absolutely prohibi- 
tive, even assuming that it was only necessary to make roads 
every 100 yards. The idea that if large tubs were adopted in 
Great Britain the output would immediately approach that of 
the United States seemed to him absurd and impracticable. 

He did not know why reference had been made bj- Mr. Dean 
to Bentley Colliery, because it was perfectly well known that at 
Bentley nothing in the shape of electrical machinery was admis- 
sible underground, owing to the quantity of gas present. He 
thought that this went to show the impossibility of comparing 
the results obtained in one country with those obtained in 

VOL LXVI.— iril3-191«. 16 E 



21(1 TRANSACTIONS THE NOKTII OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

another, unless it was ])()ssible to reproduce the same conditions 
in each country. 

They Avere very much indebted to Mr. Dean for l)riii<Ting the 
paper before them; it was certainly a paper that would spur 
them on to do whatever they could to approach more nearly to the 
output of American mines; but there was nothing in Mr. Dean's 
paper which went to show that English mininf? eno-ineers were 
lagging behind, either in the adoption of labour-saving plant or 
in other scientific appliances. 



DI8CUSSI0X OF MR. HIRAM H. HIRSC'H'S PAPER ON 
" THE HIRSC'H PORTABLE ELECTRIC LAMP."* 

Mr. Percy L. AVood (Clifton) wrote tliat, in his opinion, the 
lamp battery was too small ; it might give no trouble for 
a short period, but he was confident that, with the ordinary 
knocking about that lamps received in the colliery, it would not 
give satisfaction for long. His experience of electric lamps was 
that as new lamps were required the makers, instead of supply- 
ing a lighter lamp, recommended an increase in the size of the 
battery. This, he thought, was the only way to secure a reliable 
light. 



DISCUSSIOIS^ OF MR. JOHN GIBSON'S PAPER ON " THE 
LOGIC OF TRAMS. "t 

Mr. Arnold Lupton (London) wrote that doubtless many 
advantages would result from the standardization of pit-trams, 
but there were many difficulties in the way. As the conditions 
of collieries changed every day, it was important that the trams 
should suit the special circumstances of each pit. 

The exterior dimensions of the tram were governed, amongst 
other circumstances, by the diameter of tlie shaft, the most 
economical width of the roads, the height of the working-place 
and the most economical height of the roads, the gradient, the 
habits of the miners, the method of haulage, and tlie most con- 

* Trans. Inst. M, E., 1916, vol. li., page 61. 
t Ihid. , page 72. 



I'Jlo I'JIG.] DlSCrSSIOX THE LOGIC OF TRAHS. 217 

veuient wei^lit of the loaded and empty tram. It would not be 
economical to alter the dimensions, as fixed by the foregoing- 
considerations, for the sake of any reduction in first cost of the 
tram or of repairs. 

In mines where the loaded tram moved downhill, the cost of 
haulage was, to a g-reat extent, measured by the cost of g-etting- 
the empty tram to the place where it was filled. For that 
reason it was economical to make a tram as light as possible, in 
proportion to tlie weight of coal that it contained. It was also 
advisable to make the weight of coal contained in a tram as great 
as possible, having- regard to the external dimensions, because 
upon these external dimensions depended the space occupied by 
the trams in the' mine and in the cage for any g-iveu output of 
coal. 

It was frequently the case that the dimensions, shape, 
material, and form of construction of a tram were designed 
chiefly to save first cost and the cost of repairs of a given number 
of trams ; whereas it could easily be shown that, where sufficient 
capital was available, the first cost of a tram and the cost of tram 
repairs were matters of much less importance (having regard to 
the total costs of the mine) than the possession of a tram of the 
best possible design and construction (having regard to the cost 
of haulage, road repairs, and outpnt). A, tram which held 10 
per cent, more coal for a given weight and external dimensions 
would enable the manager to obtain a 10-per-cent. greater output 
from a pit in which the colliers were able to fill all the trams that 
were brouglit to them. 

A tram should be so designed, both in regard to construction 
and lubrication of the wheels and axles, as to work with a mini- 
mum amount of friction. It should have spring buffers (which 
he, Mr. Lupton, had designed and used), and the body of the tram 
should be carried on springs if it were found possible to design 
suitable springs without adding unduly to the weight and ex- 
ternal dimensions of the tram. Springs reduced the breakage 
of coal in transit and the damage to the trams in a collision. 

An ordinary colliery manager was reluctant to design and 
order the best possible tram for fear that he would be criticized 
for the expense in first cost and repairs. These expenses would 
be obvious, but ecouimies would not ; and he would therefore 
prefer the experiment to be made by someone else. 



218 THANSACTIONS THE .NOKTll (tK KX(;i,.VMJ INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

Mr. W. It. Peck (Hi^' Stone (j:\]), \"\v'/\uu\, T'.S.A.) wrote 
that it appeared to liiin thai the author had " i)ut the cart before 
the liorse," for, iu sufi'f^estmg the standardization of mine-trams 
and track, he liad placed the tram first, and liad o-iven very good 
reasons for so doing: hut, in order to rvacli this standard, tlie 
track-gauge sliouhl first of all he considered, and it onght to a 
greater or less extent govern the size of the tram. The height, 
width, and length of the tram could he varied and still maintain 
a (dose approximation to the standard ; hut, owing to the modern- 
ization of haulage, locomotives, and mining machinery, and to 
the near approach of the time when steel ties would replace those 
made of wood, and steel would replace wood in timbering, it 
seemed conclusive that a track-gauge standard should come first. 
In considering this point, one must not only think of the coal 
that would come over the track, but also of every piece of machin- 
eiy that could be used to advantage in the recovery of the coal. 
The day had now arrived in the Ignited States when the mining 
company that neglected its underground transportation lost divi- 
dends for its stockholders. 

The secret of successful mining was primarily successful 
transportation ; this statement was true in almost all industries : 
it was easy enough to grow grain, but if it could not be taken 
to the market cheaply and readily, all the profits would be lost. 
The coal in the ground cost but little : for a snmll price it could 
be dug and loaded on to the tram, and for a certain price 
the railroad or steamship lines would haul it away; but was it 
easy to get this coal from the working-face to the railroad-car ^ 
The complexities of underground transportation in a mine of the 
present day were such that they would baffle the ingenuity of 
many a railway traffic superintendent if he were called upon 
suddenly to tackle the problem in a mine. 

It was necessary, therefore, to establish not only a standard 
gauge for the track, but one that would and could be satisfac- 
torily used throughout, both underground and at the surface. 
One could not hope to meet all conditions, but the endeavour, in 
the selection of the standard track-gauge, should be to approach 
as near the ideal as possible. 

Mr. Gibson had recommended a 'gauge of 24 inches ; but such 
a gauge was too narrow. This particular gauge had been de- 
cided upon for two reasons — the man power, and the width of the 



1915-1016.] DISCUSSIOX — THE LOGIC OF TRAMS. 219 

gate-road. Given a car or tram of the same weight, a man could 
push it a.s easily on a gauge of 42 inches as on a 24-inch gauge; 
and if proper pack-walls and cribs were built in longwall mining, 
and proper timbering were used in the room-and-pillar work, a 
track-gauge of 42 inches could be maintained as well as one of 
24. Perhaps the cost of the pack-walls and the timbering would 
be greater with the witle than with the narrow gauge; but the 
saving- in transportation and capital invested would more than 
ottset this extra expense. It was true that a tram for the wide 
gauge would have a greater dead weight than the tram for the 
narrow gauge, but it had been proved in America that the ad- 
vantage was with the wider gauge. In the selection of this 
standard track-gauge and tram, one must not lose sight of the 
fact that the day of man power, and, to a large extent, horse- 
power, for haulage was gone. Electric and gasolene power was 
employed in America, not only on the main haulage-roads, but 
at the very working-face. This fact demanded larger trams : if 
the coal-bed was thin, a wide, long, but low tram was used; if 
thick, not only a wide and long, but high tram was employed. 
The miner would not have to handle it, as it would be placed for 
him by mechanical power. 

The general idea of Mr. Gibson's paper was good : standard- 
ization was the keynote of the times, and this had resulted in 
large savings being effected in many other industries, as it would 
in mining if properly applied. A broad standard gauge should 
be established — not to safeguard the mine-tram as it existed to- 
day, but for the standard tram of the near future. This standard 
tram should be such that, even in the thin seams, its capacity 
would not be less than 1,000 pounds, and his (Mr. Peck's) prefer- 
ence was for one of at least twice that capacity. Trams of a 
capacity ranging from 2,000 to 2,500 pounds were being used in 
mines in America in >seams from 24 to 30 inches thick. The 
trams were very low. but long and wide, witli small wheels. 

The suggestion that mine-rails should be manufactured in 
multiple units was very good, and, if adopted, would result in 
the saving of much time and money in the laying and mainten- 
ance of the track. 

He gathered from Mr. Gibson's paper that it was thought 
that American mine-operators paid more attention to the track 
than was the case in Great Britain. This might be on account 
of the entirely diiferent mining conditions, but very likely it was 



220 TH.VXSACTIONS THE NORTH OK K.N(il,AM) LVSTITITE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

due more lu the f'lict that in America a larger tram aud more 
mining- macliinery were used. For tliis reason American mining 
engineers liad adhered to the wide-track gauge, and had en- 
deavoured to make tlieir mine-tracks compare favourably with 
the railway-tracks. Mr. (jihson liad spoken of the desirability 
of small trams, on account of the rio-ht-angled turns and short- 
<'rassings that were encountered. A great many of the American 
mines turned their rooms at right-angles, but switches were put 
in, the same standard switch being used throughout the mine, 
so that the small gathering motors had no trouble in taking these 
.switches. Man power for haulage had disappeai'ed in America ; 
it was cheaper to use mechanical haulage even at the working- 
face, and therefore American mines had introduced a wide gauge 
and a large car or tram, with the result that the miner as well 
as the operator realized the benetit. American mines had not 
iis yet standardized their tracks or their cars, but such stan- 
dardization would come in the near future. 

His criticism of Mr. Gibson's paper was based entirely on 
mining conditions as they existed in America, and probably 
would not fit the present conditions of English mines. One 
must remember, however, that the standard track and tram 
ought not be made to suit the mine conditions of yesterday, 
or even of to-day, but, rather, the mistakes discovered in the 
past and present should be taken into account, and tracks and 
trams designed that would be suitable for the mines of the 
future. 

Mr. Samuel Dean (Deh^gua, Colorado, U.S.A.) wrote that 
the paper should only be the first of a series dealing with the 
mine-tram, because it would take considerable time to arrive at 
anything definite in regard to standardization. 

There were no standard mine-cars in America. He 
had agitated for them for the last 18 months ; but the American 
mining engineer had the consolation of knowing that his cars 
or trams were generally large enough for his purpose. The 
British mining engineer, on the other hand, was in a dilemma ; 
lie had " cut " his pit according to his car, and, as his car was 
usually ridiculously small, his output per man was in the same 
ratio. 

Mr. Gibson had stated that at one British colliery a 2-ton 
tram might be used, while at another, under not dissimilar con- 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSIOX THE LOGIC OF TRAMS. 221 

<litioiis, ;i tram to carry only 4 cwts. niig'bt be employed. By 
" stepping- u])," a similar comparison could be drawn in America. 
A -'iO-cwt. car could be seen in one mine, and a 4-ton ear in 
anotlier, yet the thickness and pitch of the seam, and the nature 
of the roof and floor, would be similar in both mines. The more 
one considered the mine-tram problem, the more one realized 
that some mining engineers or " practical mining men " had 
overlooked something of vital importance in this connexion. 

Mr. Gibson had asserted that if coal had to be moved 10 
feet, or 10 yards, or 100 yards, the best methods to employ 
would be shovelling, wheel-barrowing, and tramming respective- 
ly : but it all depended upon the quantity of coal to be moved. 
A large quantity of coal, or of earth on the surface after 
ploughing, could be moved more quickly and cheaply by 
"scraping" than by shovelling or wheeling. By "scraping" 
he (Mr. Dean) meant the use of a scraper, holding about a 
ton, drawn by a team of mules. As the quantity of material 
and the distance increased, the use of steam-shovels, loco- 
motives, and side or end-tipping wagons became justified. 

He would ask Mr. Gibson to explain why it was necessary 
to turn gate-roads off crossgates at right-angles? The turn- 
plate and the flat-sheet were, in his opinion, old-fashioned, 
and should not be employed in modern mines. When a tram 
left the rails on one side of a flat-sheet, the man who pushed 
it was often delayed some little time in his eft'ort to find the 
rails on the other side, and these short delays mounted up 
considerably at the end of a day, a week, or a year. These 
sharp right-angled turns also prevented the use of a long tram. 
This was an important point, when it was remembered that 
what was wanted was length and width, not height. 

\It. Gibson had also stated that " in gate-roads it is . . . 
cheaper to draw by hand to the limit of inclination, rather 
than resort to self-acting inclines of any kind." This, how- 
ever, was a matter needing much concentrated thought. Was 
there no other way of conveying the coal to the levels? Could 
gateway conveyors not be used, and the drawers sent to do 
other and more useful work? Mr. Gibson spoke of drawing 
to a " lye " 500 yards out-bye. This meant (if 10-cwt. trams 
were used) that a drawer would have to travel a distance of 
1,000 vards for half a ton of coal, or 2,000 yards for a ton. 



222 TRAiVSACTIOXS THE NORTH OF K.V(;LA\I) IXSriirTK. [Vol Ixvi. 

Such ;ui ariaiiyeiufiit appeared to be an amazing' waste of time 
and energ-y, and it was therefore not at all surprising- that 
tJie national output per man was low. 

The g-eneral lay-out of the mine working's appeared to be 
groverned by the size of the tram. If a nutnager in America 
•were about to open a seam 3 feet thicdc, pitching 10 degrees^ 
he Avould reason somewhat like this: "I shall have to work 
the seam in a certain way, because I shall have to use the 
2-tou cars sent here from an abandoned mine." His cars 
would thus govern his method of working underground, and 
it was a foregone conclusion that the cars would not be pushed 
between the "lye" and the working-face, whilst his output per 
mail would be higher from this seam than the average pro- 
duction from a seam of the same thickness in any other 
country. 

This brought one to a consideration of the following plain 
question : — If the seam were -3 feet thick, and it was proposed to 
use trams of a capacity of 2 tons, how must the workings be laid 
out in pitches of -i, (J, 9, 12, or 24 degrees to allow of the trams 
being moved with the minimum amount of physical power 
and the maximum conservation of time? That was a question 
which only a man with very wide experience could answer,, 
unless he were given time to find out how- seams 3 feet thick 
on these different pitches were being worked in modern mines 
in all parts of the country. When it was remembered how 
difticult it was for one to obtain information (sometimes one was 
not permitted even to look at the surface arrangements of 
a colliery), the value of friendly co-operation between different 
countries would be realized. Many men, who could throw 
light on this problem, would read the present discussion, but,, 
from a false sense of their duty, or on account of their lethargy, 
would remain silent. These were the men who received, but 
seldom gave. 

Where main gates dipped to the face, small hoists at the 
top would handle very satisfactorily single cars of a capacity 
of 2 tons; and if the "level" gateways dipped slightly to the 
face, the lad {it the end of the rope could easily push the empty 
to the face by pulling in the light flexible rope that passed 
round the centre pulley at the switch. When the tram reached 
the face, it was switched on to a movable -side-track and the 
rope hooked on to the loaded tram, which was then pulled 



1915-1916. J DISCUSSIOX — ^THE LOGIC OF TEAMS. 22ii 

out. The extra width of gateway wa.s only required for a 
short distance back from the face. As the switch or crossing- 
was moved forward, the space behind could be gobbed with 
debris. This, of course, meant extra width of brushing, and 
might be objectionable in some mines. The alternative, then, 
was to have short gateways and to have the rope to pull the trams 
and deliver them to the mouth of each gateway, the trams being 
jjushed by hand over the short distance between the dip-road and 
the face. The amount of time consumed in pushing or draw- 
ing was not serious, because with 2-ton cars it was only neces- 
sary to travel between the dip-road and the face of each place 
a few times a day, the track being laid just slightly in favour 
of the loads on the levels. 

In America drawers or putters were not employed, and 
in 20-foot rooms that were worked double (two men) the driver 
often left the empty tub at the room-neck and the two men 
pushed it to the face. On his next journey the driver left his 
empty at the same place, took his mule to the face, and pulled 
out the loaded car; or, if the place were driven in favour of 
the load, and was too low for the mule, one of the miners 
" dropped "' the loaded car down to the switch, riding behind 
on the bumpers, and gently applied the brakes when required: 
he also used the brakes to stop the car. Frequently the driver 
took two empties from the flat or parting, left them at adjoin- 
ing room-necks, and returned with two loaded cars. If the 
cars were not too heavy, and he had a strong mule, he could 
handle three or four cars at a time. 

Mr. Gibson had stated that " brakes were inadmissible," 
but in this instance he had made a serious mistake. In the case 
of 80-cwt. or 2-ton cars, brakes were indispensable, and no man 
who had used them would willingly go back to the " mediaeval "' 
method of using " sprags " or " lockers.'' 

He (Mr. Dean) would warn anyone who contemplated using 
large cars not to strive unduly after lightness. Some of the 
most serviceable cars of 2 tons capacity weighed about a ton, 
although by using the very best material in the wheels and 
axles this weight might possibly be reduced a little. 

He prefeired the term "switch" to "short-crossing," and 
there was no necessity to use two words when one sufficed. He 
pieferred "frog" to "heart," and "latches" instead of 



224 TUAXSACTIONS — THE NOIMII OK KN(;i.AND INSTITUTE. fVol. Ixvi. 

■' wings."' At looin-iietks fast i)()iiits were generally laid, and 
the man wlio jjushed the car a])i)lit'd side pressure to turn it to 
the right or to the left. He was glad to see that Mr. Gibson had 
adopted the word " track,'' but for heavy tracks nails were in- 
admissible, and spikes or dog-s must be used. Steel .sleepers or 
" ties '' were preferable to those made of wood in low roadways. 
Such sleepers had already passed the experimental stage, and 
where heavy coal-cutters were used they tended to hold the 
track to the proper gauge. He did not think it wise to adopt a 
standard rail-length of -i feet for heavy traffic. He disagreed 
with the suggestion of a track-gauge of 24 inches for trams of 
2 tons capacity, and considered that the minimum gauge should 
be 36 inches. 

It would appear that there was room for much improve- 
ment in railway equipment. A country that used 10 and 12- 
ton railway-wagons would feel the effects of world competition 
later on. In 1900 the Pennsylvania Eailway scrapped and 
burned all wagons of a carrying capacity under 40 tons, regard- 
less of their condition. The Xorfolk & Western Eailway now 
used '" hopper '" wagons of 100 tons capacity. 

Mr. Gibson's suggestion that cages, headgears, etc., should 
be standardized was excellent, provided that matters were so 
arranged that later improvements could be incorporated in the 
standard design : but, when he spoke of the Germans being beaten 
at their own game, he left the impression that some stupendous 
revolution would be necessary to bring that change about. 

In conclusion, he would suggest that mining engineers in 
South Wales would be merely doing their duty if they described 
how they handled their large trams under the different work- 
ing conditions that prevailed in that coalfield. 

Mr. Ealph W. Mayer (Eoslyn, Washington, US. A..) wrote 
that the better an American mine was managed, the less \Tas 
the tramming done by manual power. Animal or mechanical 
haulage was cheaper and quicker, and resulted in a much larger 
output than would be the case if the cars were moved by 
manual power to any considerable extent. A large tonnage of 
coal could thus be produced on a smaller initial investment for 
mine development and equipment. The workings would be 
more compact and more easily supervised. The expense of main- 
taining the roads, timbering, etc.. was less for the smaller area 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSION" — THE LOGIC OF TRAMS. 225 

than it would he if a huge area were necessary to produce the 
required tonnagre, on account of an inadequate hauhige system, 
«uch as tramming by man power. The steamers in the Orient 
were coaled by men and women, who packed the coal aboard 
the boat in baskets, for which labour they received from :i to 12 
cents a day. In similar circumstances, and with cheap wages, 
it was barely possible that tiamniing by man power could com- 
pete successfully with well-equipped mechanical haulage. The 
coal-miners of the United States, particularly those in the west, 
were comparatively well paid, yet the tonnage cost of the coal 
produced there compared very favourably with that at mines 
which were not operated with the latest mechanical equipment. 
It was unlawful in most of the States to emploj' underground 
bojs less than 16. years of age, and to put these young boys at 
tramming" cars — work which was beyond their strength — was 
questionable, both from the economic and the humanitarian 
standpoint. 

In American mines, when the seams had sufficient pitch, the 
coal was run from the working-face to the entry down shoots, 
sheet-iron being used when necessary to make the coal slide more 
easily, and it was then loaded from the shoots into the cars at 
the entry. In seams where the pitch was insufficient to enable 
the coal to slide down the shoots, gravity planes nere used. As 
the loaded car descended from the working-face to the entry, it 
hauled the empty car from the entry up to the working-face. 
AVhen the roof was sufficiently high, animal haulage was some- 
times used in the rooms. 

Locomotives which could be operated in very low seams 
were now manufactured. The gathering locomotives obtained 
their power from compressed-air storage-batteries, or from a 
•cable hooked over the trolley-wire ou the entry, and unreeled 
from the locomotive as it entered the room. Very few seams 
were so low that some type of these locomotives could not be 
profitably worked ; and, even if some of the roof had to be taken 
down for the purpose, this method was considered more econo- 
mical than tramming by man power. 

Turntables were antiquated and out of date in any well- 
managed mine. They caused the loss of too much time and too 
much hard unnecessary work. Their use might be excused in 
■driving some prospect in order to determine the value of a seam, 



22(1 TR.A.XSACTIOXS — THE NORTH OF KXGLAXD INSTITUTE. [Vol Ixvi. 

but not in a workiup- uiiiie. Curves and swittlies were in almost 
universal use. 

Andrew Carnegie did not hesitate to scrap machinery, even 
if it had never beeu used, when some other machine which would 
do the work more cheaply and better was invented, and he made 
money by doing so. Many mine-operators would do well to 
follow his example and scrap their old cars, which had worn 
bearings, and were of an old style, instead of taking them for 
use at a new colliery. The use of the old cars was economical, 
in that it saved cars, but probably very extravagant in tonnage 
cost of haulage, when compared with more modern cars having 
ball or roller-bearings and all the latest improvements. Car 
wheels, of large diameter, had a smaller coefficient of friction, 
and consequently helped to reduce haulage costs. When ball- 
bearing cars, with modern oiling devices, were used, the addi- 
tional amount of coal that a locomotive could pull would repay 
the cost of the cars in a short time, and make the scrapping of 
the old cars an economy. 

Steel rails, the bolt-holes in the rails, bolts, fishplates, etc.. 
were all standardized in America, and a damaged rail could be 
removed and immediately leplaced by another which was an 
exact duplicate. The different gauges of the cars were to a 
large extent standardized by the manufacturers also. The car- 
boxes for the coal-mines were generally made of wood. They 
were moie easily lepaired. and less work was entailed in clearing 
up a wreck than when the boxes were made from any other 
material. Steel boxes bent, and if they broke a more expensive 
repair plant was necessary than in the case of wooden boxes, 
although steel boxes were used largely in metal-mines and also in 
some coal-mines. Car-brakes were much used in some dis- 
tricts, and if simple in construction and well made would stand 
very rough usage. Possibly they were not often necessary. 
Cars having short wheel-bases were much more easily replaced on 
the track if derailed than those that had long wheel-bases. AVhen 
the tracks near the working-face were bad. the best plan was 
to make the track-layers do better work, or else get new track- 
layers. .Steel sleepers were good, but they also required to be 
carefully laid. It was inconceiAable that any well-regulated and 
managed mine would lay a curve having an awkward twist in it 
such as that illustrated in Fig. 4 (Plate III.). It was not advis- 



1915-1916.] DISCISSION- — THE LOGIC OF TRAMS. 22/ 

able to patch a track witii slioit piece.> of rail, but where thi>. was 
necessary wood shouhi hot be used, as it was impossible to make 
a good track for the haulage of heavy loads with wooden paich- 
work. Short pieces of steel rails, with ties laid underneath them, 
and having bolt-holes drilled in each end, should be u.sed. They 
should be fastened to the longer length of rails by means of 
fishplates and bolts, in the same manner as any other rail-joint 
was made. 

Mr. James Ashworth (Vancouver. British Columbia) wrote 
that the paper lost interest because Mr. Gib.son had not given 
detailed plans of any one of the standard sizes of trams ad- 
vocated. He (Mr. Ashworth) was of opinion that the early 
introduction of standardized dimensions for either trams or 
" track "" was most unlikely. In the tabulated dimensions given 
by Mr. Gibson, the largest tram had a depth of only 28 inches 
and a height over all of 46 inches, whereas it seemed desirable 
to fix both a maximum and a minimum standard height in 
order to meet his views with respect to the size of the proposed 
base. 

Ill Mr. Gibson's note on the circumstances that governed 
the size of the tram, he did not appear to have devoted sufficient 
attention to the question of ventilation, the depth of the mine, 
and the character of the roof and floor: consequently, he erred 
when stating that the tram governed the size of the road. Mr. 
Gibson's plea for a one-clause Mines Amending Act was cer- 
tainly more than a sui'prise, and most mining engineers would 
be of opinion that the Secretary of State could occupy his time 
much more usefi.ily than in considering the question of the 
standardization of the gauges of rails — a matter which had no 
material influence on the safety of the mine or on the lives of 
the miners working therein. It did appear to him that the 
standardization propo.sed by Mr. Gib.son would not add to 
"national efficiency" and reduce the co.st of production, or 
that in any economic war which was likely to ensue British 
mining engineers would not be able to beat the enemy. 

Mr. JoH.v GiBSOX (Kilmarnock) wrote that Messrs. Peck's. 
Dean's, and Mayer's contributions might be fairly sumniarized 
in the words of 31 r. Price Collier, a well-known American 
observer, that "" England is the land, not of logic, but of com- 



'2'28 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. rVnl, Ixvi. 

promise. '" This (licluui was io some extent borne out by the dis- 
eiussion, for wlieieas tlie American critics were keen supporters 
of standardization, or of anytliin<>' else likely to reduce cost, tliose 
in Ihitaiu were cautious and doubtful of supporting- anj' far- 
reaching departure from usual practice. 

Englishmen used small trams; but this was more likely to be 
due to conservatism than to lack of logical sequence. Ameri- 
cans used large trams; but this indicated a dift'erence from 
British pra.ctice wliich was not necessarily better or more log'ical. 
Further. American practice lacked uniformity, just as in Great 
Britain. On the one hand, the trams varied from large to very 
large, and on the other from large to very small. His own con- 
tention was that, for every particular set of conditions, a tram of a 
certain size was most suitable, that by standardization the train 
approximately most suitable to a given set of conditions was 
easily procurable, and that change was easy if an error were made 
or if the conditions altered. 

He was afraid that Messrs. Dean and Mayer had not safe- 
guarded themselves ag-ainst the fallacy of supposing- that a prin- 
ciple true in the abstract must hold good in all sets of circum- 
stances. Mr. Dean, for example, had stated in effect that : (1) 
not only did larg'e trams suit American conditions (with which 
he was presumably familiar), but also Indian, Chinese, Aus- 
tralian, and all other conditions. (2) That in extreme cases in 
Scotland trams were hand-drawn for 500 yards, which as a 
g-eneral practice was indefensible ; but Mr. Dean had also asserted 
that it was wrong" in any case, which showed quite clearly that 
he had not considered an extreme case. (3) Mr. Dean, with 
justifiable pride, had stated that "a country that used 10 and 
12-ton railway-wag'ons would feel the effects of world competition 
later on. In 1900 the Pennsylvania Railway scrapped and 
burned all wagons of a carrying capacity under 40 tons." In a 
huge country such a course was good business ; but would Mr. 
Dean urge such a policy for Scotland, Avhere the bulk of the 
coal was burned or shipped not 50 miles from where it was mined? 
In the same way, would he hold that because a 40,000-ton liner 
was suitable as an Atlantic ferry it would be suitable as a ferry- 
boat on the Tyne, Clyde, or Mersey? It would be unkind to 
press further this aspect of American criticism. 

Mining ■engineers in Great Britain had much to learn from 



1915-1916] DISCUSSION THE LOGIC OF TRAMS. 229 

their American friends, and possibly the best way to obtain help 
was for the former to lay before tlie latter the chief features of 
their particular difficulties. The extreme case for the small tram 
would, then, of course, be brought into relief, as under: — 

(1) Great Britain was a very old mining country, and one 
result of this was that nearly all the easily-won seams were ex- 
hausted. Let them take as an example an old colliery with six 
seams, and see how the preceding generations had worked them. 
The collieries being financial, and not philanthropic concerns, 
the seam or seams most in demand and cheapest to work were first 
attacked. The present-day conditions might be as follows: — 
Xo. 1 (the top) seam was of poor quality, and the roof was much 
racked througli tlie working of the lower seams. The good 
seams (Xos. 2, -j. 4, and 5) were exhausted, except for small areas 
in troubled ground, to be won through cross-cut mines. Xo. 6 
was a thin seaiu liable to inundations from waste ground over- 
head. Blackdamp or firedamp and water were plentiful. In one 
case within his knowledge a preceding generation had extracted 
TO per cent, of a 5-foot seam, and had then abandoned it. The 
present working was like an uncharted archipelago of small 
islands of coal surrounded by seas of dirt. Even the dross and 
dust left behind by the old miners was carefully extracted, 
washed, and put on the market. 

As a general proposition, it would be admitted that to make 
a colliery of this kind pav required not only push and go, but 
thrift, carefulness, and caution. Any wild-cat scheme of develop- 
ment or equipment would surely end in bankruptcy. 

With regard to Mr. Mayer's sweeping dictum that " turn- 
tables were antiquated and out of date in any well-managed 
mine," he (Mr. Gibson) might mention a case well known to him 
of a seam 2 feet thick opened up by the longwall method of work- 
ing. A level was driven a distance of IGO yards in 22 weeks, the 
rise given being 1 in 60. Careful levels were taken from time 
to time, and it was found at the end of six months that the floor 
from the starting-point to a point 00 yards from the face was 4 
feet above the ori^iinal level, although o feet had been taken off; 
in other words, the pavement " creep " was 7 feet. There was 
enormous pressure on the sides, which were very frequently re- 
timbered, and although the road had a general gradient of 1 in 
00. ])Ools of water (i inches deep formed on it. Turnplates for 



230 TRAXSACTIONS — TIIK NOK'i II OF KXGLAXD 1XSTITU]K. (" Vol . Ixvi. 

olivioiis reasons were used, and liad to l)e relaid ciitiicly every 
iHoiitli. Strenuous eitorts were made to maintain the road •» feet 
wide by •> feet in lieijilit. Of what use would large trams with 
roller-bearings, locomotives, and well-laid crossings be on su( h a 
road ? 

In an old mining country local customs, practices, and pre- 
judices grew up, and even the best laid schemes which interfered 
or upset these had to be very carefully introduced and handled. 
For instance, any proposal which rendered unnecessary the use 
of lads under 16 years of age underground would have to provide 
otlit^r equally remunerative employment for these lads, or fierce 
resentment and opposition to the scheme would surely result. 

(2) Great Britain was not only an old mining- country, but it 
had a single Mines Act, which applied to the whole country, with 
all its varied conditions. Americans could imagine for them- 
selves wdiat results would follow if the whole of the mines from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific were subject to the same regulations. 
For example, a firedamp explosion in Pennsylvania might cause 
the prohibition of ■electric locomotives in Virginia. If they could 
further imagine a very law-abiding nation, where punishment 
ssurely foUoAved breaches of the Mines Act, they would begin to 
see that a manager's first duty was to keep within th-e law, and 
that initiative and originality followed — a short or a long distance 
behind. 

(3) In this country both a Minimum AVage Act and an Eight 
Hours' Act were in force. Moreover, it was a fact that in some 
parts no miner until recently was allowed by his union to work 
more than 5 days per week. Tliis was now altered to 11 days per 
fortnight in Scotland, and included, of course, a short day on 
Saturday. American mining engineers would readily under- 
stand that, even if British conditions were as favourable as their 
own and the practice as good, labour was less efficient, and (even 
at lower wage rates) was dearer than in America, whilst the result 
was a lower output per man. All these facts implied that a keen 
eye must be kept on cheap forms of labour, such as boys and 
elderly men, as these could handle small trams on drawing-roads 
and haulage termini, but would be less useful if large trams were 
in use. 

In the case of seams from 18 to -30 inches in thickness, in 
addition to the ever-present problem of haulage from the face, the 
prime necessity was, so far as he could see, to advance the faces as 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSION THE LOGIC OF TRAMS. 231 

rapidly as possible aud to handle a minimum amount of dirt. 
The coal-cutter and conveyor was the remedy that first suggested 
itself, but the sphere of usefulness of these machines was limited. 
For example, electric power could not be used in a fiery seam, 
and the employment of compressed-air plant in so small a work- 
ing- that was advancing rapidly was a matter of difficulty. Again, 
tender roofs, soft floors, and troubled ground frequently re- 
quired tackling by manual labour. 

If the seam was rising, say, 1 in 6 or 1 in 9, dip stowage for 
the dirt was soon filled, and rise stowage was slow and expensive. 
Where the gate-roads were 12 yards apart, the amount of sur- 
plus dirt was increased, while if 18 yards apart the output per 
lineal yard of face was decreased ; consequently, the rate of 
advance also was decreased, much trouble was caused in a weak 
roof, and the percentage of small coal was increased. 

The sending of dirt to bank during the day-shift might 
interfere with the handling of coal ;- whilst its transport by night 
involved the provision of haulage attendants, bottomers, banks- 
men, etc. — a matter of no great difficulty at a large colliery, but 
of serious importance at a small mine. After the dirt had gone 
to bank, rent must be paid (perhaps for ever) for the ground that 
it occupied ; and, as the tip-heap extended, mechanical transport 
was required, with attendants to handle the dirt. 

American mining engineers might, in view of these circum- 
stances, be little surprised if British mining engineers, either 
by a process of logic or from a habit of compromise, concluded 
that, after everything had been taken into consideration, as little 
dirt as possible should be handled, and that the trams must be 
of such a size as this consideration, when weighed against the 
haulage factor, might determine. 

Mr. H. E. BuLMAX (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) wrote that Mr. 
Gibson was to be congratulated on his original treatment of a 
subject which had perhaps hitherto been governed too much 
by custom and rule of thumb. 

The economic advantages arising from the standardization 
of the coal-tub and the track could hardly be denied, and there 
seemed to be no sufficient reason why a few standard sizes should 
not meet all the requirements of the coal-mines of this country 
just as well as the present enormous and anomalous variety. 

TOL. LXVI.— lalo 1916. 17 E 



232 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. fVol. Ixvi. 

The purpose of tlie tub and track was to convey the coal from 
the face to tlie shaft with as vsmall an outhay on labour and 
materials as possible. As an outstanding fact, it was evident 
that the smaller the dead load (due to the weight and the friction 
of the tub) was in proportion to the useful load of coal carried^ 
the better would this purpose be achieved. In this respect a 
big tub had an inherent advantage over a small one. But 
this was conditioned by the necessity, or perhaps it would be 
more accurate to say, the general custom, of man-handling the 
tub in moving- it in the neighbourhood of the coal-face, at the 
shaft, and when it got off the way. 

It might be remarked that modern progress in the shape of 
face-conveyors and auxiliary haulage had reduced (or even in 
some cases had abolished) the necessity of hand-putting. But, 
where the tub was moved by manual labour, economic con- 
siderations pointed to limitation of its weight to w^hat could be 
moved by a strong lad employed at a wage of 3s. 9d. a shift — to 
take Mr. Gribson's figures — rather than by a man who received 
double that wage. The advantage of the small tub was confined 
almost entirely to its transit from the coal-face to the engine- 
plane landing in-bye. 

Mr. Gibson stated that in thin seams the size of the tram 
governed the size of the road, but in practice there were many 
exceptions to this rule. Large trams were used in thin seamis,. 
and the size of the tram did not always, or perhaps generally, 
correspond to the size of the road. The cost of making and 
maintaining* the roads from the face to the engine-plane land- 
ings was, of course, a main factor to be considered. Against 
this had to be set the economical advantage of the large tram 
in first cost and cost of maintenance, in reduction of dead load, 
and in simplifying tlie winding and banking arrang^ements. 
In the case of trams containing 2 tons of coal, a single-deck 
cage holding two trams would suffice for a load of 4 tons each 
journey; but with trams containing* only 10 cwts., a double- 
decked cag'e would be required, plus additional time and labour 
for uncaging. 

Besides the Cost of making roads, there must also be taken 
into consideration the first cost of the tubs and the cost of 
maintaining them, as well as the cost of moving them between 
the coal-face and the screens. The balance of advantage had 
to be struck between these three sources of cost. 



1915-1916] DISCUSSIOX — THE LOGIC OF TRAMS. 233 

With regard to tlie gradient, it was irregularity rather than 
steepness of gradient that afi'ected the question, because in 
seams of a regukir steep gradient the system of working could 
be adapted to help the movement of the tubs, 

Mr. Gibson had suggested nine different sizes of standard tubs, 
"Was it necessary to have so many? 

Mr. Myles Brown (Gateshead-upon-Tyne) wrote that his first 
impression after reading the paper was that some of the state- 
ments with regard to the present practice in mines were a little 
rash and overdrawn. In seeking further evidence from a well- 
known firm in Sheffield, who were perhaps the largest manu- 
facturers of tram-wheels, etc., the information given fully sup- 
ported Mr. Gibson in his contention, and, as the evidence of such 
a firm was of general interest, he gave their statement of the case, 
as follows : — 

" We cau only confirm the assertion made by the writer of the paper in 
regard to the numerous types of trams^ etc., in use throughout Great Britain. 
In fact this is for us, as manufacturers, one of the greatest difficulties with 
which we have to contend. No attemjit whatever seems to have been made 
either to standardize the size of the wheels, the cajjacity of the trams, or the 
track-gauge ; the result is that to-day we have thousands of wheel patterns, 
some of which vary only 5 inch in diameter and width of tread, and even less 
than this in the depth and thickness of the flange. 

" There are scarcely two mines in the country using the same wheel, 
and similar trouble is experienced in connexion with the track-gauge and 
the pedestals, with the result that it is absolutely impossible for us to carry 
stocks with any degree of certainty that we shall be able to dispose of them. 
Consequently, the requirements of the collieries can only be filled on definite 
orders, and from time to time our friends find themselves in very serious 
difiiculty, due to the forgetfulness of the official who is responsible for seeing 
that their stocks are maintained. We know that, so far as old-established 
collieries are concerned, it may be a difficult matter to introduce any alteration 
to the trams or track ; but we do feel that, in the opeuing-out of new collieries, 
something more might be done in the direction of standai-dization, with 
advantage both to the colliery-owners and to the manufacturers." 

Standardization was generally accepted to stand for economic 
production. Whilst the box or body of the tram did not itself 
provide ground for a great saving by the adoption of a standard 
design or size, yet the component parts, such as the wheels, axles, 
pedestals, etc., provided a great opportunity for standardization 
of design and size. 

Before any attempt was made to systematize and standardize 
design and size, complete information as to the types and sizes at 
present in service, and the environment and conditions under 



234 TRANSACTIONS THE XOllTH OF EXGLAXD IXSTITUTK. [Vol. Ixvi. 

wliicli each particular tuL or tram worked, should be collected 
and put in handy form for the consideration of those interested. 

The present time was not opportune for carrying through any 
new work which involved extensive investigations; but, in case 
the suggestion might in the future be of service, the proposal was 
put forward for the formation of a strong representative 
standardization committee, the members of which should consist 
of delegates both of mining and mechanical engineers and of 
manufacturers. The work of this main committee would be to 
consider the tabulated data, giving details of present-day 
practice, and then to direct the work of standardization. 
The collection of the tabulated practical data could be 
carried through by a contributory committee, consisting 
of colliery managers and engineers, who, no doubt, could readily 
tabulate much useful information in regard to the size and design 
of the plant which was under their supervision. 

The work of these committees would pave the way for improve- 
ments which would add considerably to the efficiency of the 
mining industry, and aid materially in pushing forward and 
defending oiir lines in the great industrial and commercial 
rivalry which would doubtless become more intense immediately 
the present armed conflict ceased. 

Standardization would eventually find a much wider field. A 
subject which the writer had for many years put forward for 
standardization and better classification was the raw material 
" coal." It was of national importance, and a reasonable 

demand from the standpoint of the nation's economics that all 
coal should be consumed or applied to use under conditions which 
produced to the industry concerned and to the nation at large 
the utmost value obtainable from the coal in question. Coal 
should be standardized according to its suitability (chemical and 
physical) for any particular purpose or purposes. 

Mr. Gibson's paper might well be the starting-point of investi- 
gations which would in the near future prove a boon to the mining 
industry. 



Mr. A. S. Blatchford's paper on " The Influence of Incom- 
bustible Substances on Coal-dust Explosions " was taken as read, 
as follows : — 



1915-1916.] BLATCIIFORD — -COAL-DUST EXPLOSIONS. 235 



THE INFLUENCE OF INCOMBUSTIBLE SUBSTANCES 
ON COAL-DUST EXPLOSIONS. 



By a. S. BLATCHFORD, M.Sc. 



It has been known for some years past tliat, by mixing in- 
combustible solid matter with coal-dust, the inflammation of 
the dust in a coal-dust-and-air explosion has been retarded. The 
present experimental work, which is a development of Dr. 
Bedson's previous investigations,* was undertaken to observe the 
quenching- effect of different substances, to find the most efficient 
of these substances, and to arrive at a possible explanation of their 
preventive action. 

Apparatus. — The explosions were carried out in a form of 
explosions-vessel previously described, t which is a strong spheri- 
cal glass vessel of a capacity of about 120 cubic inches. It is pro- 
vided with three tubulures ; the upper one carries the means of . 
ignition, the second serves for the introduction of the coal- 
dust, whilst to the third can be attached some appliance for 
ascertaining the impulse produced by the explosion. The means 
used for this latter purpose was a device described by Teclu, and 
employed by him in his investigation of the purity of illumina- 
ting-gas. 

The essential part of the apparatus consists of a pendulum 
suspended from a brass frame. To the end of the pendulum is 
attached a small aluminium basin, which fits lightly but well 
over a brass tube, 1 inch in diameter, attached by a rubber collar 
to the end of a glass tube, 15 to 16 inches long and 1^^ inches 
in diameter, attached at its other end by means of a rubber collar 
to the third tubulure of the explosions-vessel. The pendulum 

* " Experiments Illustrative of the Inflammability of Mixtures, of Coal-dust 
and Air," by Prof. P. Phillips Bedson and Mr. Henry Widdas, Tranx. Inst, M. E., 
1906, vol. xxxii., page 529; 1907, rol. xxxiv., page 91; and "Experiments 
Illustrative of the Inflammability of Mixtures of Coal-dust and Air," by Prof. 
P. Phillips Bedson, ibid., 1910, vol. xxxix., page 719 ; and 191 1, vol. xli. , page 235. 

t Ibid., 1906, vol. xxxii., page 529. 



236 TRANSACTIONS TlIK NOKTll OK i:.\(M.A\n I XSTITUTK. [V(j1. Ixvi. 

moves over a graduated arc, and to it is attached a simple arrange- 
ment fitted into a ratchet on the upper part of the graduated arc, 
so that the penduhtm is arrested in the position to wliich it is 
forced hy tlie impulse acting on the concave side of the basin. 
A quenched explosion would he indicated by the stationary 
position of the pendulum. 

A Nernst filament, giving a temi)erature of 1,500° to 2,000° 
Cent., was used as a means of ignition. Tlie filament was heated 
by a Bunsen burner to a temperature sufficiently high for it to 
conduct the electric current, and then introduced into tlie ex- 
plosions-vessel through the upper tubulure. 

Exjjei'imental.- -T\\Q coal-dusts experimented with were such 
as passed through a 100-mesh sieve (10,000 holes to the square 
inch), and were obtained by grinding the coals. The quenching 
substances were used in as fine a state of division as possible. A 
weighed quantity (1 gramme) of the mixture of quenching sub- 
stance and coal-dust, mixed in known proportions, is placed in 
the tubulure of the explosions-vessel, which is closed by a tightly- 
fitting rubber stopper carrying- a tube connected with a com- 
pressed-air supply (atniosph. + 12" to 14" Hg). The filament is 
then placed in position, th'e coal is projected by the blast of air 
over the glowing filament, and the impulse communicated by the 
explosion is indicated by the extent to which the pendulum is 
deflected. By using the same mixture and igniting it at practi- 
cally the same temperature, fairly concordant results have been 
obtained. About four to six separate explosions were necessary 
in the case of each different mixture. The explosions were 
carried out in groups of three, the filament being extinguished, 
the apparatus allowed to cool, and then cleaned out between each 
three. The ratio of the quenching substance to coal was varied, 
and Table I. records the least percentage of quenching substance 
in the mixture which prevents an explosion; Table II. records 
the specific heats of the materials used; Table. III. gives the 
thermochemical data; whilst Table IV. contains miscellaneous 
information regarding the behaviour of the quenching materials 
at high temperatures. 

The quenching materials used were gypsum, dried Chance 
mud, quicklime, magnesia, magnesia alba (levis), anhydrous 
sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, soda-crystals, Glauber 



1915-191G.J 



IJLATCHFORD COAL-DUST EXPLOSIOXS . 



237 



salts, ground shale, and boiler-aslies. The anhydrous sodium 
carbonate -w as obtained by strongly heating the bicarbonate. The 
boiler-aslies were ground from the ashes of a boiler fire burning 
coke. The soda-crj-stals and Glauber salts were used with as 
much water of crystallization as was consistent with a fine state 
of division. They were obtained by making a saturated solution 
of the ordinary variety in warm water, rapidly cooling the solu- 
tion from a moderate temperature, drying the crystalline product, 
and grinding it. The friction produced during grinding tended 
to give heat, and liberated some of the water of crystallization. 
A specimen of the salt as used in the experimental work was 
afterwards subjected to analysis, in order to determine the pro- 
portion of water of crystallization present in it. 

Table I. — The Least Percentage of Quenching Material in the 
Mixture which Prevents an Explosion. 

Coal 

Boiler-ashes ... 

Quicklime 

Ground sliale ... 

Chance mud ... 

Gypsum 

Magnesia 

Magnesia alba (levis) 

Anhydrous sodium carbonate 

Soda-crystals ... 

Sodium bicarbonate ... 

Glauber salts ... 



Quicklime ... 

Chance mud 

Gypsum 

Magnesia 

Magnesia alba (levis) 

Anliydrous sodium carbonate 

Soda-crystals (5H„0) 

Sodium bicarbonate 

Glauber salts (6H,0) 



A 


B 


c 


D 


57 


50 


47 


58-60 


50 


45 


42-44 


55 


43 


37 


35 


46 


38-40 


30-33 


29-30 


39-40 


33-35 


26-28 


26 


35 


28-30 


28 


25-26 


32-33 


22 


17-19 


15 


2223 


12-13 


10 + 


12 


15 


10 


10- 


9 + 


11 


9-10 


7 


7 


8- 


8 


8 


7 - 


8- 


JE Materials 


Used. 










019 








0-22 








0-24 








0-23 








0-26-- 








0-27 








0-35 








0-30 








0-34 



CaCOj 

€aSO, 



2H.0 



Na.CO,, 5H,0 
Na^SO^, 6H.0 
2NaHC0, 



Table III. — Thermochemical Data. 

Eequires 4252 K for gramme-molecule decomposition. 
Requires 4-84 K to drive off 2H,0 per gramme-mole- 
cule. 
Requires 12-364 K to become anhydrous. 
Requires 11-52 K to become anliydrous. 
Requires SOTS K to become sodium carbonate. 
K = 1,000 calories. 



238 TRANSACTIONS — THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

Table IV. — Miscellaneous Information Regarding the Behaviour of 
Quenching Materials at High Temperatures. 

Gypsum Loses 2H.0 at 120°-130° Cent., becoming anhydrous. 

Ca(X)3 Commences to decomiDose at 550° Cent. 

MgO Melts at 2,250° Cent, (no decomijosition). 

Lime Melts at JL,900° Cent, (no decomposition). 

Magnesia alba Converted to magnesium carbonate by 200° Cent., 
(levis) afterwards decomposes, giving off CO,. 

NaHCOj At a dull-red heat is converted to Na2C03. 

Na.COj Melts at 1,098° Cent, (no decomposition). 

NaXOj, lOH.O... Loses 5 molecules at 12-5° Cent. 

Loses 9 molecules at 38° Cent. 

Becomes anhydrous at 87° Cent. 

Na^SO^ xHO ... Loses all its water of crystallization by 100° Cent. 

N-a,S0/ ... ... Melts at 863° Cent. 

Influence of Carbon Dioxide derived from Decomposition of a 
Quench. — Both calcium and magnesium carbonates are de- 
composed by heat (under the experimental temperature), with 
liberation of carbon dioxide, yet the critical percentages of these 
carbonates are greater than that of sodium carbonate, which may 
fuse but is not decomposed (except to a negligible extent by the 
carbonaceous matter present). Although the Second Report of the 
Royal Commission on Explosions in Mines suggests that carbon 
dioxide may be a determining factor in the quenching of an 
explosion, it is suggested from this experimental work that the 
liberation of carbon dioxide from a quench has but small 
influence on the explosive character of a mixture. Sodium bicar- 
bonate gives a low critical percentage and is decomposed by 
heat, yielding the carbonate (2NaHC03 = C03 + Na2C03 + H20), 
with liberation of carbon dioxide. The temperature of the de- 
composition is comparable with that of the decomposition of 
calcium carbonate; but a possible explanation — ^other than the 
carbon-dioxide hypothesis — of the much greater efficiency of 
vsodium bicarbonate will be given below. A comparison of 
calcium carbonate and gypsum will show that, so far as decom- 
position with liberation of an incombustible gas is concerned, 
water (as steam) is more effective than carbon dioxide (44 per 
cent. CO3 in calcium carbonate; 209 per cent. HoO in CaS04, 
2H2O). 

Influence of a Quenching Material from Specific-heat Con- 
siderations. — A direct comparison of the action of quicklime and 
magnesia will show that the difference between the behaviour 



1915-1916.] BLATCIIFORD COAL-DI'ST EXPLOSIOXS. 239 

of these compounds is explained most satisfactorily on the hypo- 
thesis that the specific heat of the quenching substance is the 
important factor in its efficiency. A comparison of the action 
of sodium bicarbonate (7 per cent.) and that of anhydrous sodium 
carbonate (12 per cent.) also supports the specific-heat hypothesis 
— assuming that the carbon-dioxide production has little effect. 
On the basis of efficiency due to carbon-dioxide liberation, 
calcium carbonate (yielding 44 per cent, of its weight as carbon 
dioxide) would be almost an ideal quenching substance. 

Influence of Water of Crystallization. — The hydrated sodium 
carbonate has greater specific heat than the anhydrous variety ; 
but the greater efficiency of the soda-crystals may be due to the 
water liberated by dehydration during the rise of temperature. 
In experiments with one coal, mixtures of (a) 85 per cent, of coal 
and 15 per cent, of anhydrous carbonate, and (b) 89 per cent, of 
coal and 11 per cent, of soda-crystals, are incombustible. The 
11-per-cent. soda-crystals are resolved into 6 per cent, of sodium 
carbonate and 5 per cent, of water-vapour. These soda-crystals 
contain 46 p?r cent, of water of crystallization. It is evident that 
there may be some preventive action in the liberated water- 
vapour. 

Increase of specific heat accompanies increase of the number 
of molecules of water of crystallization, so that it is necessary to 
determine which is the essential factor — the ^specific heat or the 
water. The experiments with sodium bicarbonate show that it is 
as efficient as Glauber salts. The bicarbonate remains stable up 
to about 600° Cent, (specific heat, 0-30), whilst the Glauber salt 
has a specific heat of 0-34, which falls at 100° Cent, to 0-24. 
From a comparison of the properties of these two compounds, it 
is suggested that specific heat is the factor which determines 
efficiency, and that water of crystallization is to be considered 
mainly in that it gives an increase in specific heat to hydrated 
compounds above the anhydrous compounds from which they are 
derived. The soda-crystals contained 46 per cent, of water of 
crystallization; the Glauber salts, 43 per cent.; yet the latter 
substance is- slightly more efficient than the former (8 per cent, 
and 10 per cent, respectively). The specific heat of the hydrated 
varieties are about the same (0-35 and 0-34), that of anhydrous 
sodium sulphate 024, and that of anhydrous sodium carbonate 



240 TRANSACTIONS TJIK NORTH OF KNGLAXD IXSTITITE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

0-27. The specific-lieat hypothesis seems, therefore, to break 
down ; but it is suggested that during tlie rise of temperature to 
the firing-point the sodium sulphate remains hydrated for a 
longer time than the sodium carbonate, and then the influence of 
tlie high specific heat of the hydrated Glauber salts is noticed. 

Infiuencc of the Htat of Riactiun. — In reviewing the conclu- 
sions, it is of interest to note the range of temperature during 
which the Cjuenching action seems to take place. In the case of 
one coal the effect of 28 per cent, of magnesia is equal to the effect 
of 8 per cent, of Glauber salts. After losing water of crystal- 
lization by 100° Cent., Glauber salt has a specific heat of 
0'24. Neglecting for the moment the heat effect during the rise 
to dehydration temperature of Glauber salts from 100° to 800° 
Cent, (about the firing temperature of the coal), we have two 
mixtures behaving alike, namely: — 

(o) 28 parts of magnesia of specific heat 0-23, and 72 parts of coal of specific 

heat 0-24. 
(b) 4 parts of anhydrous sodium sulphate of specific heat 0-24, and 92 parts 

of coal of specific heat 0'24. 
The specific heat of coal may be taken as about 0'24. 

The suggestion arises t-liat tlie heat-absorption from 0° to 100° 
Cent, (that is, during the dehydration of the Glauber salts) is 
a most effective factor in determining the low percentage of this 
material as a quenching substance. 

The heat of reaction is of the same order of magnitude as the 
heat absorbed by specific heat requirements: — 

250 grammes Na.^SO^, 6H^0 require 11'52 K for dehydration. 
100 ,, Na.,S0„6H,0 require 4-61 K for dehydration. 

100 ,, Na„SOj, 6H,0 require 35 K for a rise through 100° Cent. 

100 ,, Na.^S04 anhydrous require 2-4 K for a rise through 100° Cent. 

56 ,, Na.^S04 anhydrous require 14 K for a rise through 100° Cent. 

The specific-heat hypothesis now modifies itself into one of 
'• heat absorption," in which both (1) heat required for decom- 
position, and (2) heat required for rise in temperature, are to be 
taken into account. 

The heat required thermochemically by the soda-crystals is 
also notable : — 

100 grammes Na.^COg, 5H.0 require 6'3 K for dehydration. 
100 ,, Na^COj, 5H^0 require 3-55 K for a rise through 100° Cent. 

53 ,, Na.,C03 require 143 K for a rise through 100° Cent. 



1915-1916.] 



nLATClIFORD COAL-DUST EXPLOSIONS. 



241 



Tlie efl'ect of a quencli is probably due to the rate — as implied 
in the couception of specific heat — of heat-absorption over a 
particular range of temperature, and depends not merely so much 
upon the total heat effect. 

The fact of there being an explosion of a dust — as well as the 
force produced by an explosion — would depend partly on the 
velocity of the rise of temperature ; a quenching material would 
be most efficient wlien it prevents a rapid rise of temperature by 
large heat-absorption comparatively early in the rise of tempera- 
ture — say in the rise 
from to 100 degrees 
if the coal fired at 
800° Cent. 

Chance mud re- 
quires heat for heat 
of reaction, but not 
until 550° Cent., 
which is too near the 
explosion tempera- 
ture of the coal : for, 
by the time that this 
point has been 
reached, the velocity 
of the rising tempera- 
ture is too great for 
the thermo-chemical 
effect of the decompo- 
ing calcium carbon- 
ate to be of much 
value. A reaction 
involving liberation 
in quenching the 



0-35 



0-33 



0-31 



0-29 



0-27 



0-25 



0-23 



0-21 



0-19 



X 


''NasC 
NagSO 


03.- 5h 
4,-6H2( 






















NiaHCO 


3 










\ 

\ 


2CO3 










\ 
\ 


xMgC 


OgAlba 










\ 


xC. 


1SO4, 2 


H2O 










^CaCO 


3 










s 

N 

S 


\(3aO 
— Vu 



10 20 
CRITICAL 



30 40 50 
PERCENTAGES. 



60 



Fig. 1. — Curve showinc; the Relation Between 
THE Specific Heats and the Critical Per- 
centages FOR ONE OF the CoALS TeSTED. 



of carbon dioxide may be of use 
explosive character of a dust if the 
carbon dioxide is all given off by 200° Cent. From 130° Cent, 
upwards anhydrous calcium sulphate (specific heat, 020) is 
apparently more efficient than Chance mud (calcium carbonate; 
specific heat, 0'25), thus supporting the suggestion of the action 
of a quench taking place during the first 200 degrees of rise. 

It may be suggested that the action of solids which liberate 
a large percentage of water of crystallization is due to the me- 
chanical eft'ect of tlie free gases blowing the dust awaj' from the 



242 TEANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF EXGLANU IXSTITLTK. [Vol. Ixvi. 



igniting medium and keeping the coal out of the sphere of action. 
Reference to the properties of sodium bicarbonate and its effi- 
ciency will meet this objection; moreover, if the effect were 
mechanical, still smaller percentages of quenching materials 
would probably be required. 

No experiments were carried out with incombustible or com- 
bustible gases in the apparatus ; but, presumably, this could be 
accomplished by mixing the gases to be applied with the blast of 
air blowing the dust over the igniting medium. Nothing is said 



0-35 



0-33 



0-31 



0-29 



0-27 



0-25 



0-23 



0-21 



0-19 



NaQCOg,- 5H2O 



N^2S04,-3H20 



Na 



HCO. 



\ l^asCOs 



MgiDOaAlba 



,«CaS04, 2H^O 



CaOOa 



at present with regard 
to the difference be- 
tween the coals. 

The figures given 
in the paper are only 
approximate, and 
must not be taken as 
exact. 

The curve (Fig. 1) 
shows the relation be- 
tween the specific 
heat and the critical 
percentages for one 
of the coals. The 
hydrated quenches 
all lie on the same 
side of the curve, but 
off it in such a way 
that their critical 
percentages would be 
much smaller if these 
bodies retained their 
original compositions and specific heats over a long range of tem- 
perature. No correction is here introduced in the curve for 
thermochemical heat-absorption; and this may explain the 
anomalous position of the hydrated quenches, or their anomalous 
position may be due to an overestimate of the specific-heat effect 
of added water. 

Supplement (Fig. 2).— Lime was found to be one of the least 
effective of the quenching substances, and. the supplementary 
table shows the values calculated (in lime as a unit) for the rela- 



CaO 



0-2 0-4 0-6 0-8 1-0 
CRITICAL PERCENTAGES. 
Fig. 2.— Curve showing the Relation, fob one 
OF THE Coals tested, Between the Specific 
Heats and the Critical Percentages rased 
on Lime as a Unit. 



1915-1916. ] DISCUSSIOIN- — COAL-DUST 


EXPLOSIONS. 


243 


tive weights of materials requi 


red, the lime unit being, 


of course, 


different for tlie different coal 


s: — ■ 








Coal 


A 


B 


C 


D 


Boiler-ashes 


1-32 


1-22 


1-18 


117 


Quicklime 


100 


100 


1-00 


100 


Ground shale ... 


0-75 


0-72 


0-71 


0-69 


Chance mud ... 


0-66 


0-58 


0-56 


0-54 


Gypsvim 


0-5 


0-45 


0-46 


0-44 


Magnesia 


0-42 


0-47 


0-44 


0-39 


-Magnesia alba (levis) 


0-J8 


0-27 


0-23 


0-23 


Anhydrous sodium carbonate 


0156 


0-15 


0-19 


0-14 


Soda-crystals... 


0-105 


091 


0-10 


0-07 


Sodium bicarbonate ... 


Oil 


0-13 


0-13 


0-10 


Glauber salts ... 


0-09 


087 


0-10 


0-07 


Proportion of coal ... 


1-00 


1-22 


1-32 


0-82 



Mr. A. S. Blatchford (Armstrong College, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne) said that he would like to preface his paper with two 
observations — first, that the paper was mostly of theoretical 
interest, and it was now left to the practical engineers to co- 
operate with the Universities in applying the underlying principle 
as explained in the paper ; secondly, three-fourths of the work had 
been done before the war commenced, but, owing to the great 
difficulty of completion, it had not been possible to put the 
results before the Institute earlier. The original idea emanated 
from some remarks made by Prof. Louis, to whom he was 
indebted, and also to Prof. Bedson for his valuable help. 

Prof. P. Phiillips Bedsox (Armstrong* College, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne) wrote that he was much interested in Mr. Blatch- 
ford's careful examination of the conditions which determined 
the action of different substances that could be employed as pre- 
ventive agencies in coal-dust-and-air explosions. It was very 
evident that the mode of action of these " quenches " was by no 
means a simple matter, and the facts brought forward showed 
that chemical decomposition of the quench by heat was quite a 
subordinate influence, if an influence at all. It would appear 
that the action was physical rather than chemical. 

Mr. T. W, D. Gregory (Central School of Science and Tech- 
nology, Stoke-on-Trent) wrote that the author had stated that 
" the eff'ect of a quench is probably due to the rate ... of heat- 
absorption over a particular range of temperature, and depends 



244 TRAXSACTK^NS -TlIK XORTIl OV KXliLAXI) IXSTITITK. [Vol. Ixvi. 

not merely so juucli upon tlie total lieat effect ; " and, again, 
that " a quencliing material would be most efficient when it pre- 
vents a rapid rise of temperature by large beat-absorption 
comparatively earlv in the rise of temperature — say in the rise 
from to 100 degrees if the coal fired at 800° Cent." It wOuld 
appear from the various tables given in the paper, or from 
calculations made from the figures, that if 100 grammes of each 
of the following substances be taken, namely, gypsum, anhydrous 
sodium carbonate, soda-crystals, sodium bicarbonate, and Glauber 
salts, and an initial rise in temperature of 200° Cent, be assumed, 
also the maximum specific heat to obtain in each case throughout 
the rise, and intermolecular change being ignored — the amount 
of heat absorbed would be as under : — 

A. 
Gypsum .. ... ... ... ... ... ... 4*8 K. 



Anhydrous sodium carbonate 
Soda-crystals 
Sodium bicarbonate 
Glauber salts 



5-4 K. 
7 K. 

6-0 K. 
6-8 K. 



In several of these substances, however, intermolecular 
changes were taking place, which required heat just as much as 
heat was necessary to bring about a rise in temperature. For 100 
grammes of each substance before mentioned, the measure of this 
heat — the same range of rise of temperature being assumed — 
would be as follows : — 

B. 

Gypsum 281 K. 

Anhydrous sodium carbonate ... ... ... ... Nil. 

Soda-crystals ... ... ... ... 6'31 K. 

Sodium bicarbonate ... ... ... ... ... Nil. 

Glauber salts ■ ... ... ... ... ... ... 4"61 K. 

The remarks already quoted from the paper showed that these 
figures must be material in estimating the heat absorbed in the 
early stages of the rise of temperature. For example, the heat 
absorbed by equal weights of soda-crystals and sodium bicarbon- 
ate (taking the sum of Tables A and B) were respectively 13-31 K. 
and 60 K., and yet it would be found from the author's Table I. 
that the sodium bicarbonate was the more efficacious. Again, 
gypsum (weight for weight with anhydrous sodium carbonate) 
absorbed 7' 61 K, compared with 5'4 K, and yet the experimental 
data adduced showed that the anhydrous sodium carbonate was 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSION COAL-DUST EXPLOSIONS. 245 

very considerably the superior deterrent. Without going fur- 
ther, it woukl appear that the conclusions arrived at by the 
author with regard to the value of the specific-heat factor were 
anything but proved. 

He (Mr. Gregory) would, moreover, like to mention a point 
which appeared to have been overlooked. In the case of those 
substances which contained combined water, the heat of dehy- 
dration did not include the heat necessary to vaporize the water 
separated, that was, the latent heat. Before the temperature 
could pass beyond the boiling-point, each gramme of water 
separated must be converted into steam, and this required per 
gramme of water at 100° Cent. OSST K. 

Calculations for the substances already mentioned showed that 
the following additional amounts of heat must be absorbed by 
the 100 grammes of each within the range of temperature dealt 
with : — 

0. 

Gypsum 11-22 K. 

Anhydrous sodium carbonate .... ... Nil. 

Soda-crystals ... ... ... ... 24"65 K. 

Sodium bicarbonate ... ... ... Nil. (Not decomposed 

within range taken). 

Glauber salts 23-2 K. 

Summarizing the various absorptions of heat for these 
substances, the following figures were arrived at : — 

A. B. C. Total heat. 
K. 

Gypsum (CaSO,, 2H,0) 4-8 281 11-22 lS-83 

Anhydrous sodium carbonate (Na2C03) 5 "4 — — 5 '4 

Soda-crystals (Na^COj, SHjO) T'O 6-31 24-65 37-96 

Sodium bicarbonate (NaHL'Og) ... 6-0 — — 6-0 

Glauber salts (Na.,SO„ 6H2O) 6-S 4-61 23-2 34-61 

Since anhydrous sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate 
required relatively such small amounts of heat to raise their 
temperatures in the initial stages, it was certainly curious that 
they should occupy so favourable a position in Table I. A 
probable explanation was that the last four substances in Table I. 
— the most effective deterrents by some considerable margin — 
all fused at temperatures which under the conditions of the 
experiment would be quickly reached. It was conceivable, 
therefore, that coal-particles when mixed with these substances 
became coated with a film of non-combustible liqitid which pre- 



246 TRANSACTIONS — THE XOKTII OF EXCiLAXJ) INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

vented or retarded coiubustiou. The other substances in the 
list, liowever, would remain solid at the temperatures reached, 
and consequently hinder hut little the process of combustion. 

He had for some years advocated the use of potash alum as a 
deterrent ; for many reasons he considered it more suitable than 
any other substance. It contained large quantities of combined 
water, which, unlike many other substances, such as soda- 
crystals, it could retain for long periods at the ordinary mine 
temperature. It absorbed large quantities of heat, owing to the 
fact that heat was required to dehydrate the substance, as well as 
to vaporize the water liberated. It also became liquid on heat- 
ing, and tended to coat or film the substance in contact with it. 

Mr. J. D. Morgan" (Birmingham) wrote that the results con- 
firmed what had hitherto been more or less generally believed, 
but had not, so far as he knew, been established by a systematic 
investigation, namely, that, apart from considerations of cost 
and convenience, the usefulness of an inert dust in diminish- 
ing or preventing a combustible dust explosion depended upon 
its capacity for heat and the rate at which heat could be absorbed 
by it. Excepting decomposible inert dusts, those properties 
depended upon specific heat and conductivity. The value of 
the paper would, in his opinion, be increased if the thermal 
conductivities of the materials mentioned could be given. He 
could scarcely agree with the author in his statement that the 
rate of heat-absorption was implied in the conception of specific 
heat. Rate belong-ed rather to conductivity. In the case of 
decomposible compounds, the effects of specific heat and con- 
ductivity were supplemented by, if not subordinated to, the 
heat-absorption in the process of decomposition. Expressed in 
general terms, the usefulness of the inert material depended 
upon its rate of and capacity for heat-absorption, a fact which 
was abundantly supported by the evidence adduced in the 
paper. It was interesting to see laid low the old fallacy con- 
cerning materials which gave off carbon dioxide when decom- 
posed by heat. One still heard or saw repeated the statement 
that a dust capable of givi'ng off that gas should be very effective 
in quenching a dust explosion. A little consideration was suffi- 
cient to show how slight was the justification for the belief. 
The carbon dioxide thus formed was practically a bye-product of 
the explosion, and consequently could not have any more 



1915-1916.] ])ISCrSSIOX (OAL-Dl'ST EXPLOSIONS. 247 

queiicliiug effect than the carbon dioxide ordinarily produced 
in a coal-gas or dust-explosion. 

It would be useful to have in Table I. the figures obtained in 
the tests on calcium carbonate, and he was sure that it would be 
worth while to add to the paper the figures or curves sbowing 
the effect on the exi)losibility of each or all of the coal-dusts of 
different quantities of the inert dusts employed. 

Prof. Hex^ry Louis (Armstrong College, Xewcastle-upon- 
Tyne) said they were very much indebted to Mr. Blatchford 
for the patience that he had shown in working out this very 
interesting branch of the subject, which certainly threw much 
light on the use of various substances in quenching explosions. 
Mr. Blatchford was quite right in remarking that the original 
idea of those investigations sprang from some remarks that he 
(Prof. Louis) had made when discussing papers by Mr. AV. C. 
Blackett and Mr. R. Clive, in which he*. compared the effect from 
the theoretical point of view of boiler-ashes and ground shale — 
from the point of view of their respective specific heats and of 
the heat absorbed by dehydration. He then predicted that any 
bodies that were capable of giving off moisture at a low tem- 
perature, and thus capable of absorbing a good deal of heat, 
would be better quenchers than anhydrous substances like 
boiler-ashes or sand. It was a matter of great gratification to 
him that these theoretical conclusions had now been proved by 
practical experiments to be correct. 

The explanation of the figures given by Mr. Blatchford was 
not very simple, and he (Prof. Louis) ventured to think that Mr. 
lilatchford had overlooked one of the conditions which probably 
might explain some of the anomalies in his tables, namely, the 
degree of fine division of the particles, which might account for 
the puzzling fact that magnesia was a much more efficient 
quencher than quicklime. He would like to know whether the 
dimensions of these particles could not be determined. It was 
quite obvious that their quenching- effect must be a function of 
their size. The heat was absorbed from the surface, and 
obviously the smaller the particle was, the greater would be the 
proportion which the surface bore to the mass of the particle, so 
that the fineness of division played an important part from that 

* Trans. Inst. M. K, 1913, vol. xlv., page 318 ; and 1914, vol. xlvii., page 404. 

VOL. LXVI.-l915-l'.ili: 18 E 



248 TRANSACTIONS — THE NORTH OV ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

point of view. They were very much indebted to Mr. Blatchford 
and Prof. Bedson for havinp- done this work and given them thi-s 
further addition to tlie lengthy series of seientific data Avliifdi the 
laboratories of Armstrong College had been able to furnish to 
the Institute. 

The President (Mr. T. Y. Greener), in seconding the vote 
of thanks, said that he would like to know, from the point of 
A-iew of the practical engineer, what these figures meant. Was 
he correct in thinking that the experiments showed that Glauber 
salts was the best quencher, and that, as compared with boiler- 
ashes,' for instance, the proportion in volume which would be 
necessary would be as O09 to 1'82 ? 

Mr. Blatchford replied that the figures represented the 
proportions by weight. 

The President said that obviously went to .show that, if it 
were possible to use Glauber salts, the quantity which would 
have to be used to make a mine immune from explosion would 
be very much smaller than in the case of boiler-ashes; but one 
would have to consider the relative costs of the two substances, 
and whether it would be worth while to go to the expense of 
purchasing- Glauber salts, or to use stone-dust, which might be 
had for nothing. 

Mr. William Severs (Beamish) said there was no doubt that 
the paper did give them some idea of the relative quenching 
properties of the different substances, but he did not think that 
the conditions were th'e same as those that obtained in the pit. 
He understood that Mr. Blatchford had introduced into his ex- 
perimentation vessel a certain amount of coal-dust, together with 
a certain amount of quenchers, and these had been mixed together 
in certain proportions. In the pit the conditions were, however, 
quite different. They had roads dusted with a quencher — say, 
boiler-ashes, or flue-dust as they called it — then they had a 
deposit of fine coal-dust on the top of that, and probably they 
had in a week or two to redust the whole road, and by and by 
they got the whole place dusted, three, four, five, or six times 
with one layer on top of the other. The whole of this stuff was 



1915-1916.] niscrssiox — coal-dust explosions. 249 

lying- then in a condition of rest on the floor and the sides of the 
naileries of the mine. They might have an explosion after that, 
but that explosion might probably be due to the fine dust in 
the pit having' been mixed up with the air and having' set up 
certain conditions that were conducive to an explosion. If there 
were an explosion, the blast might come out-bye, but which- 
ever way it went it raised the whole of this dust, so that the 
conditions prevailing M^ere quite different in such circumstances 
from the conditions prevailing in the tests made by jMt. Blatch- 
ford; in fact, there was no comparison between the two. Coal- 
dust had a specific gravity of 1'25, but shale-dust would not 
rise with the same rapidity as coal-dust ; con.sequently all the 
coal-dust was raised in the air, and this was conducive to an 
explosion. He thought that Mr. Blatchford should endeavour 
to make his conditions similar to those obtaining in an ordinary 
pit. and then let the members know the results. 

It seemed to him (Mr. Severs) almost impossible to use 
Glauber salts, owing to the expense, but they were glad to 
employ fiue-dust, which they could not get rid of otherwise, 
and to take it down the pit to be used as a quencher by dusting 
it along the roads and galleries. They had not only to take into 
consideration the relative values of the quenchers, but their cost. 

Mr. A. S. Blatchford, replying to tlie discussion, wrote that 
the quenching action of the non-combustible materials was com- 
plex; and the members who had contributed to the discussion 
agreed fairly well that the explanation was to be looked for in 
the physical ratlier than in the chemical properties of the quench- 
ing materials. 

Mr. J. I). Morgan had suggested that the heat conductivity 
miglit possibly be of importance, and had ask'ed for the inclusion 
of the conductivity values of the materials used. It was difficult 
to obtain reliable information regarding these values, but the 
figures which were known indicated that the differences in con- 
ductivity were not large enough to correspond with differences 
in quenching effect. The heat required to raise the temperature 
of 1 cubic centimetre of gj-jisum 1 degree was about ISO times the 
heat conducted across a cubic centimetre between faces differing 
in temperature by 1 degree. If the rapidity of the explosion 
and the relative smallness of the conductivities of compounds 



250 TRANSACTIONS THE XOKTII OF EX(;[.AX1) INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

were borne in in hid . diffeieiices in preventive action due to dittei- 
ences in conductivity nii<ilit be taken as small in coni])arison 
with diit'erences due to heat-absorption. 

Mr. T. W. D. Gregory had calculated and set forth in tables 
the heat recjuired for various purposes durin<>' an initial rise of 
200° Cent. In his (Mr. Blatchford's) opinion the GSl K in 
Table B required by the soda-crystals to liberate the water of 
crystallization was, on account of the greater part of it being 
required at 38° Cent., of greater consequence than the 7*0 K, 
which was approximately the heat required to raise the tempera- 
ture of the same substance through 200° Cent., and to combine 
these numbers in simple arithmetical addition was hardly justi- 
fiable. He (Mr. Blatchford) made no attempt to combine these 
heat requirements in any mathematical way — certainly not by 
simple addition, as he was of the opinion that the expression 
obtained would be too complex to serve any useful purpose. In 
Table C the heats required to convert the liberated water into 
vapour were stated. In his (Mr. Blatchford's) opinion there was 
a special mechanical eifect at the boiling-point. A cubic foot of 
water yielded about 1,700 cubic feet of steani. When the 
particles with their water came within the influence of the ignit- 
ing medium, the production of steam from a part of the water 
would convey the i;articles out of the region of influence of the 
igniting medium, an idea which was foreshadowed in the paper. 
Moreover, the steam would contribute an atmosphere which was 
incombustible and a non-supporter of combustion. He considered 
that the values in Table C should be reduced to some fraction of 
the present numbers, and even then the combination of A, B, and 
C should not be by arithmetical addition. In Mr. Gregory's 
opinion the explanation was to be found in the fusibility of 
the inert substances. He had stated in Table C that sodium bi- 
carbonate was not decomposed in the initial 200 degrees rise, and 
had assumed that Glauber salts, soda-crystals, and gypsum 
formed a fluid mixture or solution with the liberated water of 
crystallization. The bicarbonate yielded less than 10 per cent, 
of its weight as water above 200° Cent., and was converted into 
carbonate fusing at about 1,100° Cent.; and he did not agree 
with Mr. Gregory that, under the conditions of the experiment, 
sodium bicarbonate and anhydrous sodium carbonate were easily 
fusible or formed easily fluid mixtures. The coal-dust itself 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSION^ — COAL-DrST EXPLOSIONS. 251 

would fire before tlie fusion of the quench tooli place ; it was 
only extreme coals that required 1,300° Cent, for a firing tem- 
perature, some firing as low as 800° Cent. If the last four 
substiinces in Table I. were to be regarded as easily fusible, then 
gypsum, with its water of crystallization, should also be so 
regarded, and, according to this point of view, gypsum should be 
a much better deterrent than the results indicated. Mr. Gregory 
considered it possible for the coal-particles to become coated Tvith 
a film of non-combustible fluid. It was hardly conceivable that 
5 grammes of water would form very protective films for the 
particles of 5 grammes of dehydrated salt and 90 grammes of 
coal. He (Mr. Blatchford) could quite see that films had a pro- 
tective value, if there was enough fluid to provide a sufficient 
thickness of film, but in the experiments under consideration 
the protectivehess of any films produced was, he thought, of 
small importance. 

Mr. Severs had stated that the initial arrangement in layers 
of coal-dust and flue-dust in the roads of the mine was destroyed 
when the dust was raised by the blast, whichever way it went ; 
therefore it hardly mattered whether the initial arrangement 
was one of layers or one of an intimate mixture. In the 
apparatus when the mixture was projected into the explosions- 
vessel the particles would arrange themselves in the air some- 
what according to their specific gravities, or rather according to 
their buoyancies, and this Mr. Severs supposed also to happen 
in the galleries. The conditions in the apparatus and in the 
gallery with regard to the raised dust were not so incomparable 
as Mr. Severs thought. 

In reply to Prof. Louis, he (Mr. Blatchford) wished to say 
that every care was taken to obtain and use the materials in 
as fine a state of division as possible. No measurements of the 
sizes of the particles were made. Further experimental work 
would solve the problem raised, but he was of opinion that 
alterations in the relative proportions of the figures in Table I. 
would be slight. 

He (Mr. Blatchford) had rigidly avoided economic considera- 
tions and questions of cost. 



VOL. LIVI.-lOlMfllB. 19 E 



252 TRANSACTIOJS'S — THE NORTH OF E.NGJ.A.XD INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 



THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE OF MINING AND 
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



GENERAL MEETING, 

Held in the Wood Memorial Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 

June 3rd, 1916. 



Prof. HENRY LOUIS, Vice-President, in the Chair. 



The StECRETARY read the minutes of the last General Meetings, 
and reported the proceedings of the Council at their meetings on 
May 20th and that day. 



The following- gentlemen were elected, having been previously 

nominated : — 

Member — 
Lieut. -Colonel William Henry Ritson, V.D., Colliery Owner, Springwell 
Hall, Durham. 

Associate — 
Mr. John Stoker, Colliery Under-manager, 1, Office Street, Wheatley Hill» 
County Durham. 

Subscribers - 
The Hardy Patent Pick Company, Limited, Heeley, Sheffield. 



DISCUSSION OF MR. SAMUEL DEAN'S PAPER ON 
"MODERN AMERICAN COAL-MINING METHODS, 
WITH SOME COMPARISONS."* 

Mr. Samuel Dean (Delagua, Colorado, U.S.A.) wrote that, in 
taking the photograph for Fig. 3 (page 345), he had not selected 
an abnormal place, and he could, if necessary, have a dozen or 
m^ore photographs taken showing timbered machine-faces. 

* Trans. Inst. M. E., 1915, vol. 1., pages 179 and 388; and 1916, vol. li.> 
pages 35 and 340. 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSION' — AMERICAX COAL-MIXING METHODS. 253 

At least 75 per cent, of the shortwall machines in use were 
moved between the working-places by the aid of the trailing- 
cable, and not through power derived from a bare trolley-wire. 
If novices understood that machines could be moved by means of 
an insulated cable, then general managers or agents should know 
that they could be moved quickly by that method if the mine- 
workings were so planned as to facilitate quick movement. 

Mr. Hare had not described how his " failure " machine was 
moved, nor had he described the machine except to say that it 
was a bord-and-pillar or heading machine, and a heading 
machine might be the old-fashioned breast machine. It would 
appear desirable to settle one controversy at a time, and therefore 
he would suggest that the thick seams in Great Britain where 
the pitches were not heavy might be dealt with, and their out- 
puts compared with similar seams in America where electricity 
was not used for coal-cutting. Mr. Hare had not given a plan 
or any data relating to the workings where the machine was an 
absolute failure, nor had the American operator made any state- 
ment. 

The writer wished it to be understood that he had not 
intended to infer that British mining engineers were lacking in 
skill, as Mr. Greener appeared to suggest. He hoped that the 
members would make for themselves an interesting comparison 
of the statements of Mr. Hare, Mr. Tate, and Mr. Halbaum, and 
he asked them to decide to what conclusion an unbiassed investi- 
gator would come after studying those remarks. 

Later on, he would be prepared to go into the question of out- 
put in thin seams with difficult pitches and bad roofs. Such 
seams were being worked in America ; he knew of one seam 4^ 
feet thick, pitching 38 degrees, which was being worked on the 
longwall-panel method, where the output per man at the face 
was 7*43 long tons per shift of 8 hours, and coal-cutting 
machines were not used. The roof was very bad, and had to be 
timbered with collars and legs right up to the face. Airways 
had to be driven in the rock, as they would not stand in the coal. 

He had referred to Bentley Colliery because the co^l there 
was as easy to break down as many seams that were undermined 
by machines, and there was no necessity to use electricity in a 
mine of that description to increase the output per man. 



254 TRANSACTIONS — THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

DISCUSSION OF ME. HIRAM H. HIIISCH'S PAPER ON 
" THE HIRSCH PORTABLE ELECTRIC LAMP."* 

Mr. Hiram H. Hirscii (Philadelphia, U.S.A.), in reply to 
Mr. Percy L. Wood, wrote that he was quite confident that upon 
investig-ation it would be found that his lamp was the first port- 
able battery cap-lamp for use in mines, the first outfit of which 
was installed and successfully operated about seven years ago; 
since then it had been developed and improved upon, in order 
to give absolute satisfaction with regard to efficiency, practic- 
ability, and durability. The lamps were in use in many of the 
largest coal-mines in the United States of America. 

As to the capacity of tlie lamps for withstanding abuse, the 
Pittsburgh Bufialo Company, the North-AYestern Improvement 
Company, the Franklin Coal & Coke Company, the Pennsylvania 
Coal & Coke Corporation, the Woodward Iron Company, the 
Lehigh Coal & Navigation Company, and the Reading Coal & 
Iron Company, wlio had large installations of these lamps, all 
testified as to their strength and durability. 

He quite appreciated the fact that an increase in the size of 
the battery would result in a lamp of higher efiiciency, and give 
greater illumination : this was very easily accomplished by in- 
creasing the size and weight of the battery, say, 25 or 50 per 
cent. , which would permit of the use of a lamp of higher candle- 
power. Amongst the advantages of the cap-lamp might be 
mentioned the fact that the user had the free use of his hands : 
the lig*ht was thrown wherever he turned his head, so that he 
always had the light in front of him. 



DISCUSSION OF MR. JOHN GIBSON'S PAPER ON "THE 
LOGIC OF TRAMS. "t 

Mr. I. C. Parfitt (Jerome, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.) wrote 
that he heartily agreed with and commended the conclusions 
arrived at by Mr. Gibson with regard to , standardization, 
although he differed from him as to the particular features of 
the tram that required standardization so as to render it capable 
of national adoption. 

In the United States the subject of " trams " seemed to have 
received more attention in regard to their construction and 

• Trans. Inst. M. E., 1916, vol. li., pages 61 and 350. 
t Ihid., 1916, vol. li., pages 72 and 350. 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSION — THE LOGIC OF TRAMS. 255 

the reduction of friction than to standardization either with 
respect to the dimensions of the body of the car or of the wheel 
base. The tendency in the United States had been to adopt the 
maximum of carrying- capacity under any and all conditions, as 
he (Mr. Parfitt) had endeavoured to show in his remarks on Mr. 
Samuel Dean's paper.* This tendency was caused by the almost 
universal adoption of the electric system of haulage, which, for 
its successful economic operation, required strength in construc- 
tion of the rolling-stock, and this could be more easily attained 
in trams of large than in those of small capacity when the cost of 
construction formed an important factor, as it necessarily did. 

There was, however, one vital objection to the use of 
maximum-sized trams in electric haulage, namely, the limita- 
tion in speed and size of trips produced by the gradients of the 
haulage-roads, the present general construction of mine electric 
motors being such as to give a maximum of efficiency for power 
consumed on gTadients varying from a dead level to one not 
exceeding 3 per cent, against the loads. An attempt had been 
made to operate successfully the electric locomotive on heavy 
grades by the introduction of what was known as the " rack- 
rail " motor, in which a sprocket-wheel, situated in the middle of 
the machine, acted upon a sprocket-rail laid in the middle of the 
track, thus enabling the machine to climb heavy grades regard- 
less of frictional resistance. This machine, however, had not, 
as yet, come into general use. 

The use of cars of large capacity, with their necessarily cor- 
responding weight, had imposed an increased burden of labour 
upon the miner where the cars had to be man-handled in rooms 
opened on an ascending grade that amounted to practically 50 
per cent, of the labour required in blasting and loading the coal. 
Where the grade dipped to the working-face, the motors, being 
equipped with reel ropes, could haul the loads to the entry. 
Animal haulage was sometimes employed to overcome the former 
condition, but the use of animals in conjunction with electricity 
was not to be recommended. 

It would be presumptuous on his part to attempt to criticize 
adversely Mr. Gibson's paper, as the geological formation of the 
coal-seams and the methods of extraction were so widely differ- 
ent in the two countries as to present no particular feature in 

* Trans. Inst. M. E., 1915, vol. 1., page 395. 



256 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

common ; hence comparisons in general, or in any one particular, 
would be as irrelevant as tliey would be injudicious, as he had 
no knowledge of English mining conditions and methods beyond 
that derived from reading and from hearsay. Any comments and 
suggestions that he offered in the present remarks might be 
regarded as more applicable to the conditions and methods pre- 
vailing in the United States than to those in Great Britain, 
except, perhaps, such as were of so general a character that they 
might be of general application. 

It appeared to him that the standardization of trams under 
conditions such as he was informed existed in Great Britain, 
where several seams of coal were developed from the same shaft, 
the seams differing materially in height and in the composition 
of the contiguous strata, would result in all the advantages and 
benefits claimed by Mr. Gibson. 

Mr. Gibson had made certain statements relative to the deter- 
minating factors in the size of trams that were of so general and 
application that they might be regarded as universal, and, as 
such, he would take the liberty of commenting upon them. 

Mining engineers and managers were neither harassed nor 
embarrassed in the United States by such a variety of nomencla- 
ture in mining terms as existed in Great Britain. The mining 
community in America consisted of so heterogeneous a com- 
position of all nationalities that a common nomenclature had been 
made necessary by the very existence of this composite character. 
A " tram " in the United States was familiarly characterized by 
the name of "car" or "mine-car." The adjunct in the latter 
name was a distinctive appellation, so as to distinguish between 
the inside and outside rolling-stock : the latter was commonly 
designated as "steels" or "flats," the one term designating the 
composition and the other the form. The parallel steel lines on 
which the cars ran were known as the "track," and the bed on 
which the track was laid was known as the " road." Sleepers 
were known as " ties," and the term had a distinctive signifi- 
cance, since they were the implements by which the rails were 
bound or tied together and supported and maintained at the 
specified distance (gauge) apart. 

Under the section " What Governs the Size of the Tram " it 
was stated that (other considerations apart) the greater the dis- 
tance was the larger the tram should be. This was theoretically. 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSIOM" THE LOGIC OF TRAMS. 257 

incontrovertible aside from the parenthetical expression. If 
the distance or length of roadway over which the tram was to be 
man-handled was regarded as a factor in the size, then the size 
would be definite. In most mines and collieries this distance 
was fixed, in room-and-pillar work, by the length of the rooms 
and the distances between cut-throughs on entries, since this was 
the distance through which cars had generally to be man- 
handled ; and he supposed that in longwall work the advancing 
faces would be cut oif at stated intervals by what he believed were 
known as "cross-gates." If the distance over which the tram 
was to be hauled from the point of delivery at the main haul were 
taken as the factor, the size of the car would then, upon the pre- 
ceding hypothesis, be determinable only by the greatest length 
of haul. 

Again, it was stated that " in thin seams a predetermined 
minimum height and width of gate-road is set up by the size of 
the tram." If this was the case, it appeared to him that this 
was a method practically reversing that generally adopted to 
determine the size of the tram. If he understood the expression 
correctly, the author inferred that the size of the tram was 
fixed or determined before the seam was developed to such an 
extent as to reveal the conditions under which the tram was 
to be used. In such a case the dimensions of the tram were not 
made to conform to the natural conditions — in other words, the 
natural conditions were made to conform to the arbitrary con- 
ditions. Such a method was injudicious and unbusinesslike. It 
was easier and less expensive to make arbitrary conditions con- 
form to natural ones than the reverse. The height of the seam 
and the nature of the contiguous strata should, within prescribed 
limits in all seams, determine the cross-section of all roadways, 
and the size of the roadway should determine the size of the tram. 

The calculations with reference to the facility with which 
trams of various weights and coefl&cients of friction could be 
man-handled were a very instructive feature of the paper, and, 
in determining the size of the vehicles used in the transportation 
of coal underground, this was a factor to which adequate con- 
sideration had not been given by operators ; in fact, the labour 
involved in man-handling trams was the last factor taken into 
consideration in the United States, although it was perhaps 
one of the most vital features in the production of output, as 



'2bS TKAX.SAC'TION.S TIIK NOHI'II OF p:N{iI,AND IXSTI'lTTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 



he had already explained. Conservatism had become an indus- 
trial slo<>an in the United States, and yet here was one of 
the most important factors in the conservation of human 
energy that was practically ignored. Man-handling in small 
seams could not be eliminated, but the adoption of a system 
of exploitation that would materially reduce the grades, either 
in the handling of loads or empties, or, in case this was not 
feasible, the installation of mechanical means as an auxiliary 
power, would generally reduce so unwarrantable an expenditure 
of energy, and conserve the waste for application to an in- 
creased output. 

With respect to the diameter of wheels on a minimum-sized 
tram, he could not agree with the author that this should be a 
small diameter, for tlie reason that wheels of small diameter^ 

either revolving^ 
alone or in con- 
junction with 
the axle, would 
make a greater 



number of 
revolutions in 
passing over a. 
specified length 
of track than 
those of larger 
diameters. For 
example, a wheel 
8 inches in diameter would have to revolve I5 times to cover 
the same space as a 14-inch wheel would cover in 1 revolution. 
Assuming that both wheels covered the same ground in the 
same time, it was evident that the small wheel would have to 
travel If times as fast as the larger. Since friction varied as 
the squares of the respective velocities, the small wheel would 
produce 3"06 times the friction of the larger, less the small 
increase that might be due to the increased weight of wheel. 
In addition, the small-diameter wheel would bring the base 
of the car-boxing close to the track-bed, and any obstruction of 
moderate size would militate against the free movement of the car. 
It seemed to him that in standardizing cars the adoption of 
a standard size and construction of wheels would be one of the 




Fig. 1. — Perspective. 



1915-1916.] 



DISCUSSION THE LOGIC OF TRAMS. 



259 



first points to demand consideration. For small-capacity trams 
these mi.arht be ligliter than in the case of those of larger capacity, 
and the bearings might be of simpler construction, as suggested 
by the author. A sketch of such wheels, with their assembling in 




SJ" 



Fig. 2. — Side Elevation. 



-JO' 



Fig. 3. — Cross-section. 




Fig. 4.- -Wheel-base and General Plan. 



a& 



jM 



i7w^^, 



Fig. 5. — Axle Attached to Bottom 
OF Car by Journal Bearing. 



TTT-fT- 



^ 



^ 



Fig. 6. — Axle Attached to Bottom 
OF Car by Bolt. 



the truck and their bearings for a car of 10 cwt. capacity, was 
shown in Figs. 1 to 6, which were not drawn to scale. 

In his scale of standard trams Mr. Gibson had given dimen- 
sions that led him (Mr. Parfitt) to infer that the framework was 
based upon a rectangular parallelogram or a parallelopipedon. 



260 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. I Vol. Ixvi. 



or that the box of tlio car had its opposite sides parallel and 
perpendicular to the adjacent sides throughout their entire 
extent, whilst tlie variations in size were formed by a propor- 
tional extension of the length, width, and height. Variations 
of this form, in which the same capacity or a larger one might be 
secured by changing- only one or two of the dimensions, might 
be desirable, and for this purpose he submitted sketches (Figs. 
7 to 10) illustrative of several forms. 

Mr. Gibson had clearly demonstrated the pecuniary advan- 
tages derived from the use of large trams or cars, both as to 
the initial cost of the equipment and the reduced expense inci- 
FiG. 7. Fig 8. 



m 



^ 




JO" 

Figs. 7 and 

Fig. 9. 



-High-seam Cars. 



Ja " jJ 




Fig. 10. 



M 



Figs. 9 and 10. — Low-seam Cars. 



dent to the upkeep of the stock and track when once the latter 
was constructed to suit the size and capacity of the former. It 
seemed that the best system of haulage for the collieries of 
Great Britain was endless rope, as he was informed that most of 
the seams were gaseous, and also that most of the coals were 
more or less of an inflammable character, conditions w^hich, 
naturally, prohibited the installation of electric haulage, 
although ihej might be adapted to haulage by compressed air. 
One portion of Mr. Gibson's statement relative to this subject 
did not appear comprehensible to the writer. He had stated 
that '* if small trams must be used at the faceSj and the road 
does not p?rmit of the installation of endless-rope or such like 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSIOX — THE LOGIC OF TRAMS. 261 

haulage, it follows that the best policy would be to use small 
trams near the faces and very large trams out-bye." He (Mr. 
Pariitt) understood from this that in such a case the coal would 
have to be transferred from the smaller to the larger trams for 
final haulage to the shaft-bottom. It appeared to him that 
this would result in a decided increase in the surface cost of 
the coal, and would, as the author suggested, be a strong 
argument in favour of standardization. Such a system, how- 
ever, appeared to be impracticable. 

Mr. Gibson's remarks upon the subject of tracks were per- 
tinent and valuable, and should receive such consideration as 
would secure their adoption. The same conditions as to length 
of rails and as to the construction of track within a specified 
distance from the working-faces were as prominent in the 
majority of mines in the United States as they were in Great 
Biitain; and the loss of time due to the one and the number of 
wrecks and consequent loss of time and labour incident to the 
other were factors that contributed largely to reduce the output 
and increase the cost. In the United States the rails used were 
generally of the " T " type, those for rooms and lateral entries 
being lighter in weight per unit of length than those for main 
haulage. He had seen, however, a rail that was more con- 
venient for use in rooms than those mentioned. It was known 
as a " strap'' rail, and measured about h inch thick by 2 inches 
in width and 15 to 18 feet in length. Such a rail was laid by driv- 
ing it edgewise into a notched tie, so that when the rail was in 
position the thickness took the place of the ball of the " T " type. 
Such a rail could be used without the aid of spikes or nails ; it 
was adapted to a straight or crooked road, presented a narrow 
friction surface, and was as enduring as the less pliable and 
more cumbersome "T"rail. 

He had found, by comparing the length and width of car- 
boxings with the gauge of road and the length of truck 
(between centres of wheel axles) in well-balanced cars, that they 
bore a certain definite relation to each other, according to the 
following rule : — The length of the boxing was to the width 
(inside measurements in both) as the gauge of the track was 
to the length of the wheel-base (measured between centres of 
axles). 

In standardizing cars, the gauge of the track, the wheel- 



262 TKAXSACTIOXS TI£E NOUTII OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

base, and the diameters of the wlieels were three factors that 
would require little if any modification in making changes in 
the car capacity. Mr, Gibson suggested 24 inches as the standard 
gauge, and the illustrations that he had given would justify this 
size under surface conditions ; but he (Mr. Parfitt) was inclined 
to the opinion that underground conditions might conduce to 
a change in this standard. For example, if the bottom or floor 
were soft, a narrow-gauge track such as was suggested wo aid 
exert more pressure over a given area than one of a larger gauge 
would with the same load, as the weight was more concentrated, 
and the repairs to the track would be correspondingly greater. 
The size of track or wheel-base would necessarily have to be 
such as to enable the cars to pass easily" round curves, and 
switches should be of the size required for the system of mining 
employed and the physical conditions of the seam. A wheel-base 
constructed upon the rule given, in which the gauge was l'T5 
times the distance between the wheel centres, would, he thought, 
meet the conditions, as cars of 2 tons capacity constructed upon 
this plan would round curves and switches of a small radius. 
With regard to wheels, they should not be less than 12 inches in 
diameter, and should be of uniform shape. The gauge and the 
wheel-base having been standardized, the boxing or body of the 
car could be constructed to suit these dimensions, or such modi- 
fications in form could be made at a comparatively small expense 
as compared with modifications in the factors given, if the 
boxing were constructed of wood, as would best suit existing 
conditions. AVitli the assumed minimum diameters of wheels, 
the minimum gauge should not be less than 30 inches. 

Mr. John Gibson (Kilmarnock) wrote that his main purpose 
in preparing the paper was to show the great efiiciency and 
economy that would follow the adoption of standardized trams, or 
even the gauge. To show in detail every step of reasoning would 
have required a paper of very great length. As mining engineers 
were usually very fully occupied in ordinary practice, he had 
thought that a brief paper would be more widely read than one 
full of details such as would possibly be familiar (and therefore 
tiresome) to the majority of the members. He preferred the risk 
of being obscure rather than prolix, although any obscurity was 
to be regretted. Brevity also had this great advantage — that 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSIOX — THE LOGIC OF TRAMS. 263 

criticism was kept more closely fociissed on the chief proposition 
and less dissipated on interesting- thoug-h inessential details and 
side issues. 

Several gentlemen had questioned the statement that '' in 
thin seams a predetermined minimum height and width of gate- 
road is set up by the size of the tram." This dictum permitted of 
veiy easy explanation. It was stated in the paper that " a man 
has no great difficulty in travelling in a road having a minimum 
height of 3 feet above the rails and a width of 3 feet between the 
narrowest timbers," and that statement had not been questioned 
by anyone. It followed that, if the tram in use could not pass 
through any part of a gate-road of such dimensions, the gate-road 
must be increased in size. Therefore, the tram predetermined 
the minimum height and the width of the gate-roads. He would 
illustrate his remarks bj- a 22-inch seam, in which 2h feet of 
ripping, 6 feet wide, was taken down, so that the gate-road then 
measured 4 feet 4 inches in height by 6 feet in width. Even with a 
good pavement, the height 30 yards back from the face would not 
be more than 3i feet. If a 4-inch bar were used, the height would 
then be 3 feet 2 inches ; and the sleeper and rails would again 
reduce this to 2 feet 10 inches above the rails. If the bar sagged 
3 incites, the total available height would then be 2 feet T inches. 
Even if a tram of minimum size were u,-;ed in such a road, the 
drawer would be in danger of losing fingers, of smashing out 
the bars, or at least of jamming his full tram between the rails 
;'.nd the roof. All these conditions were very familiar to those 
who worked very thin seams. The same process went on in con- 
nexion with the sides: the packs were pushed out and toppled 
over; the cost of repairs was high, and stowage was usually 
scarce ; therefore a road 3 feet wide between the narrowest timbers 
sufficed if the tram could pass, and this width was economical. 
If the tram were large, it was evident that gate-roads of greater 
height and width must be maintained and repaired, or cross- 
gates must be more frequent. This extxa cost must be charged 
against the tram. 

Another assertion that had received adverse criticism was 
that " wheels of small diameter and simple bearings are suitable 
for small trams." Mr. Lupton and Mr. Parfitt seemed to be of 
opinion that friction must be kept down to the lowest practicable 
limits in trams of all sizes. Let them take, as an example, three 



2G4 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

trams weigliiug- o, 4, and cwis. respectively, and assume that 
with simple bearing's the friction etjiialled ^jj. Assuming that, 
by the provision of roller or other bearings, the friction was 
reduced to yl^y, and that each l>earing added 14 pounds to the 
weight, the weights would then be 3h, 4i, and 6^ cwts. respec- 
tively. The limits of inclination would be as follows : — 



(1) Trams with Simple Bearings. 



Weight. 
Cwts. 

3 

4 
6 



Weight. 
Cwts. 



Friction. 


Limit of 
Inclination. 


Vtj 


1 in 6 (approximately^ 


do. 


1 ,, 82 


do. 


1 „ 14 


(2) Trams with 


Roller-bearings. 


Friction. 


Limit of 
Inclination. 


1 


1 in 7 (approximately). 


do. 


1 „ 9 


do. 


1 „ 13-6 



H 

The following deduction was quite clear from the foregoing 
figures : — 

(1) With a 3-cwt. tram, it was wrong to use roller-bearings, 
or anything else in its construction, however useful, which added 
56 pounds to the weight. 

(2) With 4-cwt. trams an inclination of 1 in 8f was the 
dividing-line ; steeper roads suited the lighter weight. Less 
steep roads gave the advantage to the tram with the lower 
friction. 

(3) With trams weighing 6 cwts., the dividing-line was at 
1 in 13| ; therefore in almost every case the roller-bearing had 
the advantage. Even easy gradients demanded some form of 
self-acting incline, and of course the low coefficient of friction 
made these practicable, whereas with ordinary bearings they 
would not be so. 

He reg'retted his inability to agree with Mr. James Ashworth's 
opinion that detailed plans of the proposed standard trams should 
have been included in the paper. If he (Mr. Gibson) succeeded in 
proving to the satisfaction of the members the great benefits to be 
derived from standardization, he would be quite content to leave 
the matter of construction to settle itself. He was not pledged to 
nor pi^ejudiced in favour of any form. In the same way he 
agreed with Mr. H. F. Bulman that nine different sizes were not 
recjuired. By proposing that number he (Mr. Gibson) hoped to 
gain wider ap])r()bation for the general proposition. After 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSION" THE LOGIC OF TRAMS. 265 

staudardization had been adopted, the sizes least in demand would 
gradually fall into desuetude. 

Mr. Ashworth had stated that the " Secretary of State could 
occupy his time more usefully than in considering the question 
of the standardization of the gauges of rails." He (Mr. Gibson) 
quite agreed with that statement. Mr. Ashworth's sentence, how- 
ever, was based, he thought, on a misunderstanding of English 
constitutional practice, which worked in this way: — Supposing 
that the reform in question were in force, and that a coal-owner 
wished to deviate from the standard gauge for some particular 
reasons, he would then apply to the Secretary of State for exemp- 
tion, which would be decided by his expert advisers. The Secre- 
tary of State, however, was responsible to Parliament for the 
decision of his advisers. Thus, if A could show that exemption 
was refused to him, whereas B, under the same conditions 
obtained exemption, a bad state of affairs would exist; but the 
responsibility to Parliament of the Secretary of State made such 
an eventuality practically impossible. 

Mr. Ashworth had expressed the opinion that the question of 
ventilation had not received sufficient attention in the paper. In 
regard to this point, it might be noted that the Coal Mines Act 
(1) set up a standard of ventilation by requiring a certain per- 
centage of oxygen, and by fixing a maximum for the percentage 
of carbon dioxide that might be present in the mine air; and (2) 
the Inspector being armed with certain powers might require air- 
ways to be maintained of reasonable dimensions, as also 
travelling and haulage-roads. 

The question at issue was not regarding roads such as these, 
but gate-roads which from their commencement to their aband- 
onment might not last more than three months. They were not 
primarily intended for ventilation, but were usually kept clear 
by leakage. It followed that the smaller they were in cross- 
section, the higher must be the velocity of the air-current, and, 
of course, the better for the ventilation of the road. 

Mr. Kilpatrick had raised the question of the wisdom, of 
doing anything which interfered with " natural and individual 
predilection." As this was interfered with in every law — with, 
in many cases, excellent results — it seemed that Mr. Kilpatrick 
feared an imaginary danger. Not only so, but custom itself had 
established laws which could not conveniently be broken. In the 



266 TRANSACTIONS — THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

case of ordinary clothiuo-, anyone might design for his own par- 
ticular use a garb of original texture, colour, and form, but it 
would probably prove less useful and convenient than clothing 
made in the ordinary way, and more costly. Of what advantage 
was " natural predilection " in such a case ? In the same way with 
trams, everyone at present designed his own — its construction, 
form, and size — and the purpose of tlie paper was to show that 
this procedure was less useful and convenient and more costly 
than the logical method — just as in the case of clothing. 

Mr. Kilpatrick had questioned the accuracy of the statement 
that a healthy man could for a period of 2i minutes perform 
work at the rate of 0-24 horsepower. He (Mr. Gibson) had 
hoped to take tests of men and boys on a typical tram-road and 
present the results to the members, but regretted that lack of 
time had not permitted him to do so. In any case, the statement 
was made in the course of an argument to prove that in small 
trams it was more important to keep down weight than to keep 
down friction. Supposing that it was found that the output of a 
man was 0-12 horsepower instead of 0'24, then it strengthened 
(not weakened) the argument. Indeed, he had chosen the 
maximum figure for the purpose of proving his contention 
beyond question. 

Mr. Parfitt's interesting criticism showed the trend of opinion 
in America, and gave many valuable hints with regard to con- 
struction. The sketches that he had so kindly submitted brought 
out clearly the lines on which American mining engineers were 
proceeding. AVith respect to nomenclature, it was interesting to 
note that the difficulties arising from mixed nationalities and 
languages had perforce brought about the standardization of 
trade names. Mr. John Watson in his remarks on the same 
subject had brought out clearly the difficulties with which 
engineers had to contend in this country. 

Mr. Myles Brown's contribution to the discussion was notable, 
in that he sketched out a mode of procedure for testing the stand- 
ardization proposals and for bringing them to fruition. 

He respectfully appealed to the Institute not to throw aside 
lightly without close scrutiny the proposal for the standard- 
ization of trams, but to devote all the Institute's talents, 
influence, and prestige to the task of carrying out the reform if 
it should be considered practicable and beneficial. 



1915-1916.] DISCUSSIOX^COAL-DUST EXPLOSIONS. 267 

DISCUSSION OF MR. A. S. BLATCHFORD'S PAPER ON 
"THE INFLUENCE OF INCOMBUSTIBLE SUB- 
STANCES ON COAL-DUST EXPLOSIONS."* 

Mr. James Ashworth (Vancouver, British Columbia) wrote 
that the paper was certainly interesting from the theoretical 
point of view, but to the man who had to look after the practical 
safeguarding of colliery operations the absence of any warning 
of the invariable presence of methane was very noticeable. 

It had been stated, as the result of experiments, that in cases 
where certain incombustible substances were present in the air, 
they would arrest the flame of an explosion when the mixture of 
air and methane was in its most dangerous condition. If such an 
experimental conclusion were correct, the arrestment must, in 
the opinion of the writer, take place at, or very close to, the 
point of origin of the explosion. 

If an incombustible substance was to be effective in control- 
ling the progress of an explosion in a coal-mine, it must 
necessarily be intimately mixed with the air before the flame 
reached any particular point. In order to postulate such a con- 
dition in a coal-mine, the theory as to the presence of a pioneer- 
ing cloud of dust in advance of an explosion flame must be 
accepted. A great many people believed and positively asserted 
that a pioneering cloud was always a factor, but the writer had 
persistently taken the opposite view, namely, that after the 
initiatory stage a pioneering cloud in front of the flame was an 
impossibility, excepting only when the speed of the sound wave 
was greater than the speed of the flame. Even then, the term 
" pioneering " was not correct, as the flame was passing through 
the cloud continuously, and was not actually driving the dust in 
front of it. If vx.e cloud of dust were driven forward by the 
flame, the flame would be smothered out through excess of dust 
and want of oxygen. 

All experiments on the quenching of a coal-dust flame by 
incombustible dust had been made with mechanical mixtures of 
the two dusts, and not with the dusts as they were found in 
collieries, where the different dusts were in layers, with the 
finest and most dangerous fresh dust already floating in the air. 

Air under pressure was a totally different flame-carrier from 

♦ Trans. Inst. M. E., 1916, vol. li., page 369. 

VOL. LITI.-1916-1M6. 20 E 



268 TUANSACTIOXS TIIK NOKI'll OF KN(;LANI) INSTITrTK. |"Vol. Ixvi. 

air at normal air-pressure, and here again was a missing factor 
in experiments made in galleries on the surface. 

AVith reference to the liberation of carbon dioxide from a 
quench, it was to be remembered that the gas under those con- 
ditions was hot, and therefore not as effective as when cold ; 
consequently steam gave better results when liberated from the 
quench than did carbon dioxide. 

With respect to the controversies that were continually 
arising in connexion with coal-dust and flame-quenching, he 
(Mr. Ash worth) would like to see some notice taken of Mr. W. 
A. Douglas Hudge's experiments and conclusions on the thermo- 
electrical pos^sibilities of an explosion and its initiation.* 

Mr. A. S. Blatciifoed (Armstrong College, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne) wrote that, strictly speaking, a reply to the points raised 
by Mr. Ashworth was not necessary. 



Mr. Charles L. Dobson's " Memoir of the late George 
May " was read, as follows : — 



* "On the Electrification Produced during the Raising of a Cloud of Dust," 
Proc. Royal Society, 1914, series a, vol. xc, page 256 ; see also discussion on the 
writer's paper on "The Killingworth Colliery (New South Wales) Explosion," 
Trans. Inst. M.E., 1915, vol. xlix., pages 99-108. 



IW. ZAfV., Plate 111. 




GEORGE MAY 

PRESIDENT OF THE NORtH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE OF MINING AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, 1896-1898. 



Born on Feliuarv 12//7, 1839, aj.d died on June iZih, 1915- 
{Presented by The North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers.) 



1915-1916.] DOBSON MEMOIR OF THE LATE GEORGE MAY. 269 



MEMOIR OF THE LATE GEORGE MAY. 



By CHARLES L. DOBSON. 



George May was a native of the County of Durham, having 
been born at Bishop Auckland on February 12th, 1839. His 
father, George May, was a timber merchant in business in that 
town, his mother being a sister of James Thompson, late of 
Hurworth-on-Tees . 

Mr. May was educated at the Grammar School, Bishop 
Auckland, and at Hartforth School, near Richmond, Yorkshire. 
He, even in these early days, showed that infinite capacity for 
taking pains so characteristic of him in later life, for many of 
his school-books (still extant), shown to the writer some few 
years ago, are models of neatness, and give evidence of very 
careful work. 

He began to serve his apprenticeship in the year 1856 at 
the Hetton Collieries, under the late John Wales, who was at 
that time viewer. Mr. Wales was succeeded after his death 
in 1859 by the late John Daglish, under whom Mr. May com- 
pleted his apprenticeship, and by whom he was appointed 
manager of Elemore Colliery. 

In 1863 Sir Lindsay Wood, Bart., took over the charge of 
the Hetton Collieries on the retirement of Mr. Daglish in that 
year, thereby originating a close professional connexion of 
45 years' standing. In the same year Mr. May was appointed by 
Sir Lindsay to the position of resident viewer to the North 
Hetton Collieries, and this post was held by him until his 
appointment by Sir Lindsay in 1872 to the charge of the Harton 
Collieries. 

Whilst at North Hetton Mr. May married Fannie, daughter 
of the late Joseph Bourne, of Benton, Northumberland, and of 
his wife Sarah, daughter of Robert Nicholson, of Bewick Hill, 
in the same county. The Bournes were descendants of Henry 
Bourne, the historian of Newcastle (1694-1733), and old records 
show that the family were tenants on the estates of the Dukes of 



270 TRAXSACTIOXS — THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITI'TE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

Northumberland 300 years ago. Joseph Bourne was a brother 
of John Bourne, engineer to the North-Eastern Railway Com- 
pany (Northern Division) for a long period of years; whilst the 
Nicholsons were related to the Grace and Lambert families, 
well known in Newcastle and district. It is of interest to note 
that by this connexion Mrs. May was a cousin of Dr. AV. G. 
Grace, the " Grand Old Man " of cricket. 

Mr. May began his long connexion with the large and im- 
portant Harton Collieries at the early age of 33 (a connexion 
which lasted for 35 years), the group at that time comprising the 
Harton, St. Hilda, and Boldon Collieries. The old Brandling 
drops in South Shields formed part of the Harton Company's 
property, these being connected by a wagonway with St. Hilda 
Colliery. During the greater part of Mr. May's connexion with 
the collieries, box or chaldron wagons, drawn by horses, 
conveyed the coal between the colliery and these staithes, the 
wagonway crossing on the road level several of the streets of 
South Shields. One of the last improvements taken in hand by 
Mr. May was in connexion with this wagonway, a tunnel being 
substituted for the level crossing over one of the busiest and most 
important streets, and electric locomotives substituted for horses 
with great success. 

In the early years of his management, St. Hilda Colliery 
was entirely remodelled, a new winding-engine was erected, 
and the shaft winding arrangements modernised by the large 
four-decked cages introduced, with other essential improve- 
ments and alterations. The heapstead and screening arrange- 
ments were extended, and a ventilating fan of the Guibal type 
(50 feet in diameter) was installed in place of the old furnace. 
The aiTangements generally of this old-established colliery, sunk 
by the Brandling family in 1822, were brought up to date. 

Boldon Colliery was comparatively new when Mr. May took 
up his position as agent, but under his management the surface 
arrangements were laid out in a spacious manner. This colliery 
was for many years one of the model collieries of the Durham 
coalfield, and visitors from abroad or from other districts were 
frequently directed to Boldon as a representative type of a 
modern well-equipped colliery. 

At Harton Colliery the improvements carried out during Mr. 
May's term of management comprised extensions of the screening 



1915-1916.] DOBSOX MEMOIR OF THE LATE GEORGE MAY. 271 

plant and a rearrangement of the heapstead ; whilst his fore- 
sight, which was one of his strongest characteristics, led him to 
recommend the owners to adopt electricity as a motive power, 
in the days when this form of power, so far as its practical 
application on a large scale to collieries was concerned, was in its 
infancy. Before his retirement in 1907, orders were placed for 
an electric winder to replace the old vertical engine, which had 
been working for upwards of 50 years ; and for a Sulzer pump to 
be erected at the shaft-bottom, in substitution of the old beam 
pump which had been installed at the time when the colliery was 
sunk. Mr. May did not, however, see this plant in operation, 
as on his retirement in October, 1907, it had not been delivered. 

In 1891 the Harton Company acquired the property and 
undertaking of The "Whitburn Coal Company, Limited, com- 
prising "Whitburn Colliery, the Marsden Quarries and Lime- 
works, and the railway connecting the colliery with the North- 
Eastern Railway line at South Shields. Under Mr. May's 
supervision Whitburn Colliery was transformed from a pit 
having only a small output into a large and successful colliery, 
the change necessitating, inter alia, the erection of a large 
winding-engine, the installation of a Walker fan, and the 
enlargement of the heapstead and screening arrangements 
requisite for dealing with the increased output. 

The site of the T;^ne Plate Glass Works, South Shields, with 
the quay having a river frontage, and the railway connecting 
the works and the Whitburn Colliery line, were purchased by 
the Harton Company in 1892. A new wharf was laid down on 
the river front, and this site was eventually converted into an 
up-to-date coal-shipping staithe, having a river frontage of 
700 feet and direct railway communication with the St. Hilda 
and Whitburn collieries. 

During Mr. May's management of these collieries a lease 
was obtained of the land required for the formation of a railway 
to connect Harton Colliery with the company's shipping staithes, 
and this railway is now in use. 

During the 35 years that Mr. May held the position of agent 
to the Harton Coal Company, he lived at Simonside Hall, near 
Tyne Dock. He took a great interest in farming, and the large 
estates of the company were efficiently farmed under his super- 
vision. 



272 TRANSACTIOXS — TIIK XORTIIOF E.\(iLA.\l) IXSTITTTK. [Vol. Ixvi. 

In liis earlier days at Hartou lie occasionally took mining 
students under his charge, and several men who have since 
become eminent in the profession served an apprenticeship 
with him. 

Mr. May for a short time was a member of the South Shields 
Town Council and the Durliam County Council, but public life 
of this kind made no appeal to him, and he very soon severed his 
connexion with these bodies. 

More than once he was urged to allow his name to be put 
forward for a Commission as a Borough and County magistrate, 
and although appointed a member of the South Shields Bench, 
he never took his seat. 

He was very keenly interested in The North of England 
Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers, and was at the 
time of his death one of the oldest members, his election dating 
back to 1862. When President of the Institute (1896-1898) 
his Presidential Address had special reference to the importance 
of improvement in the education and methods of training of 
the colliery mechanical engineer, a subject in which he was 
deeply interested ; and the legacy which he left to the Institute 
for the award of scholarships is evidence of the depth of his 
interest in educational matters, especially with reference to the 
scientific development of coal-mining. Mr. May was well knuwn 
for his generosity, every genuine appeal receiving his liberal 
support. 

Mr. May acted as chairman of the Haulage Committee 
formed by the Institute in connexion with the model coal-mine 
which was so prominent a feature of the Jubilee Exhibition held 
at Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1887. He also represented the 
Institute for some years as a director of the Institute and Coal 
Trade Chambers, Limited, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

He was active in the work of the Durham Coal Owners Assoc- 
iation, being a member of the Conciliation Board and Joint 
Committee, and was usually appointed to any committee of 
importance during his long connexion with the Association. 
For many years he acted as one of the examiners of candidates 
for colliery manager's certificates, a duty in which he took much 
interest. Candidates who appeared before him for viva-voce 
examination were assured of a sympathetic and reassuring 
hearing. During his occupancy of the Presidential chair of 



1915-1916.] DOBSON — MEMOIR OF THE LATE GEORGE MAY. 273 

the Institute, he acted as the external examiner of students 
desirous of taking- the B.Sc. Degree in Mining- at the Armstrong 
College, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

In 1892 Mr. May was appointed a director of the Bearpark 
Coal & Coke Company, Limited, and by virtue of his technical 
knowledge he assisted his colleagues on the hoard in an advisory 
capacity up to the time of his death. 

On retiring from the position of agent to the Harton Coal 
Company, he was appointed a director of the company, which 
position he likewise tilled until his death. 

On his retirement he took up residence at Clervaux Castle, 
near Croft. For some time previously his sight had caused 
him much trouble. Gifted, however, v/ith a wonderful memory, 
he was able to remember facts read and to follow plans explained 
to him with remarkable ability, and, notwithstanding the 
severe blow which his loss of sight involved, his remaining years 
were cheerful and happy. 

Mr. May on his retirement received from the officials and 
staff of the Harton Collieries a presentation of plate, this occasion 
affording an opportunity to his staff of showing their regard and 
esteem. He was very much liked by such of the older generation 
of workmen as could remember his early days with the Harton 
Company, and he always enjoyed talking over those early daj^s 
with them. He was a great lover of animals — horses in parti- 
cular — and at Clervaux Castle indulged in his hobby by the 
breeding of Shetland ponies. 

He soon became well known in the district of Croft, and was 
very popular with his neighbours, although he was a man who 
strongly disliked publicity in any form. Amongst his own 
circle of friends he was very much liked and esteemed. Perhaps 
he was seen at his best when fulfilling the duties of host, in which 
capacity he acted in a delightful and hospitable manner. Being 
gifted, as already mentioned, with a good memory, he would 
delight, to a sympathetic listener, in telling incidents of his 
early life and of old mining days. 

He was a member of the Horticultural Society, of the 
Northern Antiquarian Society, and of one or two farming assoc- 
iations, and took much interest in the work of these several 
societies. 

Mr. May died at Clervaux Castle on June 18th, 1915, and 



274 TRANSACTIONS— THE NORTH OF K\(iLANI) INSTITUTK. [Vol. Ixvi. 

was buried in Croft Churcliyard, where also lies interred his wife, 
who predeceased him in 1907. His two daughters, Mrs. A. Paget 
Steavenson, of Hurworth-on-Tees, and Mrs. Scott, of Riding 
Mill, survive him. 

A photograph of the deceased gentleman (Plate VI.) is 
attached to this brief memoir. 



Prof. Henry Louis proposed and Mr. E. Seymour Wood 
seconded a vote of thanks to Mr. Dobson for his interesting 
Memoir. 



I 



APPENDICES 



I.— NOTES OF PAPEES ON THE WORKING OF MINES, METALLURGY, 
ETC., FROM THE TRANSACTIONS OF COLONIAL AND FOREIGN 
SOCIETIES AND COLONIAL AND FOREIGN PUBLICATIONS. 



The followiug contractions are ii.sed in the titles of the publications 
abstracted : — 
Bull. Soc. Indust. Miii. Bulletin de la Societe de ITndnstrie Minerale, St. 

Etienne. 
Bull. Univ. Illinois. Bulletin of the University of Illinois, Urbana, U.S.A. 
Bur. Mines. Bureau of Mines, Washington, U.S.A. 

Com. Cent. Houill. France. Comite Central des Houilleres de France, Paris. 
Geol. Surv. Canada. Geological Survey (Department of Mines) of Canada, 

Ottawa, Canada. 
Ocol. Surv. New South Wales. Geological Survey of New South Wales 

Department of Mines, Sydney, N.S.W. 
Geol. Surv. Western Australia. Geological Survey of Western Australia, 

Perth, Western Australia. 
J our n. Lake Superior Min. Inst. Joui'nal of the Lake Superior Mining In.sti- 

tute, Ishpeming, U.S.A. 
Montanist. Bunds. Montanistische Rundschau, Berlin and Vienna. 
Bee. Geol. Surv. India. Records of the Geological Survey of India, Calcutta, 

India. 
Soc. Ingen. C'ivils des France. Societes Ingenieurs Civils de France, Paris. 
Trans. Can. Min. Inst. Transactions of the Canadian Mining Institute, 

Ottawa. 
Zeitschr. f. Berg-, Hiltt.- u. Salinenwes. Zeit.schrift fiir das Berg-, Hiitten- 

und Salinenwesen im jjreussischen Staate, Berlin. 



GEOLOGY, MINERAL DEPOSITS, ETC. 

Prospectingr for Gold in the Metalliferous Strata of the Black 
Mountain. — By R. Espahseil. Bull. Soc. Indust. Min., 1915, series o, 
vol. vii.. Images 297-329. 

Gold was first discovered in the Black Mountain at the Limousis Copper 
Mine by the writer's father. Tlie gold-bearing strata occur at about 9^ 
miles (15 kilometres) to the north of Carcassonne on a plateau of the Black 
Mountain in a region that has been subjected to long-continued erosion, and 
is cut up by torrents that have formed deep gorges. The strata of the Black 
Mountain belong in general to the Lower Silurian formation, parts near the 
crest of the hill being metamorphosed and interspersed with volcanic rocks. 

TOL. LXVI.— ieiS..1916. ^ A 



2 TRANSACTIONS-THE XORTH OF EXGLAXD IXSTITFTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

Two systems of metalliferous veins of quartz cross each otlier, the primary 
one running, like the hills, roughly east and .vest and he secondary one 
c ossing it at right-angles. In the latter the gold and also veins of silver 
arHor the most part found. In the primary system are found pyrites, copper 
and lead The yield of the secondary system is most capricious. A typical 
case of one of the veins in the Villaniere Concession is as follows:- 



Per cent. 

Arsenic ... 15 to 33 

Sulphur 1^''^^ 

Silica 6-12 



Iron 



34-96 



Magnesia ... Traces. 
Alumina ... 2"12 
Gold ... 230 to 300 grains (15 

to 19 grammes) per ton. 

.jj^^ Traces' ; Silver ... 600 to 800 grains (40 

""^ ' to 50 grammes) per ton. 

The ravages caused bv the fumes of arsenic emitted from the surface plant 
.re extremely troublesome. Tliese take the form of poisoning fo^^^f'^^f/^ 
;f cattle, destruction of vegetation, etc. At the Salsique Mines this diihculty 
has been overcome by the installation of " bag-houses." A. K. ^. 

L.St of Canadian Mine.a. Occurrences.-By A. A. Johnston. Geol_ 
Surv. Canada, Department of Mines, 1915, Memoir No. 74, pages 1-275. 
In the present list the intention has been to bring together as completely 
as possible all notable occurrences so far (December 1st, 1914) ^-ord^ in 
Canada, thus leaving the compilation of a new descriptive list for considera- 
tion in some subsequent report. .^„:^^^ wbirh 
Part I. embraces a list, arranged alphabetically, of the mateiials which 
have so far with reasonable certainty been identified as ^^^-^^-^^J^ ^^'^^^ 
and in each case a list of localities of occurrence is given for each piovmce 
and territory in the Dominion. . 

In Part II. are embraced lists of the minerals known to occur in the vari- 
ous municipal and mining divisions (arranged alphabetically) into which the 
provinces and territories are subdivided. It is expected tl^-^l^^/™^^- 
ment will prove to be of value both to the prospector and to the collector. 

It is proposed to publish supplements to this list at suitable intervals and, 
when the accumulation of new information warrants such ^ ^^o^"^^' g" '''" 
corporate it in a new revised list. 

coalfields of British Col«mbia.-By D. B. Dowling. Geol.Surv. Canada, 
Department of Mines, 1915, Memoir No. 69, pages 1-350. 
The discoverv of coal in 1835, on the British Columbian coast at Suquash 
and later near Nanaimo, was due to information given to the officers of the 
Hudson's Bav Company by the Indians. The coal-minmg industry therefore, 
niav be said \o have grown up with the general development "^ tl^^/^^^^^^; 
"several important coal-bearing areas are situated on the islands off the 
mainland, and in this respect are very favourably placed to ^^^P^^ ^^^ 
other coalfields which are tributary to the Pacific. Inland areas of prime 
importance have been connected with the markets by railway, as ^^^^^^^^ 
with the Crow's Nest area. Other large fields, such as the Upper Elk Eiver 
field, await the demands of a market before the construction of the connect- 
ing, railway and the installation of mining machinery. The demands for 



1915-1916] XOTES OF COLOXIAL AXD FOREIGX PAPERS. 3 

transportation for other purposes may facilitate the opening of many other 
coal-deposits; and of those listed and described there may, in time, be many 
which will supply the wants of the settler, the manufacturer, or the reduction- 
works. At the present time, however, active mining is limited to the southern 
part of the province and to Vancouver Island. 

Coal is found in the early Tertiary and in several of the divisions of the 
Cretaceous formations. The Cretaceoiis coal-bearing rocks of the Rocky Moun- 
tains represent portions of the Great Plains coal-bearing basin, and are cor- 
related directly with the Alberta beds. The early Cretac-eous coal-bearing 
sediments of northern British Columbia, while of about the same age as, or 
possibly older than, the coal-bearing strata of the Rockies, may not have 
been deposited in the same basin. The deposits of ITpper Cretaceous time 
which occur in the Peace River basin are probably of about the same age 
as the Belly River formation, and, if so, antedate the Cretaceous beds of 
Vancouver and Graham Islands, which are gfenerally correlated with beds in 
the upper part of the Pierre overlying the Belly River formation. 

The Tertiary sediments on the coast which are coal-bearing in places 
are supposedly in conformable relation with the Cretaceous, so that their 
Eocene age is generally admitted. In the interior basins, where Tertiary sedi- 
ments are capped by Miocene lava-fiows, a coal horizon in the sediments is 
held to be somewhat later in age than Eocene ; but, from a study of the 
plant-remains. Prof. D. P. Penhallow did not feel inclined to pronounce 
it later than Oligocene. Two examples of sediments later than the first 
or larliest lava-fiow are attributed to the Lower Miocene. It has been 
pointed out that the Oligocene beds of the Coldwater group are, in places, 
tilted and otherwise deformed beneath the trap flows, thus showing a time- 
interval between the Oligocene and the deposits of the Lower Miocene. 

A. P. A. S. 



Coalfields of the Domain of Kebao, China. — By LoiTiS Ra3IEax:. Bull. Soc. 
Indiist. Min., 1915, series 5, vol. vii., pages 165-176. 

So long ago .is the year 1849, French naval officers observed Chinese coal- 
mining operations being conducted in Kebao, which is the largest island in 
the Gulf of Tonquin. A French explorer named Jean Dupuis, who had 
secured a mining concession there in 1888, was, after the French occupation 
of the country, confirmed in the possession of the present Kebao Domain. 
The output of coal rose from 1,641 metric tons in 1902 to 17,085 tons in 1910, 
the total output during the period amounting to nearly 100,000 tons. 

The roughly triangular island of Kebao lies with its longest (south-eastern; 
side towards the main channel, along which in a tract from 1^ to 3 miles (2 to 
5 kilometresj in width the coal district lies. The down-stream end of the 
island is mountainous, and contains only thin unworkable seams. At a distanqe 
of about a third from the lower end, coal is found in workable quantities. 
This zone extends for about 2^ miles, but the first thousand yards (1 kilo- 
metre), up to a fault which runs north-east and south-west, although includ- 
ing seams 40 and 24 inches thick (1 metre and 600 millimetres) respectively, 
has hitherto proved unworkable, on account of difficulties of transpart. The 
field actually worked is cut into four districts by faults. In the easternmost 
of these — the Cai Dai district — about sixteen senms are enumerated, having- 
thicknesses of from 32 inches to 10 feet (800 millimetres to 3 metres) and a 
total thickness of 62 feet (18a5 metres). These seams dip to the north-east. 



4 TRAXSACTIOXS THK XOKTIl OK KXCiLAXD IXSTITU'IK. [Vol. Ixvi. 

Westward of this, between, two succeeding faults, i.s the Trainee Verte dis- 
trict. The seams here vary from 24 to 64 inches (600 millimetres to 16 
metres) in thickness, and have a total thickness of about 30 feet (91 metres). 
Thirteen seams are mentioned: they dip to the north-east, fold upwards 
awhile, and dip again. A line of rails runs through the district, and its 
terminus practically ends the field so far as work is concerned. To the west 
and south further good seams have been found. A. R. L. 



Characteristics of Fossil Coal. — By K. Weithofer. ilontanist. RutuJs., 
1915, vol. vii., pages 107 and 133. 
It is still an open question whether brown coal and bituminous coal are 
different varieties of the same substance, or whether they differ radically from 
each other. Prof. Donatli is of the latter opinion, and does not consider that 
the one kind of coal can ever, in any length of time, or under anj- condi- 
tions of pressure and heat, be converted into the other. This view is contro- 
verted by the writer, and many geologists look upon bx'own coal and bitumin- 
ous coal as two memlj«rs of a progressive series of carbonizing processes. 
Chemical analysis of various kinds of coal according to their age shows that 
the carbon in them is gradually enriched as the water and oxygen are elimi- 
nated. The oldest coal is the bituminous with the largest percentage of 
•carbon, and brown coal, lignite, peat, and wood are, in the writer's opinion, 
successive stages of development, decreasing in age downwards. Age, how- 
ever, is not the only factor in the formation of coal : the original plant sub- 
stance from which it was produced is also an agent. The characteristics of 
the two kinds of coal are not -always the same, and even geologically it is not 
■easy to draw the dividing line accurately. " Lignin " is one of the main 
features of brown coal, which tends gradually to disappear. The writer 
attributes its presence to the richness of plant life at the time when the coal 
was formed. Coal, he states, consists of the fossil remains of a succession of 
plant forms, and that found in the Carboniferous Age is the result of a 
different class of plant life from that which gives rise to the coal of the 
Tertiary Era. E. M. D. 



Characteristics of Coal-deposits in the Limestone Strata (Germany).- — 

By E. DoNATH and Prop. Ezehak. Montanist. Bunds., 1915, vol. vii., 
jiages 1, 35, and 74. 

The writer considers the difference between various kinds of coal, bitumin- 
ous and brown, in Germany and Austria. He endeavours to determine 
whether the two types of coal belong to the Upper and Lower Limestone 
formations, and with this object has studied varieties from Carpano in 
Istria, Barsinghausen, Obernkirchen in Schaumburg-Lippe, Ost-erwald, near 
Hanover, Borkowitz in Moravia, Lowenberg in Silesia, and coal from Southern 
Styria. Samples were tested chemically for their degree of moisture, which 
was found to be small in bituminous and large in brown coal. Other charac- 
teristics were determined by burning in a crucible, boiling in a solution of 
potash, in benzol, or in weak solutions of nitric acid and sulphuric acid. He 
is of opinion that the coal in the Lower Limestone formations contains more 
tropical fossils, whilst the coal in the Upper Limestone shows fossils belong- 
ing rather to the Tertiary Age. E. M. D. 



1915-191G.] NOTKS UF tOLOXlAL AND FOREIGX PAPERS. i) 

Mining: Fields of Western Australia. — By A. Gibb Maitland. Geol. Surv. 
U\-.<frrn Au.</ra!ia. 1915. Bulletin No. 64, pages 92-105. 

The iuception of active mining operations in Au.stralia dat^es back to 1842, 
when lead and copper lodes were first discovered and worked at Waneranooka, 
in the Northampton district of Western Australia. Since then the State 
(estimated to embrace 975,920 square miles) had pro-duced, up to the end of 
1912, minerals to the value of ^113,660,065, of which 545 per cent, was 
obtained from the East Coolgardie goldfield, which includes the gold-mining 
centre of Kalgoorlie. The real mining history, however, dates back to the 
year 189.3. 

The principal mineral products of greatest importance, arranged in order 
of value, are gold, copper, coal, tin, lead, and phosphates. The metals and 
metalliferous minerals make up by far the greater proportion of the value of 
the output, l>eing over 98 per cent, of the total. 

The author gives valuable information regarding the Kimberley, Pilbara, 
West Pilbara, Ashburton and Gascoyne, Peak Hill, Murchison, Talgoo, 
Yilgarn, and Eastern goldfields. 

Tlie copper, tin, and coalfields are also discussed. The Collie coalfield is 
the only one that is in active operation, although there are districts in which 
lignites and brown coals occur. Tlie production of this coalfield up to the 
end of 1912 amounted to 2,323,136 tons, valued at £1,069,435. The principal 
local consumers are the Government railways and local factories ; the gold- 
fields market for coal is limited, as good firewood supplies are available. 

A. C. 



Mining Geolo°ry of Yerilla, North Coolgrardie Goldfield. — By J. T. JuTSOK. 

Gvol. Surv. I^«?.-■^■/•/l Au.ftralia, 1915, Bulletin No. 64, pages 13-45. 

Yerilla is situated about 21 miles east-south-east of Kookynie, a mining 
town on the Kalgoorlie-Leonora railway. It has been a small mining ce.ntre 
for a fair number of years, having been apparently discovered soon after the 
first rush to the Eastern goldfields over 20 years ago. Yarri is about 40 
miles and Edjudina about 50 miles farther to the south-east. Most of the 
country is flat, but occasional high ridges occur. 

The general geology is simple. There are three chief series of rocks — - 
basic, intermediate, and acid. The basic are the oldest, and the others may 
be approximately contemporaneous with each other. 

The basic series consists of massive and schistose rocks, to all of which the 
local name of "greenstones" has been given. The massive greenstones are 
divided into fine-grained, porphyritic, and coarse-grained, the relations of 
which have not }>een definitely determined. The greenstones, especially the 
schistose group, carry most of the auriferous reefs of the field. The inter- 
mediate series consists of a rock provisionally termed a syenite, which is 
intrusive into the greenstones, and is apparently non-auriferous. The acid 
series consists of small intrusions into the greenstones of a granite, and of 
a number of acid dykes genetically related to the granite. These dykes com- 
prise aplites, quartz and felspar-porphyries, probably granite-porphyries, and 
felsite. 

The future prospects of Yerilla. both as to new reefs and as to mining 
in depth, are discussed. 

A. C. 



6 TRANSACTIONS TIIK NORTH OF ENULAXl) INS'irn-TK. [Vol, Ixvi. 

Geologrical Observations and Remarks on the Present State of Mining 
in the Districts of Mount Magrnet, Lennonville, and Boogrardie, 
Murchison Goldfield. — By J. T. Jutson. Geol. Surv. Western 
Australia, 1914, Bulletin No. 59, pages 91-139. 

The rocks of the districts discussed consist largely of greenstones, 
frequently foliated, with which are associated iron-bearing quartzites, theso 
latter being apjiarently highly-altered products of the greenstones. Some 
quartz-porphyry dykes have also been discovered, and possibly a basic dyke. 

The lodes comjjrise three series, namely, quartz-reefs, quartzite-lodes, 
and fault-lodes. The first are numerous, and of varying length and thick- 
ness, having proved to be auriferous to 500 feet in depth. They are 
most extensively developed between Lenuonville and Mount Magnet. The 
quartzite-lodes are thick masses of altered country of low-grade character, 
frequently intersected by thin quartz-veins, and then stated to be most 
aiiriferous. They have not been worked deeper than 300 feet. The fault- 
lodes are the famous Boogardie "breaks." These breaks are sometimes 
extremely rich in free gold; below water-level, however, where worked, they 
have yielded poor results. 

No definite conclusion as to the origin of the gold can be arrived at. It 
is very probable that secondary deposition and concentration in certain areas 
within the zone of oxidation have taken place. 

With regard to future possibilities, the reefs appear to have every 
chance of existing at greater depths than those at present worked, although 
some will probably give out, judging from their aj^parent character of short 
leuticles. Tlie quartzite-lodes have yet to be proved in depth, but some that 
have been opened up are promising, and their mode of occurrence suggests 
that other undiscovered lodes exist. A. C. 



Coal Resources of Western Australia. — By H. P. Woodward. Geol. Surv. 
Western .iustralia, 1915, Bulletin No. 64, images 7-12. 

The author describes in minute detail the Collie coalfield, which is 
situated on the Collie River, about 100 miles to the soiithward of Perth. 

The coal is non-caking bituminous, high in moisture. It is black, dirty 
to handle, partly of a splintery character, and partly of bright layers alternat- 
ing with soft bauds which present the appearance of compressed soft wood 
charcoal. The splint coal is extremely tough to cut or break, but rapidly 
develops cracks ujion exposure to dry warm air, rendering it unsatisfactory 
for long railway journeys or storage on goldfields. The coal does not kindle 
so quickly as coals from New South Wales, but burns with little smoke until 
only light white or reddish ash is left. 

Four companies are at work upon the field : they work the whole or a 
portion of the lai'gest seams by inclined-plane haulage. Tlie height of the 
coal is from 6 to 10 feetj and the system adopted pillar and .stall. 

Up to the present the deepest vertical shaft is only 250 feet, but it is 
likely that a pair of vertical shafts will shortly be put down to a depth of 
1,000 feet. 

Electric band cutters are used for cutting, black powder being u.sed as 
explosive. 

As the workings are free from gas, naked lights are used, whilst (provided 
good ventilation is available) there is no danger of choke-damp. 

A. C. 



1915-1916.] XOTES OF COLONIAL .AND FOEEIGX PAPERS. 7 

Certain Mining: Centres at the South End of the Yalgoo Goldfield. — 

By H. P. WooDWAHD. Geol. Surv. Westtrn Australia, 1915, Biilletin 
No. 64, pages 46-51. 

The author describes visits to the Golden Eagle, Porcupine, Boflfbie 
Venture, and Crusoe mining centres. 

Golden Eagle Group. — Two very rich leaders are being worked upon the 
edge of an old dry-blowing patch, and it is probable that these, with others, 
formed the source from which the alluvial gold was derived. 

Porcupine Group. — This is situated upon a low ridge of hills, the gold- 
bearing lodes lying upon either side of one of those banded jaspery iron- 
stone outcrops, which have commonly proved to be of so considerable an 
economic importance upon the Murchison goldfield. 

Bonnie Venture Group. — About two years ago gold was discovered in a 
conglomerate bed, situated in a belt of rough broken country, some 5 or 6 
miles south of Mount Singleton. There is an abundant water-supply, while 
there is ample mining timber and fuel in the neighbourhood to last for a 
considerable time; therefore if this body of ore should prove to carry any- 
thing approaching the estimated 4 dwts., this should before long become an 
important mining centre. 

Crusoe Group. — Gold was discovered here some years ago, but was 
abandoned, owing to the large quantity of copper contained in the .stone. It 
is an extremely promising tract of country, very similar in apjiear- 
ance to those portions of the Tilgarn belt in which the greenstone schists are 
capped by travertine deposits. A number of small, but rich, leaders have Ijeen 
discovered, but so far no actual work has been done upon them to prove their 
size or direction. A. C. 



Xurnalpi, North-East Coolgardie Goldfield. — By J. T. Jutsox. Geol. Surv. 
Western Australia, 1914, Bulletin Xo. 59, pages 13-30. 

The author points out that extensive alluvial deposits exist at Kurnalpi, 
which suggests the possibility of more axiriferous reefs or lodes than have 
hitherto been discovered in the immediate vicinity of the alluvial deposits, 
the evidence indicating that the alluvial gold has not travelled far. It is 
suggested that some of this gold may be of chemical origin, and some derived 
from deep leads by denudation of portions of the latter. 

The main rocks are greenstones of somewhat varied character, and the 
typical form is akin to an amphibolite. These rocks occupy a wide belt of 
country that is possibly all auriferoiis. 

Quartz-reefs are numerous and strong in the neighbourhood. Only one 
quartz-porphyry intrusion has been observed. As similar dykes are intimately 
associated in various parts of the Eastern Goldfields with the occurrence of 
gold, and appear at times to be responsible for it, these outcrops should 
always be noted and search made for any adjacent quartz-reefs. 

Eich contact-gold has been discovered, and there appears to be no reason 
why other patches should not be located in depth and otherwise. It has been 
claimed that lode formations occur; but, while the author does not dispute 
the fact, he points out that much more sinking, driving, and cross-cutting will 
be required before their existence can be definitely proved. 

Satisfactory development of any belt will probably be of much value as a 
guide and stimulus to the. rest of the field. A. C. 



8 TRANSACTIONS — THE XORTH OF EXGLAXD INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

Report upon the Ardlethan Tinfield.— By J. K. Godfrey. Geol. Stirv. New 
Sotifh Wales, 1915, Mineral Resources No. 20, pages 1-77. 

This report is the result of a systematic examination and sampling of the 
various occurrences. A portion is devoted to assays of 4.31 samples. In 
nearly every case the tin-oi-e occurs as a secondary product in altered granite, 
and though these altered belts can often be traced for considerable distances, 
the ore itself usually seems to exist in pipes and bunches, the continuity of 
which is doubtful. 

A rough estimate is given of the amount of payable ore likely to be 
obtained, but this must be considered merely as a very mde approximation 
to the truth. First, because the patchy nature of the deposits render a 
calculation of ore in sight a matter of great uncertainty, since a pi]}e may 
go down for some distance or cut out in a few feet ; secondly, because it was 
imjjossible to sample all the dumps of reputedly payable stone scattered 
throughout the field : and thirdly, because from the very nature of the 
deposits it is probable that other rich pockets and pipes will be found from 
time to time in different parts of the field. A. C. 

The Mayari Iron-ore Deposits, Cuba. — By J. F. Keiip. Bull. American 
Inst. Mill. Engineers, 1915, pages 129-154. 

The author, in addition to giving references to the numerous papers deal- 
ing with the iron-ore deposits of Cuba, describes the mineralogical character 
and chemical composition of the Mayari deposits. A diagram is appended 
showing the physical and mineralogical changes that have taken place in the 
serjDentine during its passage. Sections are given of three distinct layers 
occurring in the pits, the top one of which is of a crimson-brown colour, 
the middle yellowish-brown', and that at the bottom a lighter shade of 
yellowish-brown. At the surface, or a few feet below, in some places slabs, 
and sometimes continuous sheets of solid iron hydrate (called plancha) occur. 

The general run of the ore is earthy, resembling the Mesabi ores both in 
colour and in texture. When newly mined, it has a peculiar mealy character, 
which however disappears as the ore dries. 

Analyses are given of laterite ores in other districts, and these are com- 
pared with Mayari ores. 

The author also describes a discovery of ore similar to the Mayari deposits 
reported from the northern portion of Mindanao in the Philippine Islands. 
It is estimated to contain 800,000,000 tons, in which the ferric oxide is as 
high as 77'7 per cent., corresponding with 544 per cent, of iron. There are 
only traces of phosphorus and sulphur. A. C. 



MINING TECHNOLOGY. 

Working: and Concentration of the Output of a Coalfield in Bohemia. — 

By L. KiESCHNEB. Montanist. Runds., 1915, vol. vii., pages 101-104. 

The writer describes a method, which has been introduced at the Ignaz 
Mine, Marienberg, in Moravia, of getting out and winding the coal simul- 
taneously. The coal is brovight to the pit-bottom as it is got out, and 
immediately wound, all the different operations being carried on at the same 
time. The seams lie at a steep incline, and are woi'ked in cross-cut levels, all 
converging towards the centre : the distance from the farthest working to the 
winding shaft should not exceed 1| miles (3 kilometres). By these cross-cuts 



1915-1916] XOTES OF Ct)LOXIAL AND FOREKiX PAPERS. 9 

the different seams are couuected with each other, and the steep inclination 
of the ground is utilized for the conveyance of the coal on the brake-block 
system. Roadways for this purpose are in some cases driven in the rock itself. 
The levels are packed as the coal is wrought, on account of the great pressure 
iu the mine, and other special conditions. The mine is worked on a modifica- 
tion of the longwall system in some parts, in others by pillar and bord, and 
the pillars are robbed a^ the coal is wrought. The height of the levels 
depends on the inclination of the seams. If the gradient is so steep that the 
coal and rock fall of themselves, a great height is required; but if the seam 
is not more than 5 feet thick, less height is sufficient. The best width has 
been found to be 20 feet. 

The writer recommends this method of working a mine as cheapest, 
quickest, and most efficient where sharply-inclined seams have to be wrought. 
The jDackiug is obtained from various parts of the mine, especially the venti- 
lating shafts. E. M. D. 



Methods of Drawing: Pillars in Pitching: Seams. — By J Someeville 
QuiGLEY. Trans. Can. Min. Inst., 1914, vol. xvii., pages 406-414. 

The two methods of drawing pillars chiefly in u.se in Canada have each 
their advantages and disadvantages. 

The first method is that of working the rooms on the strike of the seam. 
Slopes are sunk on or as near as possible to the full pitch of the seam, and as 
near the centre of the area to be worked as convenient. Levels and counter- 
levels are broken away on each side of the slope every 400 or 500 feet, and 
are driven to their boundary before the pillars are extracted. A pillar 
from 200 to 400 feet wide is left to protect the slope. From the entries head- 
ings are driven up the pitch at approximately every 400 feet. The haulage 
system in these headings depends chiefly on the degree of the pitch. The 
three systems generally used are back-balance, shoot or gravitation, and jig. 

The second method consists in driving rooms up to the true pitch of the 
seam, and drawing pillars down the pitch. As in the other system, entries are 
driven on the strike of the seam, with a gradient in favour of the loads of from 
^ to 1 per cent., which also allows for drainage. Rooms are driven from 
these entries up the pitch with approximately 60-foot centres; cross-cuts are 
driven connecting these rooms every 50 or 60 feet, thus forming blocks of coal 
50 or 60 feet square. A. C. 

Condensation of Gasoline from Natural Gas. — By A. Burrell, Frank M. 
Seibert, and G. G. Oberfell. Bur. Mines, 1915, Bulletin No. 88, pages 
1-106. 

The U.S.A. Bureau of Mines is conducting a series of investigations 
with the common aim of minimizing the losses that occur in the mining and 
treatment of mineral substances. The present report deals with a method of 
preventing some of the waste of natural gas incidental to oil-mining. 
This method, the condensation of gasoline from natural gas, offers to the oil- 
operator and others a profitable means of utilizing some of the oil-well gas 
that is now partly wasted. The most desired constituent of crude oil is 
obtained, the production of oil is not hindered, and the gas, after the extrac- 
tion of gasoline, can be returned to the leased area to drive pumps or into 
pipe-lines for uses to which natural gas is ordinarily put, usually with its 
fuel value lessened only in slight degree. 



10 TRANSACTIONS — THE NORTH OV ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

The coudeusatioii of gasoline from natural gas is a physical process. The 
process in principal use at the present time consists essentially in compressing 
the gas to pressures up to 300 pounds and cooling it with water oi ordinary 
temperature. Cooling the gas by means of a refrigerant without compres- 
sion, or using a refrigerant other than water in conjunction with compressors, 
are processes tliat are coming into use. The pressure best suited for the con- 
densation of gasoline from natural gas depends upon the partial pressures 
of the gases and vapours present in the mixture. The partial pressures ai^'e 
difficult to determine. Henoe the best that one can do in plant operation is to 
experiment until the most suitable pressures are found. Single-stage and 
two-stage compressors are generally used in gasoline-plant operations. Single- 
stage compressors are as a rule in use where pressures of 110 pounds per 
square inch are not exceeded. In most two-stage plants but little condensate 
is obtained after the first compression. 

Several changes occur in the gas when it is treated in a gasoline plant 
for the condensation of gasoline. One is connected with the condensation of 
vapour, another with the liquefaction of gas, and a third with the solubility 
of gases in the liquids produced. The condensate as it is received in the accu- 
mulator tanks consists principally of the liqviids peutane and hexane and the 
liquefied gas butane. Some heptane and licjuid propane may also be present. 
For a particular natural -gas there is a certain pressure best suited to produce 
the most saleable gasoline. An increase in the pressure may result in pro- 
ducing more condensate in the accumulator-tanks, but the additional yield 
may be so volatile as to escape quickly after exposure to air. The quantity of 
gas that dissolves in the condensate in the accumulator-tank is so small as to 
be insignificant. At least one plant in the United States using a refrigera- 
tive method with low pressures is in successful operation. 

Exclusive of foundations -and housing for machinery, pipe-line to wells, 
railway sidings, storage-tanks, etc., the compressing and condensing equip- 
ment for gasoline plants costs from about £560 (.?2,800) for a plant suitable 
for handling 120,000 cubic feet of gas, up to £1,560 (|7,800) for a plant suit- 
able for handling 600,000 to 700,000 cubic feet of gas. Two plants that pro- 
duced 490,000 gallons of gasoline in 1913 cost £8,000 (|40,000) to complete. 
Tlie owners realized 55 per cent, on their investment in the first year. About 
35 cubic feet of gas disappears at some plants for each gallon of condensate 
jjroduced from 1,000 cubic feet of gas. At other plants, as much as 500 cubic 
feet of gas may disappear. A. P. A. S. 

Mine-rescue Apparatus. — By Charles Graham. Trans. Can. Min. Inst., 
1914, vol. xvii., pages 364-372. 

The various types of apparatus now in use may be divided into (1) those 
in which oxygen is chemically generated within the apparatus, (2) those in 
which liquid air is the source of the oxygen supply, and (3) those in which 
the respired air is chemically purified or regenerated. 

The ideal breathing-apparatus should fulfil the following requirements : — 
(1) It must be light in weight, yet strong ; (2) self-contained, that is, indepen- 
dent of any fixed base ; (3) permit of the wearer engaging in heavy manual 
labour ; (4) allow of the removal of carbon dioxide by the regenerator as com- 
pletely as possible; (5) a gauge should be provided to indicate distinctly and 
accurately how long the apparatus may be used ; (6) must be readily recharg- 
able ; (7) the charges should be prepared in such a way as not to deteriorate 
through keeping; and (8) its operation must be automatic. 



1915-1916.] XOTES OF COLONIAL AND FOREIGX PAFERS. 11 

The author points out that two general types fulfilling most of these 
requirements have been constructed, in one of which air is supplied through a 
mouthpiece, the nostrils being closed by a clip. In the other a helmet is 
worn, an air- joint being made around the face by a pneumatic cushion. 

The principal consideration in the use of any apparatus is the thorough 
training of the men, who must be made thoroughly familiar with all its 
details. Tliorough and constant systematic training will tit men to perform 
the most dangerous and exhaiisting work that any coal-miner is called upon 
to undertake. 

In the author's opinion it is not always fair to blame the apparatus when 
an accident occurs ; it is often due to lack of the necessary precaiitions before 
the apparatus is put into iise, or to the inexperience of the men using them. 

A. C. 

Studies and Investigrations Relating to Various Explosive Mixtures, 
with Nitrate of Ammonia as the Base. — By H. Schmerber. Bull. Soc. 
Indusf. Min., 1915, series 5, vol. vii., j^ages 197-231. 

Following up some investigations on explosives for use in gassy miues, 
Mr. Schmerber here goes systematically into the question of binary explosives 
containing different proiX)rtions of a number of the combustibles employed in 
the explosive industries when combined with nitrate of ammonia as a base, 
the principal of these being naphthalene, toluene, xylene, nitro-glyceriue, 
picric acid, and cotton. Pointing out that an explosive of this kind may be 
such that a sufficiency, an excess, or a deficiency of oxygen may be con- 
tained in it, the author comes to the following general conclusions : — (1) That, 
as regards explosives with an excess of oxygen, the different mixtures that 
can come in question will, at the low temperatures of detonation suitable to 
mine work, give much the same explosive powers; and (2) that as regards 
mixtures that do not contain sufficient oxygen to transform all the carbon 
into carbonic acid, the explosive power will always be less than when the 
oxygen is just sufficient in amount to effect this. A. R. L. 

Occurrence of Explosive Gases in Coal-mines. — By N. H. Dartox. Bur. 
Mities, 1915, Bulletin Xo. 72, pages 1-248. 

This report presents the results of an investigation, begun by the Govern- 
ment in the summer of 1907, under the immediate supervision of Dr. J. A. 
Holmes, and continued under him by the Bureau of Mines. The purpose of 
the investigation was to obtain information on the origin of the inflammable 
gases in coal and the conditions under which they occur. It was especially 
intended to ascertain whether there was any relation between the occurrence 
of gas and the structural or other geological features of the coal-beds. To 
this end many months were spent in mines and much time was devoted to the 
examination of mine maps, borehole records, and other data made available 
by the kindness of various coal companies. Two fields of work were selected 
— one in the northern anthracite basin of Pennsylvania, where the beds ai-e 
considerably folded, and the other in the southern part of the bituminous 
coalfield of Illinois, where the beds lie nearly horizontal. 

In order to take advantage of the results of previous investigations of 
the same general subject, an extended examination was made of reports from 
various investigators in Europe and America. A digest of the information 
obtained from these publications is included in the first part of this report. 



12 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

which cunstitutes an introduction to the discussion of the conditions governing 
class of plant life to the coal of the Tertiary Period. A. P. A. S. 



Some Remarks on Gas in Coal. — By G. A. Lavoie. Trans. Can. Min. 
Inst., 1914, vol. xvii., pages 487-492. 

Gas is very unevenly distributed in coal-beds, this being especially notice- 
able in very fiery mines, not only in the main return airways, but also at 
the face. Sudden outbursts of gas and coal in apparently regular beds sub- 
mitted to an even pressure f-liow an irregularity in the quantities of the 
gases, the amount liberated in some explosions being entirely out of pro- 
portion to the normal quantity occluded in the coal. It was reported that 
m an explosion some 30 years ago the gas disengaged by the projection of 
4,200 cubic feet of outburst coal was estimated to be at least 100,000 cubic 
yards. 

The reason why gases have not been diffused more evenly through the 
coal under the pressure of the superincumbent strata is owing to the imper- 
meability of the mineral. The initial or latent pressure in coal depends on 
various factors : (1) the thickness of the sedimentation over the constituents 
of the seam, and especially the limit of time during which the first sediment 
was formed; (2) the nature of the cover; (3) differences, - however small, 
between the constituents of the same coal-bed in different regions; and (4) 
residual compression and tensional stresses due to the incomplete massive or 
molecular changes in the measures during the ages which have elapsed since 
the contraction of the earth's crust began. 

The g-ases enclosed in the pores and in the many joints of the coal have, 
by reason of their expansive force, a tendency to cause these pores to burst 
out and split open the fragnTents in contact. Tlie resistance opposed to this 
expansion is generally variable, and depends on the degree of agglomeration 
resulting from the number, extent, and dispo.sition of the joints in the coal, 
and on the disposition of the face in relation to these joints. So soon as the 
gas-pressure overcomes the resistance of the seam, phenomena of sudden 
expansion may take place. A. C. 



Limits of Inflammability of Mixtures of Methane and Air. — By G. A. 

BuREELL and G. G. Oberfell. Bur. Mines, 1915, Technical Paper No. 
119, pages 1-30. 

This paper records certain experiments, made at the Pittsburgh experi- 
ment station of the Bureau of Mines, on self-propagation of flame in mixtures 
of methane and air, and shows the composition of some coal-mine atmospheres. 
Tlie results of the investigation are svimmarized as follows: — 

Low Limit. — (1) The smallest propoi-tiou of methane in mixtures of 
methane and air that permitted self-propagation of flame was 4'9 per cent. 
This result was obtained in a box 5f feet high and having a capacity of SJ 
cubic feet. Ignition was effected from the bottom upwards by means of an 
electric flash produced by pulling apart two copper wires through which a 
current of 7 amperes at 220 volts was flowing. The box was closed at both 
ends, but a thin paper diaphragm at the top allowed a vent for the burned 
gases. 

(2) Under the same conditions, except that ignition was from the top and 
the paper diaphragm was at the bottom, the smallest percentage of methane 
that allowed self-propagation of flame the entire length of the box was 
between 5'4 and 5"5 per cent. 



1915-1916.] XOTES OF COLOXIAL AND FORKIGN I'APKRS. 13 

(3) With the same conditions as those under No. 2, except that the paper- 
covered aperture was at the top, the low limit obtained was between 57 and 
5"8 per cent, of methane. 

(4) With the box in a horizontal jDositiun, the value obtained was between 
55 and 5"6 per cent, of methane. This limit is the most important as regards 
the application of the result-s to coal-mining. 

(5) With a Hempel explosion pipette, and with ignition at the top, a 
value between 5"5 and 56 per cent, of methane was obtained. 

(6) With a 2,800-cubic-centimetre vessel 12 inches high and 5 wide, and 
with ignition at the bottom, a value close to 5 per cent, of methane was 
obtained. 

High Limit. — (7) The vipper limit of self-propagation of methaue-and-air 
mixtures was between 13'4 and 139 jier cent, of methane when ignition was 
from the top in an ii-on pipe 7 feet long and 12 inches in diameter, and 
ignition was caused by pulling apart two copper wires through which a cur- 
rent of 7 amperes at 220 volts was flowing. A paper-covered aperture placed 
at the top of the box gave vent for the burned gases. 

(8) Under the same conditions of experiment as those described under Xo. 
7, except that ignition was from the bottom, a value between 15 and 15-4 per 
cent, of methane was obtained. 

(9) When a Hempel explosion-pijjette was used, with ignition at the top, 
a value lying between 12'4 and 132 per cent, of methane was found as the 
high limit. A small spark from an induction-coil was the source of ignition. 

Other Results. — (10) Of the results obtained, those that have reference to 
horizontal propagation are most important as regards mining. With hori- 
zontal jDropagation the low limit ranged from 5'5 to 5'6 per cent, of methane. 
The upper limit would l>e intermediate between the values given for upward 
and downward flame propagation, and would be about 149 per cent, of 
methane. 

(11) Clement found that the addition of 10 per cent, of carbon dioxide 
only rai.sed the low limit from o8 to 6'2 jjer cent, of methane. When he 
kept the oxygen constant at 20 per cent., it required the replacement of part 
of the nitrogen by 62 per cent, of carbon dioxide to raise the low limit to 
8'8 per cent, of methane. 

(12) Clement also found that the oxygen content could be reduced to 17 
per cent, when the low limit would be raised only 02 per cent, above that 
obtained with 20 per cent, of oxygen. From 17 per cent, of oxygen down- 
ward, however, the limits change rapidly^ until with 13 per cent, of oxygen 
the low limit is 6'6 per cent, of methane and the high limit 68. 

(13) Analyses of mine air collected in a fiery part of a mine in which an 
explosion had occurred some time before showed explosive proportions of 
nuethane at the working-face near the top, and a high proportion 70 feet 
from the face near the top ; whereas at the face, but halfway to the floor, 
the proportion was much smaller. 

(14) In twelve samples of mine air, out of fifty-one samples from thirty- 
one mines, the oxygen content was less than 20 per cent. Three of the twelve 
samples were collected at places where the air was still, and nine were col- 
lected in the moving current. The highest proportion of carbon dioxide 
found was 1 per cent.- in return air. At another mine, where 42,400 cubic 
feet per minute of air was passing, the oxygen content was 17-71 per cent. 

(16) The results of analysis of a series of samples show the change in 
chemical composition that the mine air underwent as it traversed certain 
workings of a mine. The air, from being almost pure at the intake, gradually 



14 TEAXSACTIOXS THE XURTII OF KXCiLAXI) IXSTITUTK. [Vol.lxvi. 

changed in composition, the carbon-dioxide content raising to 016 per cent., 
the oxygen content falling to 2063 per cent., and the methane cont«nt 
rising to 0-37 per cent, over a distance of 15,140 feet. 

(17) Analyses are presented of another series of samples that were taken 
from a mine wherein a disastrous explosion had occurred some time previously. 
The highest proportion of methane was 24'61 i>er cent., the lowest oxygen con- 
tent was 12'91 per cent., and the highest carbon-dioxide content was Ool 
per cent. 

(18) As the result of its work, the Bureau fiuds that in vt'utilated mines 
there is seldom enough variation in the oxygen and carbon-dioxide contents 
of the different atmosjjlieres to affect sensibly the inflammability of methane- 
and-air mixtures. In mines that are not ventilated, and in sealed areas, 
different conditions prevail. A. P. A. S. 

Investigration of Certain Phenomena Accompanying a Mining^ (Air-blast) 

Accident. — By F. Mbvik. Moutanist. Bunds., 1915, A'ol. vii., pages 
649-652. 

An accident took place iu singular circumstances in the Ferdinand Mine 
at Kladno (Bohemia) on February 18tli, 1914, in which two miners lost their 
lives. No danger had till then been apprehended in the mine. Without any 
warning, late in the afternoon, a sudden violent air-blast was felt in different 
parts of the mine, which extinguished most of the lights, and threw many of 
the men violently to the ground, or against the working-face. In one of the 
levels the roof seam gave way, fell upon two hewers below, and crushed them 
instantly to death. The direction of the air-blast throughout the mine was 
always from the " old man "^^tliat is, the goaf. No damage was done to any 
other part of the mine. 

The mine is worked on the pillar-and-bord system. Two months pre- 
viously the work of robbing a pillar, which had for four years supported the 
roof in this level, was begun, but not proceeded with till the day of the acci- 
dent. Tlie level was 21 feet long, and the timbering and supports had 
lately been streugtlieued, although no special pressure had been observed. 
The entire level collapsed, the crossways were broken iip, and a new level 
had to be driven in the seam, before it was possible to reach the bodies. A 
curious featiire of the explosion was that no dangerous gases were liberated 
by the air-blast. Upon investigation, an enormous block of sandstone, 46 
feet long and 40 wide, was found in the wrecked level ; it had crushed a 
26-foot seam of coal to 10 or 12 feet. 

The writer attributes the accident to the great pressure in the roof of the 
level, which consists of sandstone and clay. As soon as the robbing of the 
pillar was again attempted, the pressure of the rock being greater than the 
consistency of the roof, it fell in, drove the air out of the " old man," and 
produced the violent air-blast. Tlie sinking of the roof was further accelerated 
by two faults in the strata, running east and west, both of which started from 
this seam. • E. M. D. 



Explosion in a Coal-mine near Neurode, Prussian Silesia. — By — Warne. 
Zeitschr. f. Berg-, Hiitt.- ti. Salinenwes., 1915, vol. Ixiii., pages 1-15. 

This accident, in which two men lost their lives and two were badly 
injured, took place on May 18th, 1914, at the Ruben Pit, near Neurode (in 
Silesia). This part- of the mine was known to be very dangerous. Several 



1915-1916.] XOTES OF COLOXIAL AXD FORKIGX TAVERS. 15 

explosions of carbonic-acid gas had already taken place, but the present acci- 
dent was caused by mine gas, and methane and olefiant gas were given off 
for some time from the fissures caused by the explosion. It occurred more 
than half a mile (1,000 metres) from the scene of former accidents, and its 
eftect was to loosien 70 tons of coal and fling it many yards away. The 
temperature in this part of the mine also fell considerably. Tlie coal here 
is soft, with a heating value of 7,000 calories (12,600 British Thermal units 
per pound), and is worked by pillar and bord. The ventilation is good, 5,300 
cubic feet of air being supplied per minute. Additional measures of safety 
have been taken since the accident. The coal is now brought down wholly 
by blasting, with water-cartridges, after all the miners have been withdrawn. 
Work Avitli a pickaxe is forbidden, because of the risk of liberating firedamp. 

E. M. D. 



Analysis of Natural Gas and llluminatingr-gras by Fractional Distillation 
at Lovw Temperatures and Pressures. — By G. A. Btjreell, F. M. 
Seibert, and I. W. Robertsox. Bur. Mines, liJl5. Technical Paper 
Xo. 104, pages 1-41. 

This publication describes in detail the results of experiments made by 
the Bureau of Mines, with a method of separating and determining the 
hydrocarbons in gaseous fuels. The method employs fractional distillation in 
a vacuum at low temperatures. Tlie gas is liquefied, the different constituents 
separated by proper adjustment of temperatures, the various fractions re- 
moved with a. mercury pump, and these fractions analysed by ordinary slow- 
combustion methods. The method was successfully applied to the separation 
of hydrocarbons in natural gas and in artificial illuminating-gas, and is the 
only known method applicable to the separation of some hydrocarbons. 

Tlie first part of this report describes the results of experiments by 
which the natural gas used in Pittsburgh (Penna.), was separated into its 
individual paraffin hydrocarbons. The second part describes experiments in 
which the separation of the illuminants in artificial Pittsburgh and New. 
Tork illuminating-gas was effected. Some experiments to determine the 
practicability of separating gases the boiling-points of which lie close to- 
gether, such as ethane and ethylene, are included. 

Methane can be removed at the temperature of liquid air and the ethane 
separated from the propane, butane, etc., at temiaeratures ranging from -150° 
to -140° Cent. The propane is separated from the higher paraffins at tem- 
peratures rangin,g from -135° to -120° Cent. The method, although some- 
what involved, is the only known method applicable to the separation of some 
hydrocarbons. 

A method of seiDarating the illuminants in coal-gas is also described. The 
methane, hydrogen, carlx)n monoxide, nitrogen, and oxygen are first removed 
at the temperature of liquid air, the ethane and ethylene are removed at a 
t€inj>erature not higher than -140° Cent., the jiropane and propylene are 
removed at a temperature not higher than -120°, leaving the butylene, 
butane, and benzene as a residue. Tlie benzene can be separated from the 
butane and the butylene at a temperature of -78° Cent. 

Benzene can be simply and quickly determined in coal-gas or other mix- 
tures by removing the carbon dioxide and water-vapour, cooling the mixture 
at a temperature of -78° Cent., withdrawing the other gases at this tem- 
perature, and finally, after the refrigerant has been removed and the benzene 
vaporized, reading the A'apour pressure on a mercury manometer. 



16 TRANSACTIOXS^ — THE XORTII OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

Ethane and ethylene, the normal boiling-points of which are only about 
10° Cent, apart, cannot Ije satisfactorily separated by liquefaction and frac- 
tionation, because of the tediousness of the operation. 

By liquefaction and fractionation gases may be prepared in a condition 
of exceptional purity. A. P. A. S. 

Addition of Lime to Briquettes to Reduce the Sulphur Percentage. — By 

E. DoNATH. Montanist. Bunds., 1915, vol. vii., page 741. 

The experiments here described consisted in adding lime to coal during 
combustion, with the object of reducing the amount of sulphur contained in 
the smoke gases. The injurious effect of smoke, especially on vegetation, is 
attributed by the writer mainly to the presence of sulphur in it. Part of this 
sulphur (the sulphides and sulphates) are converted into sulphuric acid, and it 
is this which causes the harmful results of smoke. By adding lime to the 
coal during the process of combustion, the writer endeavoured to reduce the 
sulphur to a harmless minimum. To coal containing 124 per cent, of sulphur 
he added from 1 to 2 per cent, of lime, and found that the sulphuric acid in 
the products of combustion fell to 085 per cent. When the same coal was 
burnt without lime, the quantity of sulphur was 1'03 per cent. Coal from 
Carpano (Istria) containing a total of 9 per cent, of sulphur was burnt with a 
10-per-cent. addition of lime, and the amount of siilphur was rediiced thereby 
to 2'63 per cent. When it was treated with hydrochloric acid, sulphuretted 
hydrogen was always generated. Tlie writer considers that these experi- 
ments show that the addition of c{uicklime to bituminous coal or coke during 
combustion affords a simple means of reducing the proportion of sulphur in 
the smoke gases, which on economic grounds is most desirable. He suggests 
that an effective way to secure an intimate mixture of the lime with the 
coal is to make the latter into briquettes, and to add the lime during the 
process. Austrian brown coal, after being converted into briquettes with a 
mixture of lime, might probably be more profitably utilized in this than in 
any other way. E. M. D. 

Utilization of Lignite or Brown Coal. — By J. Huebers. Montanist. 
Kunds., 1915, vol. vii., page 168-170. 

There are extensive seams of lignite in Lower Austria, which have only 
beeu worked of late years, and the writer considers the question of the best 
way of utilizing them. As the freight costs are excessively high, sometimes 
as much as lialf the cost of production, to transport the lignite in bulk is not 
advisable. It can be cheaply got out, often from the surface, and the seams 
can generally be worked clean out : no deep working is required, aud no 
pumping, as there is no water. The lignite contains 50 per cent, of moisture, 
and has a heating value of 2,500 calories per kilogramu.e. The thickness of 
the seams varies from 5 to 32 feet. 

The writer suggests five ways of utilizing the lignite. If cheaper trans- 
port were available, it might be burnt as fuel under boilers, but this would 
require a remodelling of the grates, and is too expensive a scheme. The same 
objection attaches to the conversion of the lignite into bricj[uettes. A third 
plan is to burn it at the pit's mouth under boilers, in order to produce steam 
for driving turbine-engines. From the.se electric power might be generated, 
and distributed over a wide area ; but the installation of a costly modern 
power-plant would be required. Again, the lignite might be converted into 



1915-1916] NOTES OF COLONIAL AND FOREIGN PAPERS. 17 

gas at the mine, and the boilers there fired with gas instead of solid fuel. Tlie 
heating value of gas made from lignite is low, but gas of much poorer cjuality, 
.such as blast-furnace gas, gives a high heat-efficiency. This plan would 
therefore be practicable, but the writer considers that much the best and 
most economically efficient system would be to use the gas to drive gas- 
engines at the pit's mouth, and so generate a central supply of electricity for 
distribution. An efficiency of 75 per cent, should be secured. 

E. M. D. 

Utilization of Brown-coal Dust. — By Dr. Herbuhg. Montanist. Bunds., 
1915, vol. vii., pages 333-334. 

lu the working of brown coal much dust is produced, which is extremely 
volatile. Tlie writer deals with the harmful effect of this dust, especially in 
industrial centres, and the means of disposing of it which modern science has 
placed at our command. Much brown coal is converted into briquettes, but 
this necessitates the crushing and drying of the raw material, and more dust 
is generated in the process. There are two ways of arresting this dust — 
the wet and the dry system. By the former it is precipitated by water and 
steam played upon it through nozzles. The dust is then treated in slime- 
filters, passed into clearing basics, and the water drawn off. With the dry 
system the dust does not, of course, need to be dried again. It is forced 
through thick filters by an air-current (sometimes the chimney draught only 
is sufficient), and is then carried off and returned to the briquette manufac- 
turers, or burnt under boilers; but the writer considers that a comijletely 
satisfactory method of utilizing it has not yet been devised. 

E. M. D. 



Notes on the Use of Low-g^rade Fuel in Europe. — By E. H. Fennald. Bur. 
Mines, 1915, Technical Pajoer No. 123, pages 1-37. 

In its investigation of fuels belonging to or intended for the United 
States, which form a part of the general work which it is doing to increase 
efficiency in the utilization of the mineral resources of the country, the 
Bureau of Mines has given attention to the combustion of fuel in furnaces and 
gas-producei's, and has tested a large number of samples of coal and lignite 
in order to determine their value for producing power. Tlirough these investi- 
gations of the utilization of fuel, the Bureau is endeavouring to aid in 
prolonging the life of the nation's supply of high-grade fuel by lessening 
present waste and by bringing about a wider utilization of fuels noAV 
neglected. 

In order that the true significance of these important commercial prob- 
lems might be more fully presented to those responsible for the production, 
transport, and utilization of fuel in the United States, an attempt was 
made during the summer of 1914 to procure in Europe, through personal in- 
spection, definite information relating to (a) tho utilization of high-ash coais; 
(h) the use of wood refuse and other similar materials ; (c) the recovery from 
fuel of bye-products — ammonium sulphate, tar, pitch, etc. ; (d) the receut 
developments in the praparation and use of peat; (e) the results of low- 
temperature distillation of fuels; (/) the possibilities of the slagging type of 
gas-producer; and ((/) the use of powdered fuel. 

The author spent the greater part of the early summer of 1914 in the 
British Isles, Belgium, and Holland. The nature of the problems under 

TOL. LXVI. -1915-1916. B E 



18 TRAXSACTTONS THE XOUTH Ob" EN(;i>AND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

consideration, and the helpful infonnation received from abroad, indicated 
that mncli desirable material was also to be expected from Germany, Norway, 
Sweden, Russia, Austria, Hungary, Italy, and France. Unfortunately, just 
as the work was well under way in Germany, tlie European war broke out. 
Tliis not only shut off absolutely further researclies, but also prevented the 
collection of many valuable data and photographs previously promised, thus 
making impossible the satisfactory completion of the contemjilated investiga- 
tion. Tlie notes are therefore incomplete, but will serve, perhaps, to indicate 
the trend in Europe of some of the important fuel jiroblems that are conspicu- 
oTisly before the United States, and should stimulate positive action in this 
much-neglected industrial field. 

The notes deal with the utilization of high-ash coals in non-bye-product 
producer-gas plants ; the use of wood-refuse and similar material ; the size 
and character of bye-product plants; the uses of tar; low-temperature dis- 
tillation; the slaggiug gas-producer installation in Dutch-Luxemburg; and 
the use of powdered fuel. A. P. A. S. 



Difficulties in Firing: Explosives, either Electrically or by Hand. — By T. 

Blxjm. Montanist. Bunds., 1915, vol. vii., pages 210, 263, 299, 343, 
and 388. 

Tlie writer jJasses in review the chief characteristics of three different 
ways of firing an explosive charge, namely, by hand, with an ordinary fuse, 
instantaneous electric ignition of several charges, and successive electric 
ignition of these charges. In the first method the time of explosion is deter- 
mined accurately by the length of the fuse, and explosion is relatively slow. 
Several fu.ses can be sejDarately ignited, an important matter where blasting 
is necessary in a confined space. The method is simple and cheap, and, so 
long as the fuse is 2>erfectly dry, reliable, but the operator must be near 
the scene of the blasting. With instantaneous electric ignition all the fuses 
can be fired simultaneously from any distance, but some of the shots often 
fail, and an interruption of the electric current may occur at any time. This 
method has con.sequently been more or less superseded by the third, in which 
the electric current fires the charges in gradual succession, by interposing 
different lengths of fuse between the capsules and the priming. The advan- 
tage of firing from a distance is retained, but the shots occur in such 
rapid succession that they cannot be counted, and failures cannot be detected. 
After each blasting operation a careful search of the mine-face is necessary, 
otherwise these misfires may explode later, and endanger the manipulator. 
With both kinds of electric ignition both premature and retarded shots may 
take place, as the writer proves by many examples. lie also maintains that 
electric ignition is from five to six times more expensive than hand ignition. 
He instances one mine, in which there was a loss from misfires of nearly 4 
pounds (I'B kilogrammes) of dynamite in 24 hours. The violence of the ex- 
plosions electrically produced also destroys the roof of the workings, and 
shatters the Avaste rock. 

Tlie writer summarizes these advantages and drawbacks in favoiir of 
hand-fired fuses, which are, he considers, cheaper and simpler to handle than 
electrically ignited fuses, with fewer misfires and greater certainty in locat- 
ing them, so that the workers are not endangered. Both kinds of electric 
Ignition are, in his opinion, dear, unreliable, difiicult to manipulate, and 
dangerous if carelessly handled. E. M. D. 



1915-1916.] NOTES OF COLONIAL AND FOREIGN PAPERS. 19 

Destructive Force and Speed of Explosions of Modern Blasting: 
Materials. — By Dr. Kast. Montanist. Riinds., 1914, vol. vi., page 
601, and 1915, vol. vii., pages 7 and 38. 
The writer made experiments to determine the efliciency of modern blast- 
ing explosives, for which a certain standard is required. The energy of 
explosion does not depend only on the amount of heat developed, for this takes 
no count of the volume of products of combustion (that is, of gases into which 
the explosive is converted), nor of the loss by radiation. The more rapid is 
the explosion, the less will be this loss. The energy of the explosion may be 
iitilized either to force violently asunder the surrounding rock, or to destroy 
and shatter it. The value of the explosive depends, however, chiefly on the 
amount of work done in a given time, and not on the energy that it contains. 
Tliere are thus three factors to be considered : (1) the amount of energy avail- 
able, (2) its speed of development, and (3) what the writer terms the " concen- 
tration " or "density " of the energy. The proportion of inert substances, 
such as nitrogen, which must l>e heated, but do not add to the energy of the 
explosive, cannot be ignored. Thus the heat develojjed by niti-oglycerine is 
less, if reckoned in calox-ies jier kilogramme of the combustible constituents 
of the explosive, than per litre of explosive mixture generated. 

The destructive force of an explosive is calculated by comparing its 
action with that of another explosive of known energy. The speed of the 
detonating wave is an important factor. The law of the propagation of 
detonating force is determined by photography or by the use of Siemens's 
■' spark-chronograph," with which the writer has made many experiments 
during the last seven years. This speed depends partly on the chemical com- 
^jositiou of the explosive mixture, and partly on the method of ignition. Tlie 
diameter of the borehole, consistency of the tamping, and the cubic density 
of the explosive, all play a part in the determination. Liquid explosives are 
more difficult to ignite than solid. E. M. D. 



Use of Liquid Air for Blasting: in Coal-mines. — By M. Przyborski. 
Montanist. Runds., TO 15, vol. vii., page 145. 

The first attempt to use liquid air for blasting was made by Prof. Linde in 
1897. A cardboard cylinder, prepared by previous soaking in liquid air, ■ 
was used, but the result was not satisfactory, as the action depended on the 
skill of the manipulator, and the rapidity of the operation. The temperature 
of the liquid air being— 191° Cent, a rapid exchange of heat must of necessity 
take place between it and the surrounding materials, and in less than 10 
minutes its effect has evaporated. The system was improved by Claude in 
France and Kowatsch in Gei'many. In order to counteract this rapid evapora- 
tion, the fuse was introduced dry into the borehole with the usual tamping, 
and the liquid air was not applied until just before the moment of explosion. 
Thus the action was made more certain. 

The blasting cylinder now contains a mixture of infusorial earth, asphalt 
or soot, and paraffin in three cylinders fitting one over the other. The liquid 
air is contained in a small bottle, through the mouth of which a metal tube is 
connected to the tube of the fuse. In order to obtain an explosion, the bottle 
is lifted ; the liquid air rises under pressure of its own evaporation into the 
metal tube, and ru.shing into the fuse at a given moment unites with the 
contents of the cylinder, and produces a violent explosion. As the charge 



20 TKANSACTIONS THE NOUTll OF EXCiLANl) INSTITUTE. fVol. Ixvi. 

contains no inflammable materials, the danger is minimized : the materials 
can be separately and leisurely introduced into the borehole. The process i3 
simplified if the liquid air is made on the spot. E. M. D. 

Arrangrements for Reversing^ the Ventilation in Mines. — By G. Ryb.\. 

Montanist. Bunds., 1915, vol. vii., pages 497-499. 

If a lire occurs in the intake shaft of a mine, the danger is great, 
especially if this shaft forms the only communication with above ground. The 
fire must be most carefully handled, and must not be extinguished by pour- 
ing w^afcer on it till all the miners have been brought out. The main point 
in such an accident is to reverse the ventilation if possible, and, where there 
are two shafts, to convert the intake, where the fire is, into the upcast as 
quickly as possible. One plan is to revei-se the ventilating engine, but this 
is a process which takes time. The writer describes a method which he 
considers safer and quicker. 

Two passages are excavated in the mine, one connecting the intake and 
return shafts below the surface, and having not far from the ground a door 
or damper which can be easily reached and closed. Between this passage and 
the surface a trap-door is built into the intake, which can be closed in case 
of need. The upcast has also a door worked from the surface, and below it 
the second or branch passage discharges some Avay off into the open air. Tliis 
also has a door or damper worked from above. If it is desired to reverse the 
ventilation of the mine, the ordinary doors into the intake are closed. The 
aix'-currents draw into the upcast shaft and into the passage leading from it, 
thus ventilating the mine in the opposite direction. In other words, the 
functions of the two shafts are reversed. By a similar method, if the mine 
is ventilated by a furnace at the pit-bottom, the system can be changed, and 
ventilation by exhaustion substituted, or vire versa. E. M. D. 



Rotating: Ventilation-doors for Upcast Shafts. — By G. Eyba. Montanist. 
Bunds., 1915, vol. vii., pages 436-4.39. 

The system here described is intended to be applied in mines where the 
down-draught ventilating shaft is also used for winding. If the quantity of 
coal to be brought out within a given time is too large for one shaft to deliver, 
an endeavour is often made to avoid the cost of a third shaft by utilizing 
the upcast for winding also. This may be done if the air from the mine is 
exliausteJ into the open; but, if ventilation is by suction, care must be taken, 
when the cage conies to bank, not to allow the air to escape at the same time, 
and sjDecial arrangements for the pui-pose are needed. 

The writer suggests two plans for overcoming the difficulty. The shaft 
may be provided with a cover, with a hole for the winding rope to pass 
through, and the cage emptied before it reaches the surface. A better method 
is to withdraw the tubs through lock-doors, one of which is always closed l^y 
mechanical means while the other is open. If the cage is brought up from a 
pit where ventilation is by exhaiisting the air, the shaft-house must itself 
he hermetically sealed, and the coal brought out under a water-seal, or througii 
a system of dampers. The writer describes the Skutzik arrangement of a 
covered airtight " whipper " with two openings, to deal with six tubs at a time. 
It consists of two concentric cast-iron drums, fitting one over the other; the 
outer drum is stationary, the inner revolves. Inside the drums is a brake with 
guides and balance-weights to catch and hold ihe cage. It forms a two-stp.ge 



1915-1916.] XOTES OF COLONIAL AND FOREIGN PAPERS. 



21 



series of lock-doors, through which the tubs can be emptied one after the 
other, and the two processes of holding- the cage in position and emptying the 
tubs are carried on simultaneously. The inner drum runs on rollers over 
rails, and is worked by gearing at the top, actuated by a driving wheel 
which turns it as required. The outer stationary drum has two openings 
connected through the inner drum with the two tiers of tubs. Tlie whole 
arrangenient is worked from the shaft by a pulley and brake-block. It is 
in duplicate, one set of drums and brake serving the full, the other the empty 
cage. As the balance-weights are heavier than the weight of the empty cage, 
the ascent and descent of the cages are automatically effected. 

E. M. D. 



study of Mine Ventilation: Combination of Natural and Artificial 
Ventilation. — By J. Botr vat-Martin. Bull. Soc. Indiist. Min., 1915, 
series 5, vol. vii., pages 5-163. 

This is a second instalment of a treatise with the above title. It sum- 
marizes the different sy.stems of artificial ventilation of mines, and points out 
their respective advantages and limitations. The author show.s how natural 
and artificial systems of ventilation react upon each other, ventilation of a 
mine begun by artificial means inducing an additional natural draught, 
which, especially in deep pits, may considerably augment its action. The 
efficiency of a fan is stated to vary with the temperature. A Rateau fan with 
a diameter of 7 feet 2| inches (22 metres) is Instanced, the air depression of 
which was found to vary by 175 per cent, and the delivery by 27 per cent. In 
a Guibal fan over a shaft-orifice of 51"5 square feet (4'8 square metres) the 
variations were found to be 400 per cent, and 20 per cent, respectively. In 
the Guilial fan, the depression plotted off on a diagram gave a curve the 
general character of which was approximately sinusoidal, with crests occur- 
ring in summer and hollows in winter. Along this curve, however, ran 
smaller waves the crests and hollows of which corresponded with night-time 
and day-time respectively. Tlie heat imparted to the air in its passage 
through a jDroperly-develojjed mine is found to be fairly constant, the differ- 
ence in ventilating action being due, not to it, but to variation in the tem- 
peratiire of the outer atmosphere. The action of the induced natural ventila- 
tion, however, increases rapidly with the depth of the mine. The author 
investigates the different classes of mine ventilators, gives formulae for the 
delivery, depression, velocity, etc., of the air, and illustrates the effects cf 
these bv the aid of curves and characteristic surfaces. A. R. L. 



Some Considerations in Reg^ard to the Internal Resistance of 
Ventilators. — By J. Botjvat-Martin. Bull. Soc. Indust. Miti., 1915, 
series 5, vol. vii., 23ages 273-296. 

The writer examines some of the popular conceptions as to internal 
resistance of mine ventilators, and the importance of large sectional areas in 
the same. He establishes formulae for the various losses in the ventilators, 
and illustrates the effects of their application by a series of curves. His 
general conclusions are that the efficiency of a mine ventilator depends in a 
high degree on the conditions attaching to the mine it.self , and that " internal 
resistance " and " oi'ifice of passage," as applied to mine ventilators, are 
improijer terms which have no meaning. A. R. L. 



22 TRAXSACTIONS THE NORTH OK P^XCiLAM) INSTITUTE. [Vol Ixvi. 

Irruptions of Quicksand in the Brovvn-coa.! Measures of North-West 
Bohemia. — By A. Padour. Montaniat. Bunds., 1915, vol. vii., pages 
205, 258, 295, and 338-341. 

In some of the mines in North-West Bohemia the workings have been 
pushed so rapidly that the composition of the roof had not been previously 
examined. As a result quicksand beds were found in many mines above the 
roof, and broke into the workings, jJouring in with disastrous results. From 
1890 to 1900 twelve irruptions of sand took place. A scheme for counteract- 
ing and avoiding the danger was therefore carefully drawn up, and the whole 
question thoroughly studied. 

The lie of the quicksand belt is chiefly along the line Briix-Bilin-Dux 
(near Teplitz), and spreads over an area of 12 square miles (32 square kilo- 
metres). The strata are generally aligned above the Coal-Measures, and are 
found on the edges of the coal-basins, a few feet from the surface. The 
bottom of the strata is generally from 118 to 295 feet (36 to 90 metres) above 
the roof of the coal-seams. It varies much in thickness, and seldom consists 
of pure sand, but is mostly mixed with clayey soil. 

The chief method adopted to avert the danger of irruptions is to drain 
the sand. Careful experiments have shown that, if a third of the water con- 
tained in the sand is drained off, it ceases to move. A regular system of 
drainage was established, and controlled by boreholes and shafts, and so soon 
as the water was reduced to 20 per cent, of its original amount, it was found 
possible to begin short stall work ; the withdrawal of less than that Cjuantity 
would not ensure safety. The thickness of the intermediate strata was also 
carefully noted, and the piessure of the sand determined from the boreholes. 
When the thickness was about 260 to 330 feet (80 to 100 metres) there was no 
danger of an irruption; if it fell to 65, to 160 feet (20 to 50 metres) immedi- 
ate precautions were taken, and the sand was drained. There was less 
danger with pillar-and-stall than with longwall working. Indications of 
danger were given by the wetness of the coal, and also by certain movements 
in the workings. The diameter of the drainage shafts was abovit 5 feet 
(1'5 metres). 

Another method of controlling the danger was to build dams with sluice- 
doors, close to the boreholes, so as to hold back the sand after it had Ijeen 
drained. Tliese dams are generally of brick, with lime or cement mortar. 
Electric alarm-signals are also provided, and means of escape for the miners, 
who are instructed to wat<!h for the first signs of danger. The height of the 
workings depends on whether they are carried through drained or \mdrained 
sand ; in the latter case they are not allowed to be more than 16 feet (5 metres) 
high. By these two methods, of drainage and of dams, means of combating 
the danger have been devised which have been found effectual. 

E. M. D. 



METALLUEGY, CHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS, ETC. 

Application a;f the Elmore Apparatus at the Guerrouma Mines. — By D. 

DussERT. Bull. Soc. Indust. Min., 1915, series 5, vol. vii., pages 
177-196. 

The Bou Medran Mining Company, which holds the concessions 
of Guerrouma and Nador-Chair in Algeria, has to deal with an ore composed 
of blende, barytine, and siderose, the specific gravities of which differ little 
the one from the other. Difficulties of separation and enrichment by the 
ordinary methods have led to the application of the Elmore appai-atus. 



1915-1916.] NOTES OF COLONIAL AND FOREIGN rAFERS. 23 

Up to 1912, ore in small lumps liad been heated and sifted. The larger 
grained enriched material resulting from this treatment had contained 45 
per cent, of metal, and the residue from 38 to 40 per cent. 'ITiis residue was 
now put through the Elmore apparatus, as a result of which its percentage 
rose to 50. Despite local difficulties, which prevented the workings from 
being grouped to the best advantage, satisfactory results were obtained, and 
the manager of the mine, who writes the ai-ticle, recommends the process 
for Algerian and Tunisian conditions of work. The Elmore apparatus is 
described and illustrated, and tables of resiilts are annexed. A. R. L. 



Coking: of Coal at Low Temperatures, with Special Reference to the 
Properties and Composition of the Products. — By S. W. Paer 

and H. L. Olix. Ball. Univ. Illinoi.s, 1915, vol. sii.. No. 39, pages 

1-39. 
Tuis report covers a series of stiidies made during the period from 1011 
to 1913 on the coking properties of Illinois coal, and is a continuation of the 
work described in Bulletin Xo. 60 of the University. Its distinctive feature 
has been the use of an apparatus which would yield the main products of 
coke, gas, and tar in quantities sufficient for a detailed s-tudy of these pro- 
ducts, and, to a certain extent, in quantities sufficient for a determination of 
their values by practical tests on a commercial .scale. In the experiments 
described in Bulletin No. 60, the apparatus used had a capacity of 6 to 8 
pounds of coal at a charge. Notwithstanding this limited capacity, certain 
fundamental facts were developed, as follows: — 

(a) The formation of coke depends upon the presence of certain constitu- 
ents having a melting-point which is lower than the temperature at which 
decompcsition or carbonization takes place. 

(b) Oxidation of these compounds may easily take place, and the greatest 
coking effect is obtained where the opportunity for the minimum amount of 
oxidation has occurred. The condition prescribed, therefore, is that there 
shall be the least possible exposure to oxidation either before or diiring the 
process of carbonization. 

(c) Coals containing an excessive quantity of the coking substance produce 
a light porous coke. The texture of the product may be modified by use of 
pressure and by close packing of the charge, and especially by mixing with 
material which has already passed through the coking process. Such a mixture 
px'ovides the jDhysical conditions whereby the gases formed may readily pass 
out of the mass without carrying along the cementing substances. 

(d) By the use of temperatures between 400° and 500° Cent., all the result- 
ing products are of a type distinctly different from those obtained by the 
TLsual high-temperatuie procedure. 

An apparatus was designed to utilize about 100 pounds of coal. Experi- 
ence in the use of the apparatus indicated also the main principles which 
should be embodied in a commercial equipment. The coking process was 
studied, and the mixture for producing the best product determined. It 
was found that a smokeless fuel may be produced especially well adapted to 
domestic purposes, including its use in open grates. Its freedom from tar 
or condensable hydrocarbons makes it easily adapted to the generation of 
producer-gas, thus affording a good substitute for anthracite coal in suction- 
gas producer practice. 

In the study of the composition and properties of the tar, this material 
was found to have a very low content of free carbon, a relatively high per- 



24 TRANSACTIONS THE N01?TTI OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

centage of light boiling distillate, and an unusually liigli content of tar acids 
01- phenols. Tlie latter fact is of special interest to the wood-preserving- 
industry. 

The following is a summary of the results of tho investigation: — 

(1) Coke of good density and hardness may be made by mixtures of semi- 
coke and raw coal, if both are finely divided and evenly mixed. A variation 
is noticeable in the quantity of such non-coking material that may be in- 
corporated with different coals. 

(2) The coke resulting from the low-temperature process retains from 
18 to 22 per cent, of volatile matter ; but, since it has been heated above 
400° Cent., there should be none of the tar constituents remaining. The most 
convincing test on this point, as also the best method of arriving at a con- 
clusion as to its adaptability for such work, was to try out the material in a 
suction-gas producer. The results indicated that no clogging effect whatever 
resiilts, thus showing the absence of tar bodies. The physical operation of 
the producer, as well as the grade of the gas produced, was fully equal, if not 
superior, to the pierformance of the plant when anthracite was used. 

(3) The semi-coke has such an amount of volatile matter remaining, 
together with the right degree of coherence, as to make it especially well 
adapted for household use. It is clean to handle, free from dust, and burns 
without smoke or the formation of soot. Especially to be noted in this 
connexion is its ability to retain a fire without undue attention as to draughts, 
etc. 

(4) The average specific gravity of the tar is 1,069. It is rich in low- 
boiling distillate passing over at 210° Cent. Tliis product averages 18 jjer 
cent, of the total. ■ Tlie pitch residue amounts to approximately 30 per cent., 
and is remarkably free from precipitated carbon. 

(5) The adaptability of the tar for wood-preservation processes seems to 
be indicated by the high percentage of tar acids. These constituents make 
up from 28 to 30 per cent, of the crude material. The larger part, about 
22 per cent., is found in the second distillate (210° to 325° Cent.), only 
about 7 per cent, coming over below 210° Cent. 

(6) Approximately 10 per cent, of the crude tar is found to be low-boiling 
distillate free from the tar acids and suitable for use in internal-combustion 
engines. 

(7) Naphthalene is absent. Tlie free carbon in the crude tar is less than 
2 per cent., and the residual product after the light distillate and heavy oils 
are removed would be classed as hard pitch. 

(8) One principal feature results from this study of these various sub- 
stances, namely, that all three of the general divisions of coke, tar, and gas 
have specific properties of an especially valuable sort, a conclusion which 
would indicate that the process of coking at low temperatures could be estab- 
lished successfiilly on a commercial basis. . A. P. A. S. 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, ELECTRICITY IN MINES, ETC. 

Experiments on Wire Ropes. — By J. Divis. Montanist. Bunds., 1915, vol. 
vii., pagec 594-598 and 626-629. 

These experiments were made in order to test the modulus of elasticity, 
and the bending and tensile stresses of interwoven wire ropes, for winding in 
mines, and the elasticity of smooth, rusty, and galvanized wires was deter- 
mined. The separate strands in an interwoven wire rope are known to be 



1915-1916] NOTES OF COLONIAL AND FOREIGN PAPERS. 25 

differently stressed from the complete rope. One rope, 62 feet long, used had 
twelve strands. The weight on it was increased from 50 to 350 kilogrammes 
(110 to 770 pounds), and it stretched about a third of an inch for each increase 
of 50 kilogrammes. Another rope, 62J feet long, with seven strands and a 
thickness of | inch (3 millimetres) was found to stretch ^^; inch (5'25 milli- 
metres) for every 66 pounds (30 kilogrammes) weight upon it. The modulus 
of elasticity for ingot-iron wires was detei-mined at 40,000 pounds; and for 
steel wires, 48,400 i?ounds. The wire ropes were next tested up to breaking- 
jjoint by a weight suddenly thrown on them. The weight was 8'8 pounds, 
and the drop 3^ feet. Common iron-wire rope broke at the first jerk; a six- 
strand rope covered with hemp bore hundreds of jerks without giving way. 
In the bending tests the strands of the rope soon parted, and the number of 
turns needed to break them was noted. One ro2>e broke up entirely after 302 
twists; in another the first strand parted at the 230th Ijend, the last at the 
449th. The radius of twist allowed was f inch (10 millimetres). The lengths 
of rope used were about 62 feet. 

These three tests — of stretching, sudden jerk, and bending or twisting — 
show why winding-ropes sometimes break after being in use a relatively short 
time. The writer thinks that the durability of a rope — that is, the number 
of bends that it vrill bear before breaking — follows a parabolic law which, for 
a rope of given thickness and a given diameter of pulley, can be determined. 
A definite ratio between these two factors has been shown in practice to exist. 
The best test is, however, to calculate the rope for tensile stress, since neither 
bending nor torsion stresses can be exactly determined. Count must be taken, 
however, of these, becavise, if they are omitted, a larger factor of safety must 
be allowed. Tliis is also necessary on account of the " weaving angle " of 
the strands, the stresses on which are greater than if the rope were simply 
twisted together. E. M. D. 



Employment of Mechanical Drills in the Mines of Constantina. — By — . 

FoRTiER. Bull. Soc. Indust. Min., 1915, series 5, vol. vii., pages 233-259. 
In Constantina (Algeria) and its neighbourhood, zinc, lead, and copper 
were until recently obtained from surface-workings. It ha.s now become neces- 
sary to resort to underground mining, and the quality of the ores won has also 
fallen off. Since 1909, mechanical drilling has sui>erseded hand-work. In five 
groups of mines there are seventy portable pneumatic drills in use, in each 
case fed by compressed air from an installation at bank. Of these drills, 
sixty-four are of the Flottmann, three are of the Hardy-Simj^lex, and three of 
the Ingersoll type. Some other mines use electro-pneumatic drills of the 
Temple-Ingersoll jiattern, worked from underground installations. Under 
suitable conditions, the mechanical drills are found to give better results 
than hand-work; but their great advantage in the Constantina district is that 
they enable a much larger output jjer man to Ije attained. Since the supply 
of labour in the district is limited, they admit of much more extensive opera- 
tions being carried on with the staffs available than had been possible with 
hand-woi-k. The native workmen have taken readily to them, and their 
earnings have increased since the introduction of mechanical drills. A.R.L. 



Electrification of the Mines of the Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company. — By 

F. C. Stanford. Journ. Lake Superior Min. Itist., 1914, vol. xix., 
pages 189-222. 
The first electrical equipment was installed by the company in 1880, 
and consisted of an arc lighting plant for the illumination of open-pit work- 



26 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

ings. In 1894 the first electric underground locomotive was installed, and this 
was followed b}' others in 1898 and 1901, all of which are now in use at the 
Lake Mine. 

The principal generating station is a hydro-electric plant near Marquette, 
which has a normal rated capacity of 5,600 kilowatts. Tlie generating equip- 
ment consists of two Allis-Chalmers 2,800-kilowatt 2,300-volt three-phase 60- 
cycle generators, direct connected to high-head turbines. Each exciter is of 
sufficient capacity to provide excitation for both units if necessary, and is 
mounted in shaft extensions outside the main bearings. All circuits are con- 
trolled by solenoid-operated oil-switches, which are each placed in individual 
brick-and-concrete compartments, one switch being provided for transformer 
control, two for generator control, and two for local feeders. 

The principal mines of the company are so located that the change from 
steam to electric power, and the use of electric power for the development of 
new mines, have been accomplished without difficulty and with very satis- 
factory results, and the new plant has proved entirely adequate to meet any 
conditions that may be expected in iron-mining. 

Nineteen mines are now connected by electric lines, all of which, with 
the exception of one, are either producing or are under development. In 
addition, the Pioneer furnace at Marquette is connected to the system. 

A. C. 



Loading of Mine Cag'es by Electrical Means. — By — Winteejieter. 
Montanist. Bunds., 1915, vol. vii., pages 677-680. 

The loaded tubs are run on level rails, and are seized and pushed into 
the cages by a mechanical contrivance worked by an electromotor. The latter 
acts automatically on the tubs by a catch of some kind, either a rack, a lever 
which pushes the tub along, or a carrier. The electromotor runs sometimes 
in one direction only, but is occasionally reversible. 

The method of acting on the tubs by a rack dates from 1905. The rack is 
driven by automatic gearing from a 2-horsepower motor ; it runs on rollers, 
and carries a catch which pushes the tub into the cage. Another arrangement 
is the Wolff lever, on which a 4-horse]>ower electromotor acts through a cog- 
wheel. The lever is carried along, and drives the tub into the cage in about 
6 seconds, the thrust being 440 pounds. The third system, the Heintz, is 
that of a carrier running on rails, and is worked by a cord and drum. The 
rotation of the drum drives the carrier forward and with it the tub, which is 
pushed in front ; the carrier is brought back into position by balance-weights. 
Sometimes there is a movable ram ; at other times the carrier is worked by 
an endless chain, or the rails are inclined. The action with all these 
mechanisms is automatic. In a system not yet much known, but which the 
writer thinks good in principle, and likely to succeed, the electromotor itself 
is placed on the carrier. This method entails little alteration in existing 
arrangements, either at bank or at the pit-bottom. E. M. D. 

Modern Electrically-driven Ventilators in Mines. — By — Wendriner and 
K. Ri'TCKERT. ' Zeitschr. f. Berg-, Hiitt.- u. Salincnwes., 1915, vol. 
Ixiii., pages 246-283. 

The subject dealt with in this paper is the efficiency of electric motors 
driving ventilators in mines, and their capacity for varying the load. The 
quantity of air required for ventilation is determined by careful calculation. 



1815-1516.] XOTES OF COLONIAL AXD FOREIGN PAPERS. 27 

but it does not remain constant: it varies from time to time, according to 
the special needs of the mine at the moment. The air-currents must be 
regulated on Sundays and during the layiug-out of the mine, and a reserve of 
power is also necessary in the ventilation, as it is impossible to say how far 
it may be desirable to drive the levels. Ventilation may be reduced either by 
throttling the airways, or by regulating the rotary speed of the electric 
motors. Tlie difficulty is that these motors can only be worked economically 
when driven at full speed. The writer passes in review the different methods 
adopted to regulate the load, and thus the quantity of air supplied. Both 
direct-current and induction motors are used, but the former are not econo- 
mical unless the power is supplied from a central installation. There is less 
loss of poMer with alternating current and induction motors; they are less 
costly and .simpler, but their efficiency varies in direct ratio to variations in 
the speed. 

In order to remedy this evil, several kinds of equalizing machinery have 
been adopted. The speed can be controlled by changing either the tension, 
or the strength of the field, or by swdtching off the brushes on the com- 
mutator. None of these arrangements is desirable. An alternative and 
better method is the cascade system, which constitutes a second motor, or a 
combination of continuous current and alternating current. The writer gives 
two or three examples of cascade motoi-s, and plots their different efficiencies 
in a curve. A cascade motor of 650 horsepower with transformer is now 
working in a mine at Dortmund. 

The main jDnnciple to be kept in view, in the choice of an electric motor 
for ventilation in mines, is that the quantity of air supplied and the efficiency 
of the system vary in direct proportion to the speed of rotation of the motor. 
The object aimed at is to obtain both the maximiim efficiency of the electric 
plant, under the given conditions of the mine, and the careful regulation of 
the amount of air supplied. The writer considers that the cascade system, by 
which the load can be easily regiilated, has a great economic future before it, 
and that it best meets these varying requirements. 

E. M. D. 



Solenoid Cables with Induction-coils for Telephoning: in Mines. — By W. 

SiEPRAWSKi. Montanist. Bunds., 1915, vol. vii., pages 474-475. 

The principle on which the invention here described is based is that of 
a solenoid cable which hangs loose in a shaft, and is connected to an induc- 
tion-coil, attached to the cage in such a way that, as the cage ascends and 
descends, the induction-coil is led through and slips over the solenoid. The 
cable can thus be utilized for the transmission of telephonic messages from 
the pit-bottom to the surface, and vice versa. It consists of an iron core, the 
different strands of which are isolated by a layer of shellac or pitch ; the wire 
is wound round it in a cylindrical helix constituting the solenoid, and is stir- 
rounded with good insulating material as a covering. The induction eoil 
which encircles the solenoid cable is not closed, but is shaped like a hoi-se- 
shoe, in order that it may slide the more easily over the cable. In the case 
of a deep shaft, the cable should not hang loose ; it is better to have it held 
in position from the sides. The writer suggests that this system of solenoid 
cable can be adapted for military telephony. 

E. M. D. 



28 TRANSACTIONS — THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

ADMINISTRATION AND STATISTICS. 

Petroleum and the War. — By A. Gotselin. Soc. Ingen. Civils France, 
Proces Verbal, 1915, pages 188-207. 

Observing that Galicia, Alsace, and Rumania were the chief sources of 
Germany's supply of petroleum, the author shows that only the Rumanian 
supply is now of much cousec£uence. The Galician fields have suffered con- 
siderably during the war, and Alsace and Wietz together produce only 
130,000 tons per annum. In 1914, Rumania consumed 782,000 tons of her 
own total production of 1,783,000 tons. In regard to storage, the 

forty tanks for the reception of the oil at the petroleum port 
of Constantza can take about 6,927,600 cubic feet (196,250 cubic metres). Of 
this 3,530,000 cubic feet (100,000 cubic metres) are held by the Germans and 
882,500 cubic feet (25,000 cubic metres) by Americans, only four of the tanks 
being controlled by Frenchmen. Tlie port exported 850,000 tons in 1913, but, 
owing to the closing of the Dardanelles, it exported only 450,000 tons in 1914. 
In order to ease the railway traffic, the Government decided to lay three 
Ijipe-lines from the wells to the sea, and but for the war these would have 
been completed by the beginning of 1915. One of these, in part 9 inches 
(22S'6 millimetres) and in pai't 10 inches (254 millimetres) in diameter, was to 
convey a million tons of crude petroleum per annum, and the other two of 
5 inches (127 millimetres) in diameter were to convey 350,000 and 400,000 tons 
of distilled petroleum respectively per annum. The pipes were to be sunk 
about 24 to 28 inches (60 to 70 centimetres) in the earth. The cost of the 
installation was set at =£1,000,000 (25,000,000 francs). The author exposes 
the bribery and other methods adopted by the Germans to obtain complete 
command of the industry. _ At Braila, a Germany company, the Credit 
Petrolifer, had installed ten tanks of a total capacity of 22^500 tons. At 
Giurgevo, another German company, the Steana Romana, owned tanks of 
a total capacity of 10,800 tons. 

A large fleet of tank barges on the Danube and extensive works of all 
kinds in connexion with the industiy have been created and financed by 
Germans. Galicia's production of petroleum fell from 52,000 tons in August, 
191'!, to 19,000 tons in October, 1914, after which it gradually rose again to 
46,800 tons in April, 1915. Much of this was sent to Fiunue, and it was here 
that the Austrian submarines probably obtained their supplies. 

A. R. L. 

Movements of Mang^anese Ore. — By A. de Keppen. Co7n. Cent. Houill. 
France, 1915, Circulaire No. 5046, pages 1-9. 

The author goes into the question of the German production and impor- 
tation of manganese. He finds that the production of German ores containing 
high percentages of manganese is very small. 

A German official enquiry, made with the view of fixing a new special 
tariff for the carriage of manganese by rail, showed that in 1912 2,877,995 
metric tons of iron ore contaimng less than 12 per cent, and 300,077 tons con- 
taining from 12 to 30 per cent, were produced, while the production of ores 
containing more than 30 per cent, of metallic manganese, which in 3910 had 
amounted to 474 tons, had in 1912 decreased to 149 tons. These latter were 
obtained from small workings in Hesse, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, and Waldeck. 
Meanwhile Germany, having gradually become the chief consumer of man- 
ganese, imported 680,371 tons of it, worth about =£1,400,000 (28,000,000 marks) 



i 



1915-1916.] NOTES OF COLONIAL AND FOREIGN PAPERS. 



29 



in 1913. Of this, 447,000 tons came from Eussia and 177,638 tons from the 
British East Indies, while 27,467 tons were sent bv Spain, and 21,873 tons by 
Brazil. In the same year Luxemburg imported 69,717 tons of manganese from 
Eussia, 42,356 tons from the British East Indies, 883 tons from Brazil, and 
15 tons from Spain. It is worthy of note that in 1912 Luxemburg had taken 
73,608 tons from Eussia and Greece and 56,172 tons from the British East 
Indies. A. E. L. 



Mineral Production of India During 1913 and 1914. — By H. H. Hayden. 
Bee. Geol. Surv. India, 1915, vol. xlv., pages 158-208. 
The following table has been compiled from the statistics contained in 
this report, and shows the quantities and values of the more imijortant 
minerals produced during the years 1913 and 1914: — 





1913. 


1914. 


Increase or 
Decrease 


Mineral. 












Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


in value 
over 1913. 






£ 




£ 


Per cent. 


Alum, in cwts. 


7,842 


3,794 


8,731 


4,649 


-f 22-5 


Amber, in cwts. . . 


10 


29 


13 


274 


^ 844-8 


Bauxite, in tons . . 


1,184 


33 


514 


32 


- 3-0 


Building materials, 












etc. 




243,495 


, 


214,421 


- 11-9 


Chromite, in tons . 


5,676 


2.435 


5,888 


2,611 


+ 7-2 


Clay, in tons 


47,422 


2,744 


54,740 


2,567 


- 6-5 


Coal, in tons 


16,208,009 


3,798,1.37 


16,464,263 


3,907,380 


+ 2-9 


Copper- ore, in tons 


3,810 


8,650 


5,324 


7,294 


- 15-7 


Corundum, in cwts, 


8,924 


2,215 


2,360 


447 


- 79-8 


Diamonds, in carats 


115 7 


1,794 


54-65 


791 


- 55-8 


Garnet, in cwts. . . 


334 


1,288 


21,906 


4,806 


- 273-1 


Gold, in ounces 


595,761 


2,291,917 


607,388 


2,338,355 


^ 2-0 


Gypsum, in tons . . 


24,961 


1,071 


22,268 


979 


- 8-6 


Iron-ore, in tons . . 


370,845 


39,680 


441,674 


40,665 


+ 2-5 


Jadeite, in cwts.*. . 


3,281 


24,093 


9,925 


40,092 


+ 66-4 


Lead and lead-ore. 












in tons . . 


20,325 


113,023 


33,685 


202,330 


+ 79-0 


Manganese-ore, in 












tonsf 


815,047 


1.211,034 


682,898 


877,264 


- 27-6 


Mica, in cwts 


45,761 


347,451 


40,507 


237,310 


- 31-7 


Monazite, in tons . 


1,235 


42,012 


1,186 


41,411 


- 1-4 


Ochre, in tons 


5,067 


919 


608 


157 


- 82-8 


Petroleum, in galls. 


277,555,225 


1,034,586 


259,342,710 


958,565 


- 7-3 


Platinum, in ounces 


57-7 


324 


36-7 


213 


- 34-3 


Euby, sapphire, and 












spinel, in carats . 


278,706 


55,542 


304,872 


43,1.33 


- 22-3 


Salt and rock-salt, 












in tonsf . 


1,473,189 


541,447 


1,348,225 


483,289 


- 10-7 


Saltpetre, in cwts. . 


14,461 


200,803 


15,489 


272,462 


4- 35-7 


Samarskite, in cwts. 


3 


7 


43 


121 


-;-1628-5 


Silver, in ounces . . 


125,209 


15,338 


236,446 


26,896 


-r 75-4 


Steatite, in tons . . 


2,524 


6,700 


999 


4,131 


- 38-3 


Tin and tin-ore, in 








1 




cwts. 


7,064 


46,401 


7,359 


38,203 ' 


- 17-7 


Tungsten- ore,intons 


1,688 


127,762 


2,326 


178,543 


- 39-7 


Zinc-ore . . . . ' 


3,871 


4,871 


8,553 , 


10,762 


+ 120-9 



Export values. f Value f.o.b. at Indian ports. 



J Value without duty. 
A. P. A. S. 



30 TRANSACTIONS THE NOiriTI OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvi. 

Supply of Mineral Fuel to Paris Before the War: Importance of the 
Port of Rouen for the Supply of Paris. — By A. de Keppen. 
Com. Cent. Hoiiill. France, 1915, Circulaire No. 505G, pages 1-14. 

Premising that the quantities of mineral fuel required by capitals like 
Paris, Petrograd, Berlin, and Vienna exceed those of agricultural produce 
and other stores, and have to be brought from greater distances, the author 
calls attention to the high importance of these supplies. The mineral fuel 
.supplied to the Deijartment of the Seine in 1911, for which year statistics are 
available, was 3,005,800 metric tons from France, 1,302,500 tons from England, 
698,100 tons from Belgium, and 299,100 from Germany, giving a total of 
5,305,500 tons. Of the French supply, 9807 per cent, came from the 
Valenciennes basin. The coal reached Paris partly by rail and partly by the 
navigable waterways. Of the goods brought to Paris by the waterways, 37'8 
per cent, was mineral fuel. The fuel per head of population was about 1'714 
metric tons. The estimated distribution of the total was as follows : — 
1,479,500 tons for the gas industry, 60,000 tons for large-scale metallurgical 
purposes, 2,300,000 tons for other branches of industry, and 1,071,000 tons for 
household use. Since the mines of Valenciennes are in the war area, the 
supply through the port of Roaien, 90 per cent, of which comes from Great 
Britain, becomes all-important. In 1913, 73-34 per cent, of the fuel sent 
through this port to the interior of France went by water, and 26"66 per cent, 
by rail. The great majority of the supply was for Paris, which, indeed, 
takes 78 per cent, of the coal sent by water from Rouen, as well as more than 
half a million tons sent by rail. In 1911, Rouen also received important 
consignments of coal from Belgium and Germany by rail and waterway, and 
transmitted it to the interior. A large part of this came by several canals, 
which were connected with the Belgian and German networks of waterways. 

The author concludes his article by drawing particular attention to the 
importance of the British supply and of the port of Rouen. 

A. R. L. 



Miners' Wash-and-Change-Houses. — By Joseph H. White. Bur. Mines, 
1915, Technical Paper No. 116, pages 1-27. 

Among the investigations that the Bureau of Mines is directed by law to 
undertake are tho.se dealing with the health of miners and the improvement 
of sanitary conditions at mines. Many mining companies, large and small, 
are providing buildings where miners may remove their soiled working- 
clothes, bathe, and put on clean, dry clothing before returning to their 
homes. 

Wash-and-change-houses for miners are required by law in Arizona, 
Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Montana, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania. In some 
of these States the law reads that the wash-and-change-house shall be 
established only after it has been petitioned for by a certain number of the 
workmen. Wash-and-change-houses were established in some before the 
passage of the law; and, although not required by law, they exist in 
Alabama, California, Colorado, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri.. 
Nevada, New Jersey, Texas, Washington, West Virginia, and Wyoming. 
Some of the best wash-and-change-houses are to be found in Michigan, 
Minnesota, and Alabama. 

It has been stated that the miners would not and do not take advantage 
of wash-and-change-houses after they have been erected. Companies holding 



1915-1916.] NOTES OF COLONIAL AND FOREIGN PAPERS. 31 

back because of this belief cau have reasonable assurauce that a modern 
wash-and-change-house will be used by a large percentage of the men. 
Information that has been obtained concerning several thousand miners who 
were provided with wash-and-change-house facilities shows that an average 
of about 85 per cent, of the total number on the pay-roll used the wash-and- 
change-houses daily. In a large number of the cases reported there was a 
fee, varying from 2s. to 4s. i)er month, for the use of the wash-and-change- 
house. One company making a charge of 2s. a month for the use of lockers 
and the bath privileges claims that the charge causes the men to make better 
use of the facilities provided. At the outset there are some who will not 
use it, as miners, particularly the older ones, take slowly to innovations. 
The number of users, however, steadily increases. 

The paper gives advice on the selection of sites and plans of wash-houses, 
their construction, lighting, heating, and equipment. 

A. P. A. S. 



Dimensioning: of Coal-mines. — By Dr. Barvik. Montaiiist. Bunds., 1915, 
vol. vii., pages 293-295 and 529-531. 

The Austrian mining laws lay down that the superficial area of a mine, 
the configuration of which should be a right-angled ijarallelogram, shall be 
not less than 58,958 square yards (45,116 square metres). The breadtli of the 
mine is not to be less than 347 feet (106 metres). Difficulties with mining 
leases are caused by these regulations, and the exact area cannot always be 
determined. Tlie writer discusses whether it is possible to comply with them 
at one and the same time by any manijDulation of the above two values, and 
comes to the conclusion that whole numbers can only be obtained by reducing 
the figures to millimetres. Even this method will give merely an approxi- 
mation to the official stipulations. The writer endeavours by calculation 
to work out such a value for the superficial area of the mine that every whole 
number within two limits, if taken for the one dimension, shall always 
admit of a corresponding whole number for the other. 

E. M. D. 



Safety in Stone-quarryingr- — By Oliver Bowles. Bur. Mines, 1915, 

Technical Paper No. Ill, 2)ages 1-48. 

This paper descril>es the results of an investigation of safety conditions 
in stone-quarrying — moi'e esjiecially in the quarrying of marble. Its pui'pose 
is to point out the chief causes of accidents in stone-quarries, and to suggest 
preventive measur'es and devices. Many of the suggestions are applicable to 
all types of rock excavation, but chiefly relate to marble-quarrying. Accident 
prevention is considered from three points of view — safety in equijinient, 
safety in quarrying methods, and safety through proper care. The paper 
also describes methods of first aid in case of accident, and includes a list of 
typical quarry accidents that have come to the writer's notice. 

A. P. A. S. 



32 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. f Vol. Ixvi. 

II.— LIST OF B^ATAL AND NON-FATAL EXPLOSIONS OF FIREDAMP OR 
COAL-DUST FOR THE YEAR 1915. 



Compiled by PERCY STRZELECKI. 



Table I. — Summary of Explosions op Firedamp and Coal-dust in the 
SEVERAL Mines-inspection Divisions during 1915. 



Minea-inspection Division. 


Fatal Accidents. 


Non-fatal Accidents. 


No. 


Deaths. 


Injured. 


No. 


Injured. 


Lancashire, North Wales, 

and Ireland 

Midland and Southern ... 
Northern ... 

Scotland 

South Wales 

York and North Midland 

Totals 


1 
4 

1 
8 

1 
1 


1 
20 

7 
11 

1 
1 



6 
1 
10 





9 
7 

35 
16 
13 




18 
8 
40 
22 
18 


16 


41 


17 


80 


106 



Table I[. — List of Fatal Explosions of Firedamp or Coal-dust in 
Collieries in the several Mines-inspection Divisions during 1915. 



1915. 


Colliery. 


County. 


Mines-inspection 
Division. 


Deaths. 


No. of 
Persons 
Injured. 


1914. 












Dec. 31, 230 


Blaengwawr 


Glamorgan ... 


South Wales... 


1 





Jan. 8, 10-30 


Deans, No. 3 (Oil- 
shale) 


Linlithgow ... 


Scotland 


1 





„ 17, 17-0 


Minnie Pit 


Stafford 


Midland and 
Southern 


9 


3 


„ 24, 22-30 


Rosshill (Oil-shale)... 


Linlithgow ... 


Scotland 


1 


1 


Feb. 17, 7-30 


Bridgeness(No. 2Pit) 


Linlithgow ... 


Do. 


2 


3 


Mar. 27, 7-15 


Blairmuckhill 


Lanark 


Do. 


2 


1 


April 26, 7-30 


Duddingston, No. 3 
(Oil-shale) 


Linlithgow ... 


Do. 


1 


1 


„ 26, 11-0 


Brayton Domain 
(No. 4 Pit) 


Cumberland ... 


Northern 


7 


1 


June 10, 8-30 


Fauldhead(No.3Pit) 


Dumfries 


Scotland 


2 


1 


July 20, 9-30 


New Hem Heath ... 


Stafford 


Midland and 
Southern 


1 





,, 20, 15-45 


Ardeer East (No. 4 
Pit) 


Ayr 


Scotland 


1 


2 


Aug. 25, 7-30 


Baads (No. 42 Pit) .. 


Edinburgh ... 


Do. 


1 


1 


Sept. 6, 22-40 


Blackwell ("A" Pit) 


Derby 


York and North 
Midland 


1 





Oct. 8, 6-0 


Top-o'-th'-Meadow .. 


Lancashire ... 


Lancashire, 
North Wales, 
and Ireland 


1 





„ 22, 5-55 


Pennant Hill 


Stafford 


Midland and 
Southern 


5 


1 


Nov. 30, 9-0 


Mid-Cannock 


Do. 


Midland and 
Soutliern 


r> 


2 


41 


17 



i 



1915-1916. 



1, 1ST OK EXILOSIONS, 1915. 



33 



Table III.— List of Non-fatal Explosions of Firkdamp or Coal-dust in 
Collieries in the several Mines-inspection Divisions during 1915. 



1915. Colliery. ! 


County. 


Mines-inspection pN°-°^f 
Division. Injured. 


Jan. 8,12-10 Milfraen ' 


Monmouth 


South Wales .. 


1 


8,14-0 Gilbeitficld 


Lanark ... 


Scotland 


1 


„ 9; U-30 Seven Sisters 


Glamorgan 


South Wales ...I 


1 


„ 12. 90 1 


Do ' 


Do. 


Do. 


3 


., 13. 19-30 ' 


Blaen-cae-gurwen ...' 


I'O. 


Do. 


1 


,. 20, 19-15 


Stourbridge Kxtension j 


Stafford 


Midland and 
Southern 


4 


., 26, 8-0 


Blackrigg(No. 3 Pit)... 


Linlithgow 


Scotland 


1 


., 27, 5-10 


Calderbank ' 


Lanark 


Do. 


1 


.. 29, 7-45 


Duffrvn Amman ...■ 


Carmartbeu 


South Wales ... 


1 


,. 30. 11 -30 1 


Polbeth, No. 26 (Oil- 
shale) 


Edinburgh 


Scotland 


1 


Feb. 5, 22-30 


Varteg Hill 


Moiimoutli 


South Wales ... 


1 


„ 17, 40 


Bannockburn ... 


Stirling 


Scotland 


3 


„ 17, 7-0 


Kenmuirhill (No. 1 Pit) 


Lanark ... 


Do. 


2 


„ 19, 7-30 


Dalkeith 


Edinburgh 


Do. 


1 


„ 24, 4-15 


Carberry 


Do. 


Do. 


1 


Mar. 9, lO'O 


Temple 


York 


York and North 
Midland 


1 


„ 22, 7-0 


Go van (No. 5 Pit) ... 


Lanark ... 


Scotland 


1 


,. 25. 10 


Brancepeth (■' B " Pit) 


Durham 


Northern 


1 


„ 30. 15-;i0 


Plenmeller 


Northumberland 


Do. 


1 


April 1. 12-20 


Olosucha 


Carmarthen 


South Wales ... 


1 


1, 17-30 


Ton Phillip 


Glamorgan 


Do. 


1 


6. 0-10 


Corr-tt'e Yale 


Do 


Do. 


1 


6, 7-30 Aikenhead 


Renfrew 


Scotland 


1 


6, 13-45 Lodge Mill 


York ... J.. 


York and North 
Midland 


1 


9, 14-30 


Wentworth Silkstone.. 


Do 


Do. 


1 


9, 20-0 


Pennant Hill 


Stafford 


Midland and 
Southern 


5 


May 2, 210 


Auchingeich 


Lanark ... 


Scotland 


1 


9, 7-30 


South DuflEryn Level ... 


Glamorgan 


South Wales . . 


1 


„ 12, 16-0 


Clynmil 


Do. 


Do. 


1 


„ 16,11-45 


Hartley Bank 


York 


York and North 
Midland 


2 


„ 24, 13-45 


fiain 


Lanark ... 


Scotland 


1 


,. 26, 9-15 


Murdostoun (No. 3 Pit) 


Do. ... 


Do. 


1 


„ 30, 15-35 


Gilbertfield 


Do 


Do. 


1 


„ 31, 8-30 


Do 


Do 


Do. 


1 


June 8, 13-45 


Queenslie 


Do 


Do. 


1 


„ 19, 2-30 


GrifE (No. 4 Pit) 


Warwickshire ... 


Midland and 
Southern 


2 


„ 21, 9-30 


Preston Links 


Haddington 


Scotland 


1 


„ 25,11-0 


Roman Camp No. 3 
i (Oil-shale) 


Linlithgow 


Do. 


2 


July 8, 1-0 


Cadley itill 


Derbyshire 


Midland and 
Southern 


1 


8, 13-30 


Stanley 


Derby 


York and North 
i Midland 


1 


„ 10, 10-0 


New London ... 


Nottingham 


Do. 


2 



I 



vol.. LXVr.— 1916. 1916. 



c E 



u 



TRANSACTIONS THE XORTII OF KNGLAND INSTITITE. [Vol. Ixvi. 



Table III. — Continued. 



1915. 


Colliery. 


County. 1 


Miues-iugpectioD 
Division. 


No. of ' 
PerRODB 
Injured. 


July Ifi, 14 


Calderbank 


Lanark ... 


Scotland 




1 „' 17, 10-30 


Pleasely 


Derby 


York and North 
Midland 




„ 23. 90 


Newfarm (Oil-shale) .. 


Edinburgh 


Scotland 




„ 30, 6-40 


Britain ... 


Derby 


York and North 
Midland 




Aug. 1. 12-30 


Hillripg 


Lanark ... 


Scotland 




2, 8-10 


Shawfield 


Do 


Do. 




1 „ 5, 100 


Grovesend 


Glamorgan 


South Wales ... 




6. 140 


Marley Hill 


Durham 


Northern 




„ 23, 6-15 


Lons<lajids 


York 


York ;ind North 
Midland 




•i „ 23, 23-30 


Drumbow (No. 1 Pit) ,. 


Lanark 


Scotland 


. 


Sept. 1,12-30 


Conduit... 


Stafford 


Midland and 
Southern 




1, 19-30 


Ellington 


Northumberland 


Northern 




4, 1-0 


Pent re (Landore) 


Glamorgan 


South Wales ... 




„ 14, 15-20 


Bowhill 


Fife 


Scotland 




■ „ 17,12-30 


Calderbank 


Lanark ... 


Do. 




„ 24, 13 30 


Pilsley 


Derby 


York and North 
Midland 




., 25, 6-30 


Newfarm (Oil-shale) ... 


Edinburgh 


Scotland 




„ 29, 7-45 


Wernlas 


Glamorgan 


South Wales .. 




Oct. 17, 7-0 


Central .Silkstone 


York 


York and North 
Midland 




„ 17,11-0 


Kinglassie 


Fife 


Scotland 




„ 20,11-0 


New London ... 


Nottingham 


York and North 
Midland 




„ 22, 12-0 


East Plean (No. 4 Pit) 


Stirling 


Scotland 




„ 27, 12-45 


Woodend 


Linlithgow 


Do. 




„ 30, 15-0 


Wei Lesley 


Fife 


Do. 




^ov. 1, 145 


Whitwick 


Leicestershire .. 


Midland and 
Southern 




„ 1. 6-40 


Swanwick 


Derby 


York and North 
Midland 




8, 6-0 


Dalkeith 


Edinburgh 


Scotland 




„ 8.11-30 


Bredisholm (No. 3 Pit) 


Lanark ... 


Do. 




9, 3-30 


Hattonrigg 


Do 


Do. 




9, 9-16 


Kenmuirhill (No. 1 Pit) 


Do 


Do. 




9, 7-20 


Dockra (Ironstone) ... 


Ayr ... 


Do. 




„ 11, 8-0 


Granville (No. 1 Pit)... 


Derbyshire, S. ... 


Midland and 
Southern 




„ 11, 14-50 


Shut End 


StaflEord 


Midland and 
^outhern 




„ 11, 16-15 


Liverton 


Yorks, N.R. .. 


Northern 




„ 19, 17-0 


Caerau (Ko. 3 Pit) ... 


Glamorgan 


South Wales ... 




„ 20, 9-0 


Ynyscedwyn 


Brecon ... 

■ 


Do. 


2 


Dec. 9, 3-40 


Sandwell Park 


Stafford 


Midland and 
Southern 




9, 19-30 


Plenmeller 


Northumberland 


Northern 




„ 29, 1215 


Kilton 


Yorks, N.R. . 


Do. 




106 




Woop Memorial Hall, and Offices op The North of England Institute of Minino 
AND Mechanical Engineers, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



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THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE 



iniiig aii^ Pcc|nnJcaI (^iigbieers. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL 

AND 

ACCOUNTS FOR THE YEAR 1915-1916; 

LIST OF 

COUNCIL, OFFICERS AND MEMBERS 

FOR THE YEAR 1916-1917 ; 
ETC. 



1915-1916. 




NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE : PUBLISHED BY THE INSTITUTE. 
Printed by Andrew Reid & Company, Limited, London and NEWCASTLE-uroN-TYNE. 

1916. 



CONTENTS. 



Annual Report of the Council, 1915-1916 ... ... ... ... .. v 

Annual Report of the Finance Committee, 1915-1916 ... ... ... viii 

General Statement, June 30th, 1916 ... .. ... ... ... ... ix 

The Treasurer in Account with The North of England Institute of Mining 

and Mechanical Engineers for the Year ending June 30th, 1916 ... x 
The Treasurer of The North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical 

Engineers in Account with Subscriptions, 1915-1916 . ... ... xii 

List of Committees appointed by the Council, 1916-1917 ■■ ... ••• xiv 
Representatives on the Council of The Institution of Mining Engineers, 

1916-1917 xiv 

Officers, 1916-1917 xv 

Patrons ..'. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... x\i 

Honorary Members ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xvi 

Members ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xvii 

Associate Members ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 'xli 

Associates ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xliv 

Students ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 

Subscribers ... ... ... ... ... .. . ■ li 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



THE NOETH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE OF MINING AND 
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



ANNUAL REPOllT OF THE COUNCIL, 1915-1916. 



The Institute has sustaiued a great loss through the death of 
Mr. John George AVeeks, who was elected a member in the year 
18()5, vserved on the Council continuously from the year 1877, 
and was elected President in 1900. He contributed largely to 
tlie discussions, and took a great interest in the affairs of the 
Institute. 

The Council also deplore the deaths of the Honourable Lord 
Ninian Edward Crichton-Stuart, and Messrs. Robert Curweu 
Richmond Blair, Georg'e Dixon, Oscar Earnshaw, Edward 
Maurice Gregson, Thomas John Muse and George Henry Hall 
Scott, who were killed in ilie European War, and the deaths of 
the following- gentlemen who died during the year: — Members: 
Philip Francis Burnet Adams, Thomas Arnold, Thomas Bailes, 
David Burns, John William Fryar, Alfred Edward Hale, 
AVilliam Harle, Talbot Richard Lonsdale and Marshall Nichol- 
son. As,sociate members : Colin Armstrong Ferguson and James 
Kirkley. Associate: William Pattison. 

A decrease in the membership has to be reported for the sixth 
year in succession. The additions to the register, and the losses 
by death, resignation, etc., are shown in the following table: — 





1910. 


mi. 


1312. 


1913. 


1914. 


1915. 


1916. 


Additions 


84 


72 


61 


66 


55 


47 


38 


Losses 


81 


91 


105 


91 


86 


75 


92 


Gain . . . 


3 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Loss . . . 


— 


19 


44 


25 


31 


28 


54 



The membership for the last six years is shown in the follow- 
ing table : — 

Year ended August 1st. ISU. 1912. 1913. 1914. 1915. 1916. 



Honorary members 


... 27 


24 


23 


24 


25 


25 


Members 


921 


893 


874 


846 


824 


780 


Associate members 


... 107 


101 


100 


97 


91 


88 


Associates 


... 209 


204 


205 


206 


207 


205 


Students 


... 43 


43 


38 


34 


31 


26 


Subscribers 


... 35 


33 


33 


35 


36 


36 


Totals 


... 1,342 


1,298 


1,273 


1,242 


1,214 


1,160 



VI ANiVUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

The Coimcil is compiling- a list of members serving' with 
His Majesty's Forces at home and abroad, and, in order to niake 
the list as complete as possible, will be pleased to be advised of 
any members serving-. 

Dr. J. B. Simpson has presented i)ortraits of Sir Humphry 
Davy, Dr. W. lleid Clanny, George Stephenson, John Buddie, 
Nicholas Wood and the Eev. John Hodgson, and also a steel 
mill used in a pit. 

The Library has been maintained in an efficient condition 
during the year ; the additions, by donation, exchange and pur- 
chase, include 400 bound v^olumes and 28 pamphlets, reports, 
etc.; and the Library now contains about 15,709 volumes and 
585 unbound pamphlets. A card-catalogue of the books, etc., 
contained in the Library renders them easily available for 
reference. 

Members would render useful service to the profession by the 
presentation of books, reports, plans, etc., to the Institute, to 
be preserved in the Library, and thereby become available for 
reference. 

At the suggestion of Lieut. H. Dennis Bayley, whose great 
work in connexion with the Red Cross and St. John Ambulance 
Associations is so well known, during the year the Institute 
subscribed £200, and the members also contributed the sum of 
£619 towards a motor ambulance to be called " The North of 
England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers Ambu- 
lance." The ambulance has been in France for some months 
now. 

Exchanges of Transaetimis have been arranged, during the 
year, with the Royal Society of South Australia, South African 
Engineering, and the Northern Engineering Institute of New 
South Wales. 

The lectures for colliery engineers, enginewrights, and 
apprentice mechanics arranged to take place at Ai-mstroug 
College were suspended on account of the war. 

Mr. Thomas Douglas continues to represent the Institute as 
a Governor of Armstrong College, and, Mr. John H. Merivale, 
in conjunction with the President (Mr. T. Y. Greener), repre- 
sentsi the Institute on the Council of the College. 

Mr. Thomas Edgar Jobling continues to represent the Insti- 
tute upon the Board of Directors of the Institute and Coal Trade 
Chambers Company, Limited. 

The President continues a Representative Governor upon the 
Court of Governors of the University of Durham College of 
Medicine during his term of office. 

The representatives of the Institute upon the Council of The 
Institution, of Mining Engineers during the past year were as 
follows: — His Grace the Duke of Northumberland, Messrs. 
R. S. Anderson, Sidney Bates, AV. C. Blackett, W. Cochran 
Carr, Benjamin Dodd, J. AV. Fryar, T. Y. Greener, Reginald 
Guthrie, Samuel Hare, A. M. Hedley-, T. E. Jobling, J. P. 
Xirkup, Philip Ivirkup, C. C. Leach, Henry Louis, J. H. 
Merivale, W. C. Mountain, R. E. Ornsby, Walter Rowley, F. 
R. Simpson, John Simpson, J. G. Weeks, W. B. Wilson and E. 
Seymour Wood. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. Vll 

Under the will of the late Mr. John Dag-lish, fundvS have 
been placed at the disposal of Armstrong College for founding a 
Travelling Fellowship, to be called the " Daglish " Fellowship, 
candidates for which must be nominated by the Institute. Tso 
application was made for the Fellowship for the year 1916. 

The Gr. C. Greenwell, gold, silver and bronze medals may be 
awarded annually for approved papers '* recording the results of 
experience of interest in mining, and especially where deductions 
and practical suggestions are made by the writer for the avoidance 
of accidents in mines." Xo medal has been awarded this year. 

A prize has been awarded to the writer of the following paper, 
communicated to the members during the year 1915-1916 : — 

" The Influence of Incombustible Substances on Coal-dust Explosions." 
By Mr. A. S. Blatcliford. 

The Institute has received a legacy of £500 from the 
executors of the late George May, the income from which is to 
be used for purchasing a prize or prizes to be given annually to 
any of its students as the Council may think fit, such prize or 
prizes to be called the " George May " Prize or Prizes. 

jVo excursion meetings have been held during the year. The 
Council hope to re-arrange tJie postponed excursion to Eskmeals 
on the conclusion of the war. 

During the year Messrs. James Wilson, John Elvers and J. 
Straker Nesbit presented one or more lamps to the collection 
which the Institute are forming to replace that destroyed by fire 
at the Brussels Exhibition. 

Meetings of The Institution of Mining Engineers were held 
in Leeds in September, 1915, and in London in June, 1916. 



Vlll ANNUAL REPORT OF THE FINANCE COMMFrXEE. 



AN^'UAL liEPUKT OF THE FINANCE COMMITTEE, 

1915-191G. 

A .siateiueiit of aecouut.s for the y^ear ending June oOtli, 191G, 
duly audited, i.s submitted lierewitli by the Finance Committee. 

Tlie total receipts were i;2,-"j93 8s. Of this amount £21 was 
l)aid as subscriptions in advance, leaving- £2, -372 8s. as the 
ordinary income of the year, as compared with £2,055 Is. 5d. 
in the previous year. The amount received as qidinary subscrip- 
tions for the 3'ear was £1,792, and arrears £202 19s., as against 
£1,96G lis. and £194 17s. respectively in the year 1914-1915. 
TVansactions ^sold realized £2 iGs. Gd., as compared with 
£8 17s. 5d., and the amount received for interest on investments 
was £417 Us. Gd., as compared with £o9G 15s. the previous year. 

During the year £500 has been received from the executors 
of the late Mr. George May, being the amount of a legacy to 
establish a " George May Prize Fund.'' The Council api)lied 
this sum to the purchase of 191G-1921 Exchequer Bonds. 

The expenditure, including £200 voted to the Motor Ambu- 
lance Fund, was £2, -370 2s. 7d., as against £2,271 Os. 5d. in 
the previous j^ear. Increases are shown in salaries and wages, 
insurance, rent, rates 'and taxes, heating, lighting and water, 
postages, telephones, etc., travelling expenses and reporting. 
Decreases are shown in the contributions to The Institution of 
Mining- Engineers, furniture and repairs, library purchases, 
printing-, stationery, prizes for papers, and library catalogue. 

The balance of income over expenditure was £2-3 5s. 5d., and 
adding- to this the amount of £1,100 14s. Gd. from the previous 
• year, and deducting £500 invested in the 1925-1945 four-and-a- 
half ])er cent. AVar Loan, leaves a credit balance of £G2o 19s. lid. 

The names of 40 persons have been struck oft' the membership 
list in consequence of non-payment of subscriptions. The 
amount of subscriptions written oft' was £214, of which £115 15s. 
was for sums due for the year 1915-191G, and £98 4s. for 
arrears. 

It is probable that a considerable proportion of this amount 
will be recovered and credited in future years. Of the amount 
previously written oft' £44 18s. was recovered during the past 
year. 

THOS. Y. GREENER, President. 

August bill, 1910. 



ACCOUNTS. 



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ACCOUNTS. 

Du. Tiih: TuKAsriiKK in Account with The Nohth of England 

roR the Year ending 



June 30tli, 1915. £ s. d. 

To balance of account at bankers : deposit account ... 500 

,, ,, ,, „ current account ... 520 3 

,, in Treasurer's bands .., ... ... ... 55 14 3 



1,075 14 6 



JuneSOtb, 1916. 

To dividend on 207 sliares of £20 eacli in tlie Institute 
and Coal Trade Cbanibers Company, Limited, for 

the year ending June 30th, 1916 289 16 

,, interest on mortgage of £1,400 with the Institute and 

Coal Trade Chambers Company, Limited ... ... 49 

„ dividend on £340 consolidated 5 per cent, preference 
stock of the Newcastle and Gateshead Water 

Company ... ... ... ... ... ... 17 

,, dividend on £450 ordinary stock of the Newcastle aiul 

Gateshead Gas Company ... ... ... ... 19 2 6 

„ interest on £500 4A per cent. War Loan, 1925/1945 ... 22 10 

„ interest on bank deposit account ... ... ... 16 18 6 

„ discount on £500 4^ per cent. War Loan, 1925/1945 ... 2 13 6 

417 6 

'I'o sales oi Transactions 2 16 6 

To Subscriptions for 1915-1916, as follows :— 

605 members (© £2 2s. 1,270 10 

67 associate members (S £2 2s. 140 14 

146 associates i® £1 5s. 182 10 

21 students @ £1 5s. 26 5 

14 new members @ £2 2s. 29 8 

5 new associate members ... ... @ £2 2s. 10 10 

10 new associates @ £1 5s. 12 10 

5 new students ... ... ... @ £1 5s. 6 5 

2 new subscribing firms @, £2 2s. 4 4 

1,682 16 

33 subscribing firms 109 4 



1,792 



Lcxs, subscriptions for current year paid in advance 

at the end of last year ... ... ... 4280 

1,749 12 
Add. arrears received ... ... ... ... ...- 202 19 



1,952 11 



Add, subscriptions paid in advance during current 

year 21 



1,973 11 



To George May prize fund 500 



£3,969 2 6 



ACCOUNTS. 



Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineeks 
JfNE 30rH, 1916. 



Cb. 



June 30tb, 1916. 
By salaries and wages 
., insurance 
,, rent, rates, and taxes 
., heating, lighting, etc. 
,, furniture and repairs 
., bankers' charges 
., library 

,, printing, stationery, etc. ... 
,, postages, telephones, etc. ... 
,, incidental expenses 
,, cleaning of hall and offices 
,, travelling expenses 
., prizes for papers 
,, reporting general meetings 
,, library catalogue ... 
,. subscription to motor ambulance fund ... 

By The Institution of Mining Engineers : 
Calls, etc. 

Less, amounts paid by authors for excerpts 



By £500 4i per cent. War Loan. 1925 1945 (balance of 
£500) 

By balance of account at bankers : deposit account ... 250 

„ ,, ,, ., current account ... 323 6 2 

,, ,, in Treasurer's hands ... ... ... ... 50 13 9 



£ s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d. 


477 7 











30 11 


4 








49 9 


6 








30 5 


5 








5 13 


1 








21 











10 1 


9 








120 5 


2 








126 1 


6 








69 13 











24 13 


3 








44 12 


8 








4 4 











12 12 











2 5 











200 













— 


1,228 


14 


8 


1,146 6 


1 








4 18 


2 












1.141 


7 


11 








2,370 


2 


7 






475 









George May prize fund— amount on deposit at bank ... 



623 19 11 
500 



£3,969 2 6 



I 



xii ACCOUNTS. 

Db. Thb Tbbasukek of The North op England Institute of Mining 



To 824 members, 

51 of whom have paid life-compositions. 

773 

2 not included in printed list. 

775 @ £2 2s. 

To 91 associate members. 

10 of whom have paid life-compositions. 



81 



@ £2 2s. 



£ s. d. £ s. d. 



To 207 associates, 

1 of whom has paid a life-composition. 

20G @ £1 Ss! 

To 31 students @ £1 5s. 

To 36 subscribing firms 

To 14 new members " @ £2 2s. 

To 5 new associate members @ £2 2s. 

To 10 new associates @ £1 5s. 

To 5 new students @ £1 5s. 

To 2 new subscribing firms @ £2 2s. 

To arrears, as per balance-sheet, 1914-1915 ... 

Add, arrears considered irrecoverable, but since jiaid 

To subscriptions paid in advance during the current year 



1,627 10 

170 2 

257 10 

38 15 

119 14 

29 8 

10 10 

12 10 

6 5 

4 4 

321 4 

44 18 



2,213 11 



62 17 



366 2 
21 



£2,663 10 



ACCOUNTS. Xlll 

Ayo Mechanical ExaiNEBBS in Account with Subsceiptions, 1915-1916. Cr. 



STBirCK OFF 
PAID. UNPAID. LIST. 

£ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. 



1,792 

By arrears 202 19 

1.994 19 
Hy subscriptions paid in advance during the 

current year ... ... ... ... 21 



2 2 





4 4 





10 10 





71 8 






2 


10 


5 





5 


U 



By 605 members, paid @ £2 2s. 1,270 10 

128 ,, unpaid ... @ £2 2s 268 IG 

1 „ resigned ... @ £2 2s. 

2 ., excused payment @ £2 2s. 

5 „ dead @ £2 2s 

34 „ ■ struck off list @ £2 2s 

775 

By 67 associate members, paid @ £2 2s. 140 14 

11 „ „ unpaid @ £2 2s 23 2 

1 „ „ dead @ £2 2s 2 2 

2 „ ., struck off list @ £2 2s 4 4 

81 

By 146 associates, paid @ £1 5s. 182 10 

50 „ unpaid ... @ £1 5s 62 10 

2 „ resigned ... (a £1 5s. 

4 „ dead ... ... @ £1 5s. •. 

4 „ struck off list @ £1 5s 

206 

By 21 students, paid (g £1 5s. 26 5 

8 „ unpaid ... @ £1 5s. 10 

1 „ resigned ... (a £1 5s. 15 

1 „ excused payment @ £1 5s. 15 

31 

Hy 33 subscribing firms, paid ... ... 109 4 

2 „ ,. unpaid 4 4 

1 ,, „ excused payment... 6 6 

36 

By 14 new members, paid ... @ £2 2s. 29 8 

By 5 new associate members, paid @ £2 2s. 10 10 

By 10 new associates, paid ... @ £1 5s. 12 10 

By 5 new students, paid ... @ £1 5s. 6 5 

By 2 new subscribing firms, paid (a £2 2s. 4 4 ' 



(68 12 


115 16 


64 19 


98 4 



2.015 19 433 11 214 

^ ,^ ' 

£2,663 10 



XIV 



LIST OF COMMITTEES. 



LIST OF COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE COUNCIL, 

191G-1917. 



Mr. Sidney Bates. 
Mr. W. C. Blackett. 
Mr. C. S. Carnes. 
Mr. Thomas Douglas. 
Mr. T. E. FoRSTER. 



Finance Committee, 

Mr. T. Y. Greener. 
Mr. T. E. JoBLiNG. 
Mr. C. C. Leach. 
Mr. M. W. Parrincton. 
Mr. John Simpson. 



Mr. J. B. Simpson. 
Mr. R. F. Spence. 
Mr. Simon Tate. 
Mr. T. 0. Wood. 



Mr. Sidney Bates. 
Mr. W. C. Blackett. 
Mr. C. S. Carnes. 
Mr. Thomas Douglas. 
Mr. T. E. Forster. 



Arrears Committee. 
Mr. T. Y. Greener. 
Mr. T. E. Jobling. 
Mr. C. C. Leach. 
Mr. M. W. Parrington, 
Mr. John Simpson. 



Mr. J. B. Simpson. 
Mr. R. F. Spence. 
Mr. Simon Tate. 
Mr. T. 0. Wood. 



Mr. R. S. Anderson. 

Mr. J. B. Atkinson. 

Mr. R. 0. Brown. 

Mr. Benjamin Dodd. 

Mr. Mark Ford. 



Library Committee. 

Mr. T. E. Forster. 
Mr. T. Y. Greener. 
Mr. A. M. Hedley. 
Mr. F. 0. KiRKUP. 
Mr. J. P. KiRKUP. 



Prof. Henry Louis. 
Mr. W. C. Mountain. 
Mr. F. R. Simpson. 
Mr. John Simpson. 



Mr. J. B. Atkinson. 
Mr. C. S. Carnbs. 
M . T. E. Forster. 
Mr. T. Y. Greener. 



Prizes Committee. 

Mr. Tom Hall. 
Mr. Samuel Hare. 
Mr. C. C. Leach. 
Prof. Henry Louis. 



Mr. W. C. Mountain. 
Mr. John Simpson. 
Mr. Simon Tate. 
Mr. E. Seymour Wood. 



Selection and Editing of Papers Committee. 



Mr. J. B. Atkinson. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson. 
Mr. W. C. Blackett. 
Mr. H. F. Bulman. 



Mr. T. E. Forster. 
Mr. Austin Kirkup. 
Prof. G. A. L. Lebour. 
Prof. Henry Louis. 



Mr. W. C. Mountain. 
Mr. W. 0. Tate. 
Mr. J. R. R. Wilson. 



N.B. —The President is ex-officio on all Committees. 



REPRESENTATIVES ON THE COUNCIL OF THE 

INSTITUTION OF MINING ENGINEERS, 

191(3-1917. 



Mr. R. S. Anderson. 
Mr. Sidney Bates. 
Mr. W. C. Blackett. 
Mr. W. Cochran Carr. 
Mr. Frank Coulson. 
Mr. Benjamin Dodd. 
Mr. T. Y. Greener. 
Mr. Reginald Guthrie. 



Mr. Samuel Hare. 
Mr. A. M. Hedley. 
Mr. T. K. Jobling. 
Mr. J. P. Kirkup. 
Mr. Philip Kirkup. 
Mr. C. C. Leach. 
Prof. Henry Louis. 
Mr. J. H. Merivale. 



Mr. W. C. Mountain. 
Mr. R. E. Ornsby. 
Mr. Walter Rowley. 
Mr. F. R. Simpson. 
Mr. John Simpson, 
Mr. J. R. R. Wilson. 
Mr. W. B. Wilson. 
Mr. E. Seymour Wood. 



I 

1 



OFFICEUg. 

OFFICERS, 1916-1917. 



PAST-PRESIDENTS [ex-offido). 
Sir LINDSAY WOOD, Barb., The Hermitage, Chester-le-Street. 
Mr. JOHN" BELL SIMPSON, Bradley Hall, Wylani, Northumberland. 
Mr. THOMAS DOUGLAS. The Garth, Darlington. 

Mr. WILLIAM ARMSTRONG, Elmtield Lodge, Gosforth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
Mr. WILLIAM OUTTERSON WOOD, South Hetton, Sunderland. 
Mr. .JOHN HERMAN MERIVALE, Togston Hall, Acklington, Northumberland 
Mr. THOMAS EMERSON FORSTER, 3, Eldon Square, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Mr. MATTHEW WILLIAM PARRIXGTON, Wearmouth Colliery, Sunderland. 
Mr. WILLIAM CUTHBERT BLACKETT, Acorn Close, Sacriston, Durham. 
Mr. THOMAS YOUNG GREENER, Urpeth Lodge, Beamish, County Durham. 

PRESIDENT. 
Mr. FRANK COULSON, Shamrock House, Durham. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 
Mr. ARTHUR MORTON HEDLEY, Eston House, Eston, Yorkshire. 
Mr. CHARLES CATTERALL LEACH, Seghill Hall, Northumberland. 
Prof. HENRY LOUIS, 4, Osborne Terrace, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Mr. FRANK ROBERT SIMPSON, Hedgefield House, Blaydon-upon-Tyne, 

County Durham. 
Mr. JOHN SIMPSON, Follonsby, Hawthorn Gardens, Monkseaton, Whitley Bay, 

Nor t huniberland. 
Mr. RICHARD LLEWELLYN WEEKS, Willington, County Durham. 

RETIRING VICE-PRESIDENTS (ex-officio). 
Mr. JOHN BOLAND ATKINSON, c/o Mr. G. Atkinson, 12, Grey Street, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne. 
Mr. SAMUEL HARE, Howlish Hall, Bishop Auckland. 
Mr. THOxMAS EDGAR JOBLING, Bebside, Northumberland. 

COUNCILLORS. 

Mr. ROBERT SIMPSON ANDERSON, Highfield, Wallsend, Northumberland. 

Mr. SIDNEY BATES, The Grange, Prudhoe, Ovingham, Northumberland 

Mr. ROBERT OUGHTON BROWN, Newbiggin Colliery, Newbiggin-by-the-Sea, 
Nortlnimberland. 

Mr. CHARLES SPEARMAN CARNES, Marsden Hall, South Shields. 

Mr. BENJAMIN DODD, Percy House, Neville's Cross, Durham. 

Mr. MARK FORD, Washington Colliery, Washington Station, Count}- Durham. 

Mr. TOM HALL, Ryhope Colliery, Sunderland. 

Mr. AUSTIN KIRKUP, Mining "Office, Bunker Hill, Fence Houses. 

Mr. FREDERIC OCTAVIUS KIRKUP, Medomsley, County Durham. 

Mr. JOHN PHILIP KIRKUP, Burnhope, Durham. 

Mr. WILLIAM CHARLES MOUNTAIN, 8, Sydenham Terrace, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne. 

Mr. ROBERT FOSTER SPENCE, Backworth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Mr. SIMON TATE, Trimdon Grange Colliery, County Durham. 

Mr. WALKER OSWALD TATE, U.sworth Hall, Washington, Washington Station, 
County Durham. 

Mr. RICHARD JAMES WEEKS, Bedlington, Northumberland. 

Mr. JOHN ROBERT ROBINSON \MLSON, H.M. Divisional Inspector of Mines, 
Greyfort, Westfield Drive, Gosforth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Mr. ERNEST SEYMOUR WOOD, Cornwall House, Murton, County Durham. 

Mr. THOMAS OUTTERSON WOOD, Cramlington House, Cramlington, North- 
umberland. 

TREASURER. 

Mr. REGINALD GUTHRIE, Neville Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

SECRETARY. 
Mr. JOHN HERMAN MERIVALE, Neville Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 
Mr. ALLAN CORDNER, Neville Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



XVi LIST OV MKMBERS. 



LIST OF MEMBERS, 

AUGUST 5. 191G. 



PATRONS. 

His Grace the DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND. 

The Most Honourable the MARQUESS OF LONDONDERRY. 

The Right Honourable the EARL OF DURHAM. 

The Right Honourable the EARL GREY. 

The [light Honourable the EARL OF LONSDALE. 

The Right Honourable the EARL OF \YHARNCLIFFE. 

The Right Reverend the LORD BISHOP OF DURHAM. 

The Right Honourable LORD ALLENDALE. 

The Right Honourable LORD BARNARD. 

The Right Honourable LORD RAVENSWORTH. 

The Very Reverend the DEAN AND CHAPTER OF DURHA^L 



HONORARY MEMBERS (Hon. M.LM.E.). 

* Honorary Members dvn'ing term of office only. 



Date of Election. 



I JOHN BOLAND ATKINSON, c'o G. Atkinson, 12, Grey Street, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne : Aug. 2, 1913 

2*WILLIAM NICHOLAS ATKINSON, I.S.O., H.M. Divisional 

Inspector of Mines, Tintern, Chepstow ... ... ... Aug. 4, 1888 

3 RICHARD DONALD BAIN, Aykleyheads, Durham June 10, 1911 

1*Prof. PETER PHILLIPS BEDSON, Armstrong College, New- 
castle-upon-Tyne. , Transactions, etc., sent to c,o Basil 
Anderton, Public Librarj', Newcastle-upon-Tyn§ ... ... Feb. 10,1883 

5 THOMAS DOUGLAS, The Garth, Darlington (Past-President, 

MemJter of Council) Dec. 14,1912 

6 Prof. WILLIAM GARNETT, London County Council Education 

Office, Victoria Embankment, London, W.C. Nov. 24, 1894 

7*Dr. WILLIAM HENRY HA DOW. ArmstrongCollege. Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne Feb. 12, 1910 

8 Sir HENRY HALL, I.S.O., Brookside, Chester . June 10, 1911 

9*HUGH JOHNSTONE, H.M. Divisional Inspector of Mines, 

3, Priory Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham Oct. 13,1906 

10*Pkof. GEOHGE ALEXANDER LOUIS LEBOUR, Armstrong 
College, Newcastle-upon-Tj'ne. Transactions, etc., sent to 
Radcliffe House, Corbridge, Northumberland Nov. 1,1879 

11* JOHN DYER LEWIS, H.M. Inspector of Mines, 2, St. 

Helen's Crescent, Swansea Dec. 11,1909 

12*Prof. henry LOUIS, Armstrong College, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne. Transactions sent to The Librarian, Armstrong 
College, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... 

13*R0BERT McLaren, H.M. Imspector of Mines, Drumolair, 
Airdrie 

14*TH0MAS HARRY MOTTRAM, H.M. Divisional Inspector 
of Mines. 74, Thorne Road, Doncaster 

15 DANIEL JSIURGUE, Ingenieur Civil des Mines, 54, Boulevard 
des Beiges, Lvons, France 
BERT NELSON, H.M. 
Brook Green, London, W. 

17»ARTHUR DARLING NICHOLSON, H.M. Divisional Inspector 
of Mines, Astley, Manchester 

18*SiR RICHARD AUGUSTINE STUDDERT REDMAYNE, H.M. 
Chief Inspector of Mines, Mines Department, Home Office, 
Whitehall, London. S.W Dec. 11,1909 



Dec. 


12, 


1896 


Dec. 


13, 


1902 


June 


10, 


1911 


June 


20, 


1908 


Dec. 


11, 


1909 


June 


10, 


1911 



I 



LIST OF MEMBERS. XVll 

19 Dr. AUBREY STRAHAN, Director of the Geological Survey *'" "* Election, 
of Great Britain, 28, Jermyn Street, London, S. W. ... .. Aug. 1, 1914 

20*Prof. henry STROUD, Armstrong College, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne Nov. 5, 1892 

21 Sir JETHRO JUSTINIAN HARRIS TEALL, 174, Rosendale 

Road, Dulwicli, London, S.E. ... ... ... ... Aug 1 1914 

22 'Prof. WILLIAM MUNDELL THORNTON, Armstrong College, 

Newcastle-upon-Tj'ne ... ... . Feb 12 1910 

23* WILLIAM WALKER, H.M. Deputy Chief Inspector of Mines, 

Mapledene, Ashtead, Epsom ... ... . Oct 14 1905 

24*Prof. ROBERT LUNAN WEIGHTON, 2, Park Villas, Gosforth, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... ... . ... April 2 1898 

25* JOHN ROBERT ROBINSON WILSON, H.M. Divisional In- 
spector of Mines, Greyfort, Westfield Drive, Gosforth, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... ... ... ... Aug. 2, 1913 



MEMBERS (M.LM.E.). 

Marked * have paid life composition. Date of Election 

and of Transfer. 

1 Abbott, Henry Arnold, H.M. Inspector of Mines, 18, 

Priory Road, Sharrow, Sheffield Feb. 13,1904 

2 Abel, Walter Robert, A Floor, Milburn House, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne ... Dec. 8, 1906 

3 AcuTT, Sidney, Mooi Plaats, P.O. Hatherley, Transvaal Dec. 10, 1904 

4 Adair, Hdbert, Gillfoot, Egremont, Cumberland April 8, 1905 

5 Adams, George Francis, Chief Inspector of Mines in India, 

Dhanbaid, E.I. Railway, Manbhum, Bihar and Orissa, 

India Aug. 5, 1905 

6 Adamson, Thomas, Colerson Villa, Hazaribagh, Bihar and 

Orissa, India Feb. 10,1894 

7 AiNSwoRTH, Herbert, P.O. Box 1553, Johannesburg, 

Transvaal Feb. 14, 1903 

8 AiNswoRTH, John W., Bridgewater Offices, Walkden, 

Manchester ... ... ... ... Dec. 14, 1895 

9 Aldridge, Walter Hull, c/o William B. Thompson, 14, 

Wall Street, New York City, U.S.A. Feb. 8,1908 

10 Allan, Philip, Clarke Street, Sunshine, Victoria, Australia June 10, 1905 

11 Allison, J. J. C, Woodland Collieries, Butterknowle, A.M. Feb. 13, 1886 

County Durham M.June 8,1889 

12 Almond, Charles Percy, Coalside, Southwick, Sunder- A. Oct. 9, 1909 

land M. June 13, 1914 

13 Anderson, Robert Simpson, Highfield, Wallsend, North- S. June 9, 1883 

u.mher\a,nd (Me77ihe-r of Counci/) ... ...A.M.Aug. 4,1888 

M. Aug. 3, 1889 

14 Anderson, William Thomas, P.O. Box 57, East Rand, 

Transvaal Oct. 12, 1912 

15 Andrews, Arthur, Lyndhurst, Darras Hall, Northumber- 

land Aug. 2, 1902 

16 Andrews, Edward William, Shelbrooke, Underbill Road, 

Cleadon, Simderland ... ... ... ... ... Aug. 4, 1906 

17*Angwin, Benjamin, 3, Penlu Terrace, Tuckingmili, 

Camborne Nov. 24, 1894 

18 Annett, iiCGH Clarkson, Widdrington, Acklington, S. Feb. 15, 1906 

Northumberland A. June 20, 1908 

M. Feb. 8, 1913 

19 Appleby William Remsen, Minnesota School of ]\Iines, The 

University of Minnesota,Minneapolis, Minnesota,U.S.A. April 14, 1894 

20 Archer, William, Victoria Garesfield, Lintz Green, County A. Aug. 6, 1892 

Durham .. M.Aug. 3,1895 

21 Armstrong, George* Herbert Archibald, Castle View, 

Chester-le-Street April 8, 1905 

22 Armstrong. Henry, CoUingwood Buildings, CoUingwood A.M. April 14, 1883 

Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne M. June 8, 1889 

23 Armstrong, William, Elmfield Lodge, Gosforth, New- S. April 7, 1S67 

castle-upon-Tyne (Past-President, Member of Council) M. Aug. 6, 1870 



XVlll LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 

24 AsuMORE, Gkorge Percy, 95, Linden Gardens, Kensington, 

London, W Feb. 13, 1897 

25*AsHTON, Sir Ralph Percy, go Kilburn, Brown and Com- 
pany, Orient House, New Broad Street, London, E.G. Aug. 2, 1913 

26 Atkinson, John Boland, c o G. Atkinson, 12, Grey Street, 

Newcastle-upon-Tjuie (Retiring Vice-President, 

Member of Council) Oct. 11,1902 

27 Attwood, Alfred Lionel, Minas Pefia del Hierro, 

Provincia de Huelva, Spain 

28 Avery, William Ernest, Toft Hill Cottage, Birtley, 

County Durham 

29 Bain, Richard Donald, Aykley heads, Durham 

30 Bainbridge, Emerson Muschamp, 2, Woodbine Avenue, 

Gosforth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... 

31 Barnard, Robert, The Manse, Armadale, West Lothian .. 

32 Barrass, Matthew, Wheatley Hill Colliery Office, Thorn- 

le}'. County Durham ... 

33 Barrett, Charles Rollo, Whitehill Hall, Pelton Fell, 

County Durham 

34 Barrett, Rollo Samuel, Brookside, Seaton Burn, Dudley, 

Northumberland 

35 Barrs, Edward, Cathedral Buildings, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne 

36*Bartholomew, Charles William, Blakesley Hall, near 
Towcester 

37 Bartlett, George Pilcher, Theatre Lane, Durban, 

Natal, South Africa ...- 

38 Bates, Sidney, The Grange, Prudhoe, Ovingham, North- 

umberland (il/ew6er o/Co?»ic?7) 

39 Bates, Thomas Lionel, Alfred Street, Waratah, New South 

Wales, Australia 

40 Bateson, Walter Remington, P.O. Box 1051, Halifax, 

Nova Scotia ... 

41 Batey, John Wright, Elmfield, Wylam, Northumberland 

42 Bawden, Ernest Robson, Threlkeld Lead Mines, Limited, 

Tin-elkeld, Penrith 

43 Bayliss, Ernest John, Castello, 5, Madrid, Spain 

44 Beard, James Thom, c/o Coal Age, 505, Pearl Street, New 

York City, U.S. A 

45 Bell, Joseph Fenwick, Eppleton Hall, Hetton-le-Hole, 

County Durham 

46 Bell, Reginald, Shildon Lodge Colliery, Darlington 

47 Bell, Walter, c/o Pyman, Bell and Company, Hull 

48 Bell, William Ralph, Hylton Colliery, Sunderland 

49 Bennett, Arthur Edgar, Estacion de Cerro Muriano, 

Provincia de Cordoba, Spain 

50 Bennett, Alfred Henry, The East Bristol Collieries, A.M. April 10, 1886 

Limited, Kingswood Colliery, St. George, Bristol ... M. June 8, 1889 

51 Benson, Robert Seymour, Teesdale Iron Works, Stockton- 

upon-Tees April 8,1911 

52 Berkley, Richard William, 35, South Street, Durham ... S. Feb. 14, 1874 

A.M. Aug. 7, 1880 
M. June 8, 1889 

53 Be.st, Earle, 12, Station Road, Hetton-le-Hole, County 

Durham April 13, 1912 

54 Bigg- Wither, Harris, The Mount, Gathurst, Wigan ... Jan. 19, 1895 

55 BiGGE, Dbnys Leighton Selby, Mercantile Chambers, 

53, Bothwell Street, Glasgow June 10, 1903 





Aug. 


5, 


1905 


s. 


June 


8, 


1907 


M. 


June 


19, 


1915 


S. 


March 1, 


1873 


M. 


Aug. 


5, 


1876 




Feb. 


8, 


1902 




Dec. 


11, 


1897 


S. 


Feb. 


9, 


1884 


A. 
M. 


Aug. 
Dec. 


1, 

8, 


1891 
1900 


S. 


Nov. 


7, 


1874 


A.M. 
M. 


Aug. 
Dec. 


7, 
11, 


1880 
1886 


S. 


Dec. 


9, 


1905 


A. 
M. 


Aug. 
June 


1, 
14, 


1908 
1913 




Aug. 


7, 


1909 




Dec. 


4, 


1875 




Dec. 


11, 


1909 


A. 


Feb. 


8, 


1890 


M. 


June 


8, 


1895 




Feb. 


12, 


1898 




Feb. 


11, 


1905 




Fei>. 


9, 


1901 




April 
April 


8, 
13, 


1911 
1901 




Feb. 


14, 


1903 




April 12, 
Dec. 13, 


1902 
1902 


S. 


Oct. 


8, 


1889 


M, 


, Feb. 


10, 


1894 


A. 


Oct. 


13, 


1894 


M, 


, Dec. 


12, 


1903 




Dec. 


14, 


1912 



LIST OF MEMBERS. XIX 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 



56 BiGLAND, Hubert Hallam, c/o J. H. Holmes and Company, 

19, Waterloo Street, Glasgow Dec. 14, 1901 

57 Bird, Edward Erskixe, c/o George Elliot and Company, 

Limited, 16, Great George Street, Westminster, London, A.M. Aug. 5, 1905 

S.W. M.Dec. 14,1907 

58*BiRKiNSHAw, Frederick Edson, Marbella, Provincia de 

Malaga, Spain Dec. 10, 1910 

59 Blackett, William Cuthbert, Acorn Close, Sacriston, S. Nov. 4, 1876 

Durham (Past-President, Member of Council) A.M. Aug. I, 1885 

M. June 8, 1889 

60 Blaiklock, Thomas Henderson, The Flatts, near Bishop 

Auckland April 13, 1901 

61 Blatchford, William Hooper, Greytown, Natal, South 

Africa Feb. 10, 1912 

62 Blenner-Hassett, Gerald, P.O. Box 914, Durban, Natal, 

South Africa ... Oct. 14,1911 

63 Booth, Frederic Lancelot, Ashington Colliery, Ashington, S. Feb. 10, 1894 

Northumberland A. Aug. 4, 1900 

M.April 8, 1911 

64 Borlase, William Henry, Greenside Lodge, Glenridding, 

Penrith ... Aug. 4, 1894 

65 Bowen, David, 68, Prudential Buildings, Park Bow, Leeds April 3, 1909 

66 Bowman, Francis, Ouston Colliery Office, Chester-le- A. June 8, 1895 

Street M. Feb. 13, 1904 

67*Bracken, Thomas Wilson, 40, Grey Street, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne ... Oct. 14, 1899 

68 Braidford. William, Jun., South Garesfield Colliery, 

Lintz Green, County Durham ... ... ... ... June 14, 1902 

69 Bramwell, Hugh, Great Western Collierj^, Pontypridd ... S. Oct. 4, 1879 

A.M. Aug. 6, 1887 
M. Aug. 3, 1889 

70 Breakell, John Edwin, 84, Worple Road, Wimbledon, 

London, S.W. April25, 1896 

71*Brinell, JoHAN August, Niissjii, Sweden June 9,1900 

72 Brooksbank, Frank, Kinta Association, Limited, Ipoh, 

Perak, Federated Malay States April 4,1914 

73 Broome, George Herbert, Wonthaggi, Victoria, Australia Oct. 9, 1897 

74 Brown, P]dward Otto Forster, 708-707, Salisbury House, S. Dec. 14, 1901 

Finsbury Circus, London, E.C A.Aug. 3,1907 

A.M. Oct. 12, 1907 
M. Dec. 14, 1912 

75 Brown, John, E.I.R. and B.N.R. Joint Collieries, Bokaro S. June 8, 1907 

P.O., i?'a Adra, B.N. Railwav, India A.Aug. 7,1909 

M. Feb. 11, 1911 

76 Brown, John Coggin, Inspector of Mines iu Burma, Tavoy, A.M. Dec. 11 , 1909 

Lower Burma, India ... ... .. ... M.Aug. 7, 1915 

77 Brown, John Connell, Westport Coal Company, Limited, 

Denniston, BuUer, New Zealand ... ... ... ... Feb. 8, 1908 

78 Brown, Myles, 4, Beaconsfield Crescent, Low Fell, Gates- 

head-upon-Tyne ... ... ... ... June 14, 1913 

79 Brown, Robert Oughton, Newbiggin Colliery, New biggin- S. Oct. 8, 1892 

by-the-Sea, Northumberland (il/ewifcer o/Co!()ia7) ... A.Aug. 3,1895 

M. Oct. 12, 190i 

80 Brown, Ralph Richardson, Peking Syndicate, Limited, 

Honan, North China Aug. 3,1907 

81 Brown, W. For-Ster, Guildhall Chambers, Cardiff S.Aug. 6,1887 

M. Aug. 5, 1893 

82 Browning, Walter .James, c/o Rio Tinto Company, 

Limited, Rio Tinto, Provincia de Huelva, Spain ... Oct. 12, 1907 

83 Bruce, John, Hill Cre.st, Whitbv S.Feb. 14,1874 

A.M. Aug. 7, 1880 
M. June 8, 1889 

84 Bryham, William, Bank House, Wigan Dec. 8, 1900 



XX 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



85 Bull, Henry Matthews, Gopalichak Coal Company, 

Limited, Bansjora, E.I.R. , Manbhum, Bihar and 
Orissa, India 

86 BuLMAN, Edward Hemsley, New Kleinfontein Company, 

Benoni, Transvaal 

87 Bulman, Harrison Francis, The North Cottage, St. 

George's, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

8S Bunning, Charles Ziethen, c/o The British Vice-Consul, 
Pandemia, near Constantinople, Turkey 

89 Burchell, George B., North Sydney, Nova Scotia 

90 BuRFORD, James Wilfred, c'o Lobitos Oil-helds, Limited, 

Lobitos, Paita, Peru, South America 
91*Burls, Herbert Thomas, 15, Victoria Street, Westminster, 

London, S.W. 
92*BuRN, Frank Hawthorn, 9, Sandhill, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Transactions sent to Pattishall House, Towcester 

93 Burne, Cecil Alfred, c'o The Astui-iana Mines, Limited, 

Covadonga, Asturias, Spain 

94 Burnett, Cuthbert, 17, Camden Crescent, Bath ... 

95 Burton, George Augustus, Highfield, Nunthorpe, York- 

shire 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 



April 9, 1904 





Feb. 


13, 


1892 


>s. 


May 


2, 


1874 


A.M. 


Aug. 


6, 


1881 


M. 


June 


8, 


1889 


S. 


Dec. 


6, 


1873 


A.M. 


Aug. 


5, 


1882 


M. 


Oct. 


8, 


1887 




Oct. 


11, 


1913 




Aug. 


3, 


1912 




Feb. 


9, 


1889 


S. 


Feb. 


9, 


1889 


A. 


Aug. 


4, 


1894 


M. 


Aug. 


3, 


1895 


S. 


Aug. 


4, 


1894 


M. 


Aug. 


3, 


1901 




June 


8, 


1895 




Dec. 


9, 


1905 



96 Calder, William, c'o International Russian Oilfields, 

Limited, Apsheronskaya, near Maikop, Kuban Pro- 
vince, South Russia 

97 Carnegie, Alfred Quintin, 31, Manor House Road, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

98 Carnes, Charles Spearman, Marsden Hall, South Shields 

[Member of GoHUcil) ... ... ... ... 

99 Casson, William Walter, St. Bees, Cumberland 

100 Chambers, David Macdonald, 47, Inverness Terrace, A.M. 

Bayswater, London, W. ... ... ... ... ... M. 

101 Chambers, R. E., Nova Scotia Steel and Coal Company, 

Limited, New Glasgow, Nova Scotia 

102 Channing, J. Parke, 42, Broadway, New York City, 

U.S.A 

103*Chappel, Walter Richard Haighton, Elm Court, 
Starcross, Devon 

104 Charleton, Arthur George, 5, Avonmore Road, West 

Kensington, London, W. 

105 Charlton, Bernard Hedley, Hedley Hope, Tow Law, 

County Durham 

106 Charlton, William, Guisborough, Yorkshire 

107 Charlton, William John, H.M. Inspector of Mines, A. 

16, Brompton Avenue, Sefton Park, Liverpool ... M. 

108 Chater, Cecil William, c/o T. Cook and Son, Rangoon, 

Burma, India ... 

109 Cheesman, Edward Taylor, Clara Vale Colliery, Ryton, A. 

Count}' Durham ... ... ... ... ... ... M. 

110 Cheesman, Herbert, Hartlepool 

111 Cheesman,, Nicholas, 228, Hayden Road, Nottingham 

112 Chicken, Bourn Russell, 212, Osborne Road, Jesmond, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

113 Church, Robert William, Government of India Railway S. 

Board, Secretariat Buildings, Calcutta, India ... ... A. 



114 Claghorn, Clarence R., Durham, King County, Wash- 

ington, U.S.A. 

115 Clark, Henry, Stockton Forge, Stockton-on-Tees 

116 Clark, Robert, Bracken Road, Darlington ... 



Aug. 2, 1913 

Oct. 11, 1902 

Aug. 1, 1891 
Aug. 5, 1905 
Oct. 8, 1904 
June 12, 1909 

June 9, 1900 

April 25, 1896 

Feb. 14, 1903 

Aug. 6, 1892 

April 12, 1913 
Feb. 12, 1898 
April 12, 1902 
Aug. 7, 1909 

April 13, 1912 
Aug. 2, 1890 
Aug. 6, 1892 
Aug. 6, 1892 
Dec. 8, 1900 

Dec. 12, 1903 

, Dec. 9, 1905 

Aug. 3, 1907 

Oct. 12, 1907 

Aug. 5, 1899 
April 8, 1899 
Feb. 15, 1896 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



XXI 



117 Clark. Robert Blenkinsop, Springwell Colliery, Gates- 

head-upon-Tyne 

118 Clark, William Henry, Ferulea, 100, Crouch Hill, 

Horiisey, London, N. 

119 Clifford, Edward Herbert. Rand Club, Johannesburg, 

Transvaal ... ... ... ... 

120 Clifford, William, North Park, near Jeannette, Penn- 

sj'lvania, U.S.A. 

121 Climas, Arthur Bertram, 6, Park Bean, St. Ives, Cornwall 

122 Clive, Lawrence, H.M. Inspector of Mines, Springfield 

House, Newcastle, Staffordshire... 

123 Clothier, Henry William, 3, Park Villas, The Green, 

Wallsend, Northumberland 

124 Clough, Edward Stokoe, Bomarsund House, Bomarsund, 

Bedlington, Northumberland 

125 Clough, James. Bomarsund House, Bomarsund, Bedlington, 

Northumberland 

126 Cochrane, Brodie, Hurworth Old Hall, near Darlington ... 

127 Cochrane, Robert Willi.^m, Somerset House, Whitehaven 

128 Cock, Ben, Woodbine, Beacon Hill, Camborne 
129*CoLLiNS, Hugh Brown, Auchinbothie Estate Office, Kil- 

macolm, Renfrewshire 

130 Collins, Victor Buyers, Lewis Street, Islington, via New- 

castle, New South Wales, Australia 

131 CoLQUHOUN, Thomas Gr.ant, 28, Sylvan Road, Exeter 

132 CoMMANS, Robert Edden, Speer Road, Thames Dilton, 

Surrey ... 

133 Comstock, Charles Worthington, 514, First National 

Bank Building, Denver, Colorado, U.S.A. 

134 Cook, George, H.M. Inspector of Mines, Oakbank, White- 

haven ... 

135 Cook, Joseph, Washington Iron Works, Washington. 

County Durham 

136 Cook, James Falshaw, Washington Iron Works, Washing- 

ton, County Durham 

137 Cook, John Wat.son, Binchester Hall, Bishop Auckland... 

138 Cooke, Henry Moore Annesley, The Ooregum Gold- 

mining Companj' of India, Limited, Oorgaum, Kolar 
Gold-field, Mysore, India .. 

139 Cooksey, Wilfrid, East Indian Railway Collieries, 

Giridih, E.I. R., Bihar and Orissa, India... 
140*Coppee, Evence, 103, Boulevard de Waterloo, Brussels, 
Belgium 

141 Corbett, Vincent Charles Stuart Wortley, Chilton 

Moor, Fence Houses ... 

142 Cothay, Frank Hernaman, 7, Valebrooke, Sunderland 

143 CouLSON, Frank. Shamrock House, Durham (President, 

Member of CouncH) ... ... 

144 Couves, Harry Augustus, Tovil, Westfield Avenue, Gos- 

forth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

145 Co\\-ell, Edward, Horden Colliery, Horden, Sunderland ... 

146 CowELL, Joseph Stanley, Vane House, Seaham Harbour, 

County Durham 

147 CoxoN, William Bilton, Seaton Hill, Boosbeck, Yorkshire 



148 Cragg, James Hor.\ce M.aitland, 3, Ilford Road, High 

West Jesmond, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... 

149 Craster, Walter Spencer, P.O. Box 336, Salisbury, 

Rhodesia, South Africa 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 

S. May 3, 1873 

M. Aug. 4, 1877 

April 28, 1900 
S. Oct. 13, 1894 
A. Aug. 6, 1898 
M. April 8, 1911 

Feb. 9, 1895 
Dec. 10, 1910 

Aug. 2, 1913 

June 12, 1909 

A. Feb. 14, 1903 

M. April 8, 1911 

S. April 5, 1873 

A.M. Aug. 3, 1878 

M. June 8, 1889 

Dec. 6, 1866 

Aug. 1, 1914 

June 11, 1910 

April 14, 1894 

June 11, 1904 
Dec. 14, 1898 

Nov. 24, 1894 

June 10, 1905 

S. Aug. 2, 1902 

A. Aug. 5, 1905 

M. Feb. 10, 1912 

Oct. 9, 1897 





Feb. 


12, 


1898 




Oct. 


14, 


1893 




Dec. 


12, 


1896 




Aug. 


1, 


1914 




Feb. 


9, 


1907 


s. 

M 


Sept. 

Aug. 

Aug. 

• Aug. 


3, 
2 

T,' 

2 


1870 
1913 
1868 
1873 




Feb. 


10, 


1906 


A. 


Oct. 


8, 


1904 


M. 


June 


20, 


1908 



Dec. 12, 1908 

S. Feb. 12, 1898 

A. Aug. 2, 1902 

M. Feb. 12, 1910 

Aug. 6, 1910 

Dec. 8, 1900 



XXll 



LIST OF MEMUERS. 



150 Craven, Robekt Henry, The Libiola Copper-mining Com- 

pany, Limited, .Sestri Levante, Italy 

151 Crawford, James Mill, Denehuist, Ferry Hill 

152 Crawford, Thomas, Eighton Banks, Gateshead-upon- 

Tyne 

153 Crookston, Andrew White, 188, St. Vincent Street, Glas- 

gow : 

154 Crosby, Arthur, Douglas Colliery, Limited, Mine Office, 

Crown-Douglas Junction, Balmoral, Transvaal .. 

155 Croudace, Francis Henry Lambtox, The Lodge, Lambton, 

Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia 

156 Croudace, Sydney, Wallsend Colliery, Wallsend, New 

South Wales, Australia 

157 Cruz y Diaz, Emiliano de la, Director-General de 

I'Empresa Minas et Minerales, Limited, Ribas, 
Provincia de Gerona, Spain .. 

158 CuLLEN, Daniel, P.O. Box 4.352, Johannesburg, Transvaal 

159 Cullex, Matthew, The Clydesdale (Transvaal) Collieries, 

Limited, Springs, Transvaal 

160 CuMMiXGS, JoHX, Hamsterley Colliery, County Durham ... 

IGl Curry, George Alexander, Thornley House, Thornley, 

County Durham 
102 Curry, Michael, Cornsay Colliery, Durham 



Date of Election 
aud of Transfer. 



Feb. 11, 1905 

Feb. 14, 1903 

A. Dec. 8, 1906 

M. Dec. 12, 1914 

Dec. 14, 1895 

A.M. Aug. 7, 1897 

M. April 12, 1902 

June 8, 1907 

June 8, 1907 



June 14, 1902 
Dec. 11, 1909 

Feb. 12, 1910 
A. Aug. 2, 1902 
M. Dec. U, 1907 

Oct. 12, 1907 
Aug. 6, 1898 



1G3 D.vkers, William E,obson, Tudhoe Colliery, Spennymoor A.M. Oct. 14, 1882 

M. Aug. 3, 1889 

164 D.AN, Takujia, Mitsui Mining Company, 1, Suruga-cho, 

Nihonbashi-ku, Tokyo, Japan April 14, 1894 

165 Darlington, Cecil Ralph, Whitegate, Lightwoods Hill, 

Birmingham Dec. 10, 1910 

166 Darlington, Ja.mes, Black Park Colliery, Chirk, Ruabon S. Nov. 7. 1874 

M. Aug. 4, 1877 

167 Davidson, Allan Arthur, c'o F. F. Fuller, 638, Salisbury 

House, London Wall, London, E.C April 13, 1907 

168 Davidson, Christopher Cunnion, Hardheads, Egremont, 

Cumberland Oct. 10, 1908 

169 Davies, David, Cowell House, Llanelly Dec. 9,1899 

170 Davies, William, 230, Halliwell Road, Bolton Dec. 9,1911 

171 Davie.'^, William Stephen, Maesydderwen, Tredegar ... Feb. 14, 1903 

172 Daw, Albert William, 11, Queen Victoria Street, 

London, E.C June 12, 1897 

173 Daw, John W., cb Millers, Limited, Axim, Gold Coast 

Colony. West Africa Dec. 14,1895 

174 Dean, Harry, Eastbourne Gardens, Whitley Bay, North- 

umberland ... June 10, 1905 

175 Dean, John, The Wigan Coal and Iron Company, Limited, 

Wigan ... Feb. 13, 1904 

176 Dean, Samuel, Delagua, Colorado, U.S. A Oct, 13, 1906 

177 Dew, James Walter Henry, 8, Laurence Pountney Hill, 

Cannon Street, London, E.C June 10, 1911 

178*Dewhurst, John Herbert, 28 and 29, Threadneedle Street, 

London, E.C April 2, 1898 

179 Dietzsch, Ferdinand, c/o Miss P. Dietzsch, 7, Emanuel 

Avenue, Acton, London, W. ... ... ... ... Aug. 5,1899 

180*DiNGWALL, William Burleston-Abigail, P.O. Box 179, 

San Antonio, Texas, U.S.A. .. Aug. 4,1900 

1S1*Ditmas, Francis Ivan Leslie, The Old Rectory, Hammer- A. June 11, 1898 

wich, Lichfield M. June 14, 1902 

182 Dixon, Clement, P.O. Box 305, Bulawayo, Rhodesia, South 

Africa Dec. 14, 1912 

Dixon, David Watson, Lumpsey Mines, Brotton, Vork- 
IS.S shire Nov. 2, 1872 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



XXIU 



184 Dixon, George, Sejooah Colliery, Sijua Post Office, E.I.R., 

Manbhum, Bihar and Orissa, India ... 

185 Dixox, Joseph Armstrong, Shilbottle Collierj^, Lesbury, 

Northumberland 

186 Dixox, WiLLi.-^M, Park House, Bigrigg, Cumberland 

187 DoBB, Thomas Gilbert, Brick House, \Vestleigh, Leigh ... 

188 DoDD, Benjamin, Percy House, Neville's Cross, Durham 

{Memhtr of Council) ... 

189 Donald, William E., Redburn House, Bardon Mill, 

Northumberland 
190*DoNKiN, William, 19, Hosack Road, Balham, London, 

S.W A. 

191 DoRMAND, Ralph Brown, Cambois House, Cambois, Blyth 

192 Douglas, Arthur Stanley, Bearpark Collierj', Durham 

193 Douglas, James, 99, John Street, New York City, U.S.A. 

194 Douglas, Matthew Heckels, Stella House, Low Fell, A 

Gateshead-upon-Tyne 

195 Dover, Thomas William, Sherburn Colliery, Durham 

196 Draper, William, Silksworth Colliery, Sunderland 

197 Dunkerton, Ernest Charles, 53, Grosveaor Place, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne 

198 Dunn, Georoe Victor Septimus, Uaroo Lead Mines, via 

Onslow, Western Australia 

199 Dunn, Thomas Bowman, c,o J. Dunn and Stephen, Limited, 

21, Bothwell Street, Glasgow 

200 Eastlake, Arthur William. Grosmont, Palace Road, 

Streatham Hill, London, S.W. 

201 Ede, Henry Edward, Rectory Chambers, Norfolk Row, 

Sheffield 

202 Edmond, Francis, Moorland House, Haigh, Wigan 

203 Edwards, Edward, Ystradfechan, Treorchy, Rhondda, 

Glamorgan 

204 Edwards, Herbert Francis, 104, Stanwell Road, Penarth 

205 Edwards, Owain Tudor. Fedwhir, Aberdare 

206 Edwards, William John, 10, Cartwright Gardens, 

Russell Square, London, W.C. 

207 Eliet, Francis Constant Andre Benoni Elie du, 

Commissaire des Mines, Service des Mines le Nouvelle 
Caledonie, a Noumea, New Caledonia 
208*Elsdon, Robert William Barrow, go Anglo South 
American Bank, Reconquista No. 78, Buenos Aires, 
Argentine Republic, South America 

209 Eltringham, George, tlltringham Colliery, Prudhoe, 

Ovingham, Northumberland 

210 Embleton, Henry Cawood. Central Bank Chambers, 

Leeds ... 

211 Englesqueville, Rene d', 2, Alices Boufflers, Bayonne, 

France ... 

212 English, John, North Leam, Felling, Gateshead-upon-Tyne 

213 English, William, Ferneybeds Colliery, Morpeth .. 

214 EsKDALE, John, Ashington Colliery, Ashington, North- 

umberland ... 

215 Etherington, John, 39a, King William Street, London 

Bridge, London, E.C. ... ... ... ... ••• 

216 Evans, John, Great Cobar, Limited, Lithgow, New South 

Wales, Australia 

217 Evans, John* William, Woodlands House, Loughor, 

Glamorgan 





Date of Election 




and of Transfer. 


s, 


, June 13, 1896 


A 


. Aug. 6, 1904 


M 


. Dec. 8, 1906 




Dec. 14, 1901 




April 10, 1897 




Dec. 8, 1894 


S. 


May 3, 1866 


M, 


. Aug. 1, 1868 




Oct. 14, 1905 


S, 


, Sept. 2, 1876 


.M. 


Aug. 1, 1885 


M. 


, June 8, 1889 


A 


. Dec. 9, 1893 


M 


. Aug. 3, 1901 




Feb. 13, 1904 




Oct. 14, 1899 


..M 


. Aug. 2, 1879 


M, 


, Aug. 3, 1889 




April 4, 1914 


A, 


. Dec. 14, 1889 


M, 


. Dec. 12, 1903 




Feb. 9, 1907 




June 20, 1908 




Aug. 6, 1910 




June 11, 1892 




July 14, 1896 




Dec. 10, 1910 




Feb. 9, 1895 




Oct. 12, 1901 




Aug. 4, 1906 




June 13, 1914 




Aug. 3, 1901 




April 13, 1901 


A. 


Dec. 8, 1894 


M. 


Aug. 2, 1902 




April 14, 1894 




Feb. 8, 1908 




Dec. 9, 1899 




Dec. 14, 1907 


A. 


Oct. 11, 1902 


M. 


Aug. 3, 1912 




Dec. 9, 1893 




Aug. 1,1914 




April 8, 1911 



XXIV 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



218 Fairbrotiier, Charles James, The Durban Navigation 

Collieries, Dannliauscr, Natal, SouLli Africa 

219 Falcon, Michael, Ebbw Vale, Monmouthshire 



220 Fallins, James, Abermain Colliery, Aberniain, via West 

Maitland, New South Wales, Australia ... 

221 Fawcett, Edward Stoker, Battle Hill House, Walker, 

Newcastle-upou-Tyue 
222*Fenwick, Barnabas, 66, Manor House Road, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 

223 Fergie, Charles, 704, Upper Mountain Street, Montreal, 

Quebec, Canada 

224 Ferguson, James, The Cedars, High Wycombe 

225 Fevre, Lucien Francis, 91, Rue Saint Lazare, Paris, IX", 

France ... ... 

226 Field, Benjamin Starks, Layabad Colliery, Kusunda P.O., 

E.I.R., Manbhum, Bihar and Orissa, India 

227 Fisher, Edward Robert, Wansbeck, Ammanford, Car- A 

marthenshire ... 

228 Fisher, Henry Herbert, Alta Gi-acia, F.C.C.A., 

Argentine Republic, South America 

229 Fleming, Henry Stuart, 1, Broadway, New York City, 

U.S.A 

230 Fletcher, Lancelot Holstock, Allerdale Coal Company, A, 

Limited, Colliery Office, Great Clifton, Workington ... 

231 "Fletcher, Walter, The Hollins, Bolton 

232 Ford, Mark, Washington Colliery, Washington Station, 

County Dnrha.m (Jlemher of Coiiuci/) 

233 Forster, Alfred Llewellyn, Newcastle and Gateshead 

Water Company, Engineer's Office, Pilgrim Street, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

234 Forster, Charles, Earls Drive, Low Fell, Gateshead- 

upon-Tyne 

235 Forster, John Henry Bacon, Whitworth House, 

Spennymoor ... 

236 Forster, Joseph William, P,0. Box 56, East Rand, 

Transvaal 

237 Forster, Thomas Emerson, 3, Eldon Square, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne (Past-President, Member of Council) ... A. 

238 Foster, William Burn, Easington Colliery, County 

Durham 

239 Fryar, Mark, Denby Colliery, Derby 

A, 

240 Fryer, George Kellett, Woodhouse, Whitehaven 

241 FuTERS, Thomas Campbell, 17, Balmoral Gardens, Monk- 

seaton, Whitley Bay, Northumberland 

242 Galloway, Thomas Lindsay, Kilchrist, Campbeltown 

243 Gard, Irving Rider, c/o Columbia River Coal Dock 

Company, North Portland, Oregon, U.S.A. 

244 Garrett, Frederic Charles, Armstrong College, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne 

245 Gibson, James, Geldenhuis Deep. Limited, P.O. Box 54, A.M. 

Cleveland, Transvaal ... M. 

246 Gibson, Richard, Seaham No. 1 Colliery, West Wallsend, 

Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia 

247 GiFFORD, Henry J. , The Champion Reef Gold-mining Com- 

pany of India, Limited, Champion Reefs P.O., Mysore, 
India ... ... 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 

Feb. 8, 1908 
. Oct. 12, 1912 

Oct. 13, 1894 
, Aug. 4, 1900 
. June 1, 1912 

Oct. 10, 1914 
June 11, 1892 
Aug. 6, 1904 

Aug. 2, 1866 

Dec. 9, 1893 
Dec. 12, 1896 

Feb. 8, 1908 
Aug. 2, 1902 
Aug. 3, 1907 
June 14, 1913 
Aug. 2, 1884 
Aug. 3, 1S89 

Oct. 8, 1904 

June 10, 1905 
April 14, 1888 
June 8, 1889 
Dec. 14, 1895 

Aug. 3, 1895 



June 8, 1901 

April 9, 1910 

Nov. 24, 1894 

Aug. 7, 1897 

, Feb. 10, 1900 

Feb. 13, 1904 

Oct. 7, 1876 
Aug. 1, 1885 
June 8, 1889 

Oct. 14, 1911 

Oct. 7, 1876 

Aug, 4, 1883 

.lune 8, 1889 

Dec. 14, 1901 

Aug, 6, 1904 

Sept, 2, 1876 

Dec. 12, 1914 

April 13, 1912 
Dec. 9, 1899 
Feb. 13, 1904 

Aug. 5, 1911 
Oct. 14, 1893 



LIST OF MEMBEES. 



XXV 



248 GiLCiiBiST, James, 12, Park Roa.l North, Middlesbrough ... 

249 Gill, David Fritz, 36, Lovvther Street, Whitehaven 

250 GiLL.MAX, Glstave, Aguilas, Proviucia de Murcia, Spain 

251 Glass, Robert William, Axwell Park Colliery, Swalwell, 

County Durham 

252 GoNlNON, Richard, Menzies Consolidated Gold-mines, 

Limited, Menzies, Western Australia 

253 GooDwix, William Lawjon, School of Mining, Kingston, 

Ontario, Canada 

254 GocLDiE, Joseph, 62, Standard Bank Chambers, Johannes- 

burg, Transvaal 

255 Graham, Edward, Jun., Bedlington Colliery, Bedlington, 

Northumberland 

256 Gray, Edmuxd, 150, Tudhoe Colliery, Spennymoor 

257 Greaves, William .. ... ... 

258 Geeex, John Dami-ier, Riversdale, Hlobane, Natal, South A 

Africa ... ... 

259 Greener, Herbert, West Lodge, Crook, County Durham 

260 Greexer, Thomas Young, Urpeth Lodge, Beamish, County 

Durham (Past-Pkesident, Jf ember of Council) .. ... A, 

261 Greener, William James, c b Bird and Company, Char- 

tered Bank Buildings, Calcutta, India ... 

262 Green WELL, Allan, Supervision of Supplj' and Distribution 

of Coal, New Government Offices, Great George Street, 
Westminster, London, S. W. 

263 Greenwell, Alan Leonard Stapylton, Eldon Colliery, 

Bishop Auckland 

264 Greenwell, George Cle.mentson, Beechfield, Poyuton, 

Stockport 

265 Greenwell, George Harold, Woodside, Poynton, Stock- 

port ... 

266 Gregson, George Ernest, 13, Harrington Street, Liverpool 

267 Grey, John Neil, c'o Nawortli Coal Company, Limited, 

Hallbankgate Offices, Brampton, Carlisle 

268 Griffith, Thomas, Maes Gwyn, Cymmer, Porth, Rhondda, 

Glamorgan 

269 Griffith, William, Waterloo House, Aberystwyth 

270 Grose, Frank, Carlton Terrace, Truro l!oad, St. Austell 
271*Grundy, James, Ruislip, Teignmouth Road, Cricklewood, 

London, N.W. Traiviactions sent to The Secretary, 
Mining and Geological Institute of India, Calcutta, 
India ... 

272 GcMMERSON, James M., 7, Denehurst Gardens, Acton, A, 

London, W. ... 

273 Guthrie, James Kenneth, Coal Trade OflBces, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 



Date of Election 
and of Traosfer. 

June 13, 1914 
Dec. 12, 1914 
Aug. 2, 1902 
June 10, 1S99 
Aug. 1, 1903 
Oct. 12, 1907 

June 10, 1906 

Feb. 11, 1899 

Aug. 5, 1893 



Aug. 1, 
June 19, 
April 12, 
Dec. 14, 
Aug. 2, 
Feb. 13, 
Julv 2. 
Aug. 2, 
June 8, 



1896 
1915 
1913 
1901 
1902 
1909 
1872 
1879 
1889 



274 Haas, Frank, Fairmont, West Virginia, U.S.A 

275*Haddock, William Thomas, Tweefontein Colliery, P.O. S. 
Minnaar, Transvaal ... ... ... ... ...A.M. 

M. 

276 Haggie, John Douglass, W^albottle Colliery, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

277 Hailwood, Ernest Arthur, The Towers, Churwell, Leeds 

278 Haines, Charles George Padfield, 9, Picton Place, 

Swansea .. 

279 Hall, John Charles. Black Boy Colliery, Bishop Auckland A. 

M. 

280 Hall, Joseph John, Ashington Colliery, Ashington, North- 

umberland 



June 11, 1910 



Aug. 4, 1900 
Oct. 8, 1898 
Aug. 5, 1905 
Dec. 14, 1907 
March 6, 1869 
Aug. 3, 1872 
Dec. 12, 1903 
Aug. 4, 1906 
April 8, 1911 
Aug. 7, 1915 
June 10, 1905 
Feb. 10, 1912 

April 9, 1904 
Dec. 9, 1893 
April 9, 1910 



June 13, 1896 
June 10, 1899 
Dec. 12, 1903 

Dec. 14, 1912 

Oct. 14, 1911 
Oct. 7, 1876 
Aug. 1, 1885 
June 8, 1889 

Dec. 11, 1909 
April 12, 1913 

Oct. 8, 1910 
Dec. 14, 1889 
Aug. 3, 1895 

Dec. 10, 1904 



XXVI 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



281 



282 



283 
284 



285 

286 

287 

288^ 

289 

290 

291 
292 

293 

294 
295 

296 

297 

298 

299^ 
300 

301 
302 



Hall, Josei'U Percival, Talbot House, Birtley, County 
Durham 



Hall, Robert 
Auckland 



William, Fairlawn, Leeholme, Bishop 



Hall, Tom, Ryhope Colliery, Sunderland (J/ewfee/' of Council) 
Hallas. George Hexry. Claremont, Huyton, Liverpool ... 

A. 



Hallimond, William Tasker, P.O. Box 5191, Johannes- 
burg, Transvaal 

Hamilton, James, Blackhills Road, Horden, Sunderland ... 

Hance, Henry Malkin, c o Grindlay and Company, 54, 
Parliament Street, London, S.W. 

'Hancock, Henry Lifsox, Wallaroo and Moonta Mining and 
Smelting Company', Limited, Moonta Mines, South 
Australia 

Hands, John, go Huttenbach Brothers and Company, 
Kuala Lumpur, Federated Malay States 

Hann, Robert, Jan., Harton House, Harton Colliery, 
South Shields 

Hannah, David, 14, Marine Parade, Penarth 

Hare, George, Westerton CoUiei-y, Bishop Auckland 

Hake. Samuel, Howlish Hall, Bishop Auckland (Retiring 

Vice-President, Jl/t»i/*er q/ CoH»c?7) 
Harle. Peter, South Grange, Shincliffe, Durham ... 
Harle, Robert Alfred, The Hermitage, West Maitland, 

New South Wales, Australia 
Harris, David A 

Harrison, Charles Augustus, Oakerlands, Hexham 
Haselden, Arthur, Linares, Provincia de Jaen, Spain ... A 

"^Hawker, Edward William, Eagle Chambers, Pirie Street, 

Adelaide, South Australia 

Hawkins, Thomas Spear, c o The St. John del Rey Mining 

Company, Limited, Villa Nova de Lima, Estado de 

Minas, Brazil, South America 
Hay, Douglas, H.M. Inspector of Mines, 34, Old Elvet, 

Durham 
Hedley, Arthur Morton, Eston House, Estou, Yorkshire 

(Vice-President, il/e?«/>er o/CoH?ici7) 

Hedley, Morton, Medomsley, County Durham 



S. 
A. 
M. 
A. 
M. 

S. 
M. 
M. 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 

Oct. 
Aug 
Oct. 
Dec. 



9, 1897 
2, 1902 
9, 1909 
13, 1902 
June 8, 1907 
.lune 8, 1889 
Oct. 7, 1876 
Aug. 4, 1883 
June 8, 1889 

Dec. 14, 1889 
Oct. 10, 1908 

Oct. 12, 1907 



Dec. 14, 1895 
Dec. 14, 1912 



Oct. 14, 
Feb. 9, 
Feb. 12, 
Dec. 14, 
Aug. 2, 
Aug. 1, 
Oct. 8, 
April 14, 
Oct. 12, 
June 12, 
April 13, 
June 21, 
Dec. 11, 
April 2, 



1895 
1895 
1898 
1907 
1879 
1891 
1892 
1894 
1901 
1897 
1901 
1894 
1897 
1898 



Oct. 12, 1895 



Aug. 6, 1904 



303 

304 Hedley, Septimus H., Langholme, Roker, Sunderland 

305 Henderson, Charles, Cowpen Colliery Office, Blyth 

306 Henderson, William, Alston House, Littletown, Durham 

307 Hendy, John Cary Baker. Etherley, ?7« Darlington 

308 Henriksen, Gudbrand, Inspector of Mines, Minde, near 

Bergen, Norwaj^ 

309 Herdman, William, St. John's Chapel, County Durham .. 

310 Heron, George Patrick, Pont Head House, Leadgate, 

County Durham 

311 Herrmann, Henry J. A., a Ain-Sedjera, par Lafayette, 

Algeria... ... 

312 Heslop, Christopher, Woodside, Marske Mill Lane, 

Saltl)urn-by-the-Sea ... 

313 Heslop, Michael, Rough Lea Colliery, Willington, County 

Durham 

314 Heslop, Septimus, New Beerbhoom Coal Company, 

Limited, Asansol, E.I.R., Burdwan, Bengal, India 



Dec. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Feb. 

Aug. 

Feb. 

Aug. 

Aug. 

Dec. 

Aug. 

Oct. 



14, 1912 
24, 1894 

12, 1903 

13, 1909 

2, 1913 

15, 1879 
1, 1885 

3, 1889 
9, 1899 
7, 1909 

14, 1893 



Aug. 6, 1904 
April 11, 1908 

April 8, 1911 



Dec. 
Feb. 
Aug. 
Feb. 



10, 1898 

1, 1868 

2, 1873 
10, 1894 



June 21, 1894 
Oct. 12, 1895 



LIST OF MEMBEES. 



315 Heslop. Tuumas. Randolph Colliery. Evenwood. Bishop 

Auckland 

316 Heslop, W.aedle, 8, Beech Grove Road, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne 

317 Heslop, Willla.m Taylor, St. Georges Colliery, Hatting 

Spruit, Natal, South Africa 
31S Hewlett. Alfred. Ha-seley Manor, ^\■arwick 

319 Hewlett, Alfred, The Cossall Colliery Company, Limited, 

Cossall, near Nottingham ... 

320 Hewlett, Erne, Ammanford Colliery Company, Limited, 

Ammanford, Carmarthenshire 

321 HiGSoy, Jacob, Rossland, Northwood, Middlesex ... 

322 Hill, Frank Cyril Gibson, Oakdene, Oxford Road, 

Moseley, Birmingham 

323 Hill, William. The White House, Uordon, Tamworth ... 

324 Hilton. Thomas Worthington, Wigan Coal and Iron 

Company, Limited, Wigan ... 

325 HiNDMARSH, Joseph Parker, Corrimal, South Coast, New 

South Wales, Australia 

326 HiNDSON, Thomas, Framwellgate Colliery, Durham 

327 HoDGKiN, Jonathan Edward, .Shelleys, Darlington 

328 Hogg, John, Jun., 154, Prcspect Terrace. Eston, Yorkshire 

329 Holland, Charles Henry, P.O. Box 415, Auckland, New 

Zealand 

330 Holliday. Martin Fop^ter. Park House. Durham ... 

331 Holliday, Normax Stanley, Boyne Villa, Langley Moor, 

Durham 

332 HoLiiAN, Nicholas, The Gibraltar Consolidated Gold-mines, 

Limited, .'^heppardstown, New .South Wales, Australia 

333 Hood, George, 9, Agents Terrace, Boldon Colliery, Covmty 

Durham 

334 Hood, William Walker, Tredean. near Chepstow 

335 Hooper, Albert Henry, 29, Station Road, Keswick 

336 Hooper, James Augustus, Springfield, Lydney 

337 HopwooD, Howell Arthur, Directeur du District Lusanga, 

Huileries du Congo Beige, S. A., Kinshasa, Belgian 
Congo. Transaction^ sent to Henley, New Chelsfield, 
Orpington, Kent 

338 HopwooD, William, Vron Haul, Buckley, Chester 

339 HoRNSBY, Demster, Choppington Colliery, Choppington, 

Northumberland 

340 HoRSwiLL, Frederick J., 1070, Sixteenth Street, Oakland, 

California, U.S.A. 

341 Hoso, Shoxosuke, The Matsushima Colliery, West 

Sonokigtin, Nagasaki, Japan 

342 HoTCHKis, Daniel, Coal Cliff Collieries, Limited, Clifton, 

New South Wales, Australia 

343 Howes, Frank Tippett, St. Michaels' House, Brunswick 

Road, Gloucester 

344 HowsoN, Charles. Mainsforth, Ferry Hill 



345 Hoyle, Harry Patrick, Belmont House, Durham 

346 Humble, Ernest, Killingworth Colliery, West Wallsend, 

New South Wales, Australia 

?A~t Humble, John Norman, West Pelton House, Beamish, 
County Durham 

348 Humble, William, Lawson Street, Hamilton, Newca.stle, 
New South Wales, Australia 



Dace of Election 
and of Transfer. 

S. Oct. 2, 1880 

A. .M. Aug. 4, 1888 

M. Aug. 3, 1889 

S. Dec. 10, 1904 

A. Axig. 7, 1909 

M. June 14, 1913 

Aug. 3, 1895 
March 7, 1861 

June 20, 1908 

Oct. 10. 1896 
Aug. 7, 1S62 

April 9, 1910 

A.M. June 9, 1883 

M. Aug. 3, 1889 





Aug. 3, 


1865 




June 20, 


1908 




Dec. 9, 


1905 




Dec. 13, 


1902 




Dec. 11, 


1915 




April., 9, 


1910 




May 1, 


1875 


S. 


April 10, 


1897 


M. 


Feb. 13. 


1904 




Dec. 11, 


1909 




Dec. 14, 


1907 




April 9, 


1904 




t eb. 8, 


1913 




Dec. 12, 


1908 




Oct. 12, 


1907 




Aug. 3, 


1901 


A 


. Feb. 12, 


1898 


M 


. Feb. 10, 


1912 




Oct. 14, 


1899 




April 11, 


190S 




June 20, 


190S 


A. 


Dec. 10. 


1892 


M. 


Oct. 14, 


1893 


.S. 


Dec. 14, 


1901 


A. 


, Aug. 4, 


1906 


M. 


June >, 


1907 




Dec. 1-2, 


1914 


S. 


Feb. 14, 


1903 


A, 


, Aug. 3, 


1907 


M. 


April 11, 


1908 


S. 


Aug. 2, 


1902 


A. 


Aug. 5, 


1905 


M, 


, Feb. 10, 


1912 




Oct. 14, 


, 1893 



XXVIU 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



349 HuMPHRis, Henry, Blaenau Festiniog 

350 Hunter, Christopher, Cowpeu Colliery Office, Blyth 

351 Hunter, Joseph Percy, 7, Elmfield Road, Gosforth, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne 

352 Hunter, Robert, Gympie, Queensland, Australia ... 

353 Huntley, John Johnson, 54, Beacon Street, Low Fell, A, 

Gateshead-upon-Tyne 

354 Hurst, George, Lauder Grange, Corbridge, Northumber- 

land 

355 Hutchinson, George Weymouth, Greensburg, Westmore- 

land County, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 

356 HuTTON, John George, Bai'field, East Maitland, New 

South Wales, Australia 

357 Hylton, Frederick William, Ryhope Colliery, Sunderland 

358 I'Anson-Robson, William Leonard, Emerson Chambers, 

Blackett Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

359 Ide, Kenroku, Imperial University, Kioto, Japan 

360 Inskipp, Dudley James, 1, Broad Street Place, London, E.C. 

361 Jackson, Edgar Arthur, Clipsley Lodge, Haydock, St. 

Helens ... 

362 Jackson, Walter Geoffrey, Bramham Hall, Boston Spa, 

Yorkshire 

363 Jacobs, Montagu, 25, Mapesbury Road, Cricklewood, 

London, N.W. ... ... ... 

364 Jameson, John Raine, Chilton Hall, Ferry Hill 

365 Jamieson, John William, South Hetton, Sunderland 

366 Jarvie, James, Kembla Heights, near WoUongong, New 

South Wales, Australia 

367 Jefferson, Frederick, Whitburn Colliery, South Shields 
36S Jeffreys, James Henry, Umtali, Rhodesia, South Africa .. 

369 Jenkins, William, Ocean Collieries, Treorchy, lihondda, 

Glamorgan ... ... ... ... 

370 Jennings, Albert, 12, Swinburne Road, Darlington 

371 J EPSON, Henry, The Peth, Durham 



372*JoBLiNG, Thomas Edgar, Bebside, Northumberland 

(Retiring Vice-President, Member of Council) ... A. 

373*JoHNS, John Henry, Thorsden, Guildford Road, Woking 

374 Johnson, Edward, Washington Hotel, Porth, Rhondda, 

Glamorgan 

375 Johnson, Henry Howard 

376 Johnson, James, Boldon Lodge, East Boldon, County 

Durham 

377 Jones, Clement, Neath Colliery, Neath, New South 

Wales, Australia 

378 Jones, Evan, Plas Cwmorthin, Blaenau Festiniog 

379 Jones, Jacob Carlos, WoUongong, New South Wales, 

Australia ... ... ... ... ... 

380 Jones, Thomas, 5, Little George Street, Westminster, 

London, S.W. 

381 Joynes, John James, Ferndale, Lydbrook, Gloucestershire 

382 Karashima, Asahiko, Engineering Department, The Mitsui 

Bussan Kaisha, Limited, Surugacho, Tokio, Japan 

383 Kayll, Alfred Charles, Gosforth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

384 Kellett, Matthew Henry, Eldon, Bishop Auckland ... 



Date of ElectioD 
and of Transfer. 

Oct. 13, 1900 
A. Dec. 10, 1892 
M. Dec. 12, 1903 
A. April 8, 1911 
M. Dec. 12, 1914 
June 14, 1902 
M. Dec. 14, 1912 
M. April 12, 1913 
S. April 14, 1883 
M. Aug. 1, 1891 





Aug. 


7, 


1909 




Dec. 


10, 


1904 




Aug. 


3, 


1907 




Aug. 


6, 


1910 




Feb. 


14, 


1914 




June 


8, 


1907 




Aug. 


7, 


1915 




June 


7, 


1873 




Oct. 


9, 


1909 




June 13, 


1914 




Aug. 


2, 


1902 




Feb. 


8, 


1908 




Dec. 


11 


1897 




Oct. 


8, 


1904 




Dec. 


6, 


1862 




June 20, 


1908 


s. 


July 


2, 


1872 


M. 


■ Aug. 


2, 


1879 


M, 


, June 


8, 


1889 


S. 


Oct. 


7, 


1876 


M 


• Aug. 


4, 


1883 


M, 


. June 


8, 


1889 




June 21, 


1894 




Dec. 


9, 


1905 




Feb. 


13, 


1904 


A 


• Aug. 


6, 


1898 


M 


:. Dec. 


12, 


1903 




Dec. 


8, 


1906 




April 


13, 


1907 




Aug. 


6, 


1892 




June 


12, 


1897 




Aug. 


6, 


1904 




Aug. 


7, 


1915 


S 


. Oct. 


7, 


1876 


M, 


■ Aug. 


3, 


1889 


S. 


April 


11, 


1891 


M, 


, Aug. 


3, 


1895 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



XXIX 



385 Kelsick, Robert, Aberdare Colliery, Cessnock, New South 

Wales, Australia 

386 Kenxaway, Thomas William, Killingworth, near 

Newcastle, New South Wales, Austialia 

387 Kennedy, Percy Joseph Emkrson, 4, St. Nicholas' Build- 

ings, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... 

388 Kii)D, Thomas, Jun., Linares, Provincia de Jaen, Spain ... 

389 KiRBY, Matthew Robson, 16, Old Elvet, Durham 



390 Kirk, Alfred Edwix, Aberdare Extended Colliery, 

Cessnock, New South Wales, Australia ... 

391 KiRKBY, William, c o Aire and Calder Navigation, Leeds A, 

392 KiRKUP, Austin, Mining Office, Bunker Hill, Fence Houses 

(^[emher of Council) ... ... ... ... 

393 KiRKUP, Frederic Octavius, Medomsley, County Durham 

(Member of Council)... ... ... ... ... ... A 

394 KiRKUP, John Philip. Burnhope. Durham [Memher of Council) 

395 KiRKUP, Philip, Leafield House, Birtley, County Durham 



S. 
A. 
M. 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 



June 1, 1912 

Aug. 6, 1910 

June 11, 1910 
Aug. 3, 1895 
June 9, 1900 
Aug. 1, 1903 
Oct. 12, 1907 



396 KiRSOPP, John, Jun., Fairholme, Gateshead-upon-Tyne 

397 Kirton, Hugh, Kimblesworth Colliery, Chester-le-Street 



398 Kitchin, James Bateman, Luchana, Egremont, Cumber- 

land 

399 Klepetko, Frank, 80, Maiden Lane, New York City, 

U.S.A. 

400*Knowles, Robert, Ednaston Lodge, near Derby 

401 KoNDO, R. , CO Furukawa Mining Office, 1, Icchome 

Taesucho, Kojimachi, Tokj'o, .Japan 

402 Korte, Christian, 10, Avenue Crescent, Harehills Avenue, 

Leeds ... 
403*KwANG, KwoNG Yung, Lincheng Mines, Lincheng, r«Vt 
Peking, North China 

404 Lacey, Frank Philip Sleioh 

405 Laird, John, c/o Cia Paulista-de-Aniagens, 51a, Rua Sao 

Bento, Sao Paulo, Brazil, South America 

406 Lancaster, John, Dunchurch Lodge, Rugbj^ 

407 L.A.NCASTER, JoHN, Aucheuheath, Hamilton ... 
408*Landero, Carlos F. de, P.O. Box 226, Guadalajara, Jalisco, 

Mexico 
409 Langslow-Cock, Edward Arthur, Chief Inspector of 

Mines, Naraguta, Bauchi Province, Northern Nigeria, 

West Africa 
410*Laporte, Henry. 151, Chaussee de Charleroi, Brussels, 

Belgium 

411 Lathbury, Graham Campbell, Giridih, E.LR., Bihar and 

Orissa, India ... 

412 Latimer, Hugh, 32, Woodlands Terrace, Darlington 



413 Lawn, James Gunson, c/o The Standard Bank of South 

Africa, Limited, 10, Clement's Lane, Lombard Street, 
London, E.C. ... ' ... 

414 Lawson, William, 23, Ballast Point Road, Balmain, 

Sydney, New South Wales, Australia ... 

415 Leach. Charles Catterall, Seghill Hall, Northumber- 

land (Vice-President, Memher of Council) 



M. 
M. 

S. 
M. 

S. 
M. 
M. 

S. 
.M. 
M. 

S. 
.M. 
M. 



Dec. 14, 
April 2, 
Aug. 6, 
April 9, 
June 12, 
April 9, 
April 25, 
Feb. 14, 
April 1], 
March 2, 
Aug. 7, 
Aug. 3, 
June 9, 
April 7, 
Aug. ] , 
.June S, 



1912 

1898 
1904 
1892 
1897 
1892 
1896 
1903 
1891 
1878 
1886 
1898 
1900 
1877 
1885 
1889 



A.M. 
M. 



S. 
A. 
M. 



Aug. 5, 1905 

Oct. 13, 1900 
April 10, 1886 

June 21, 1894 

Feb. 13, 1909 

June 8, 1895 

April 12, 1913 

June 13, 1914 
March 2, 1865 

Sept. 7, 1878 

Feb. 15, 1896 

Aug. 2, 1902 
April 12, 1913 

May 5, 1877 

Feb. 14, 1903 
Feb. 15, 1896 
Aug. 1, 1903 
Feb. 11, 1905 



S. 

A.M 

M. 



July 14, 1896 

Aug. 6, 1910 
March 7, 1874 
Aug. 6, 1881 
Aug. 4, 1883 



XXX 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



416 

417 

418 

419 
420 

421 

422 

423 
424' 
425 
426 

427 

428 
429 

430 

431 
432 

433 

434 
435 

436 
437 



Lebour, (lEORGE ALEXANDER Louis, Armstrong College, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, l^ran.sdctions, etc., sent to Rad- 

cliffe House, Corbridge, Northumberland 
Leck, William, H.M. Inspector of Mines, Cleator Moor, 

Cumberland ... 
Leck, William John, Udi, Onitsha, South Nigeria, West 

Africa, c/a Foruados .. 
Ledger, William, Mount Nicholas, Tasmania 
Lee, John Wilson Richmond, 70, .St. Helens Gardens, 

North Kensington, London, W. ... 
Lee, Percy Ewhank, Westfield, Annfield Plain, County 

Durham 
Lee, William, Blackhall Colliery, Castle Eden, County 

Durham 
Leech, Arthur Henry, 11, King Street, Wigan ... 
"Lessner, Charles, Carril, Pontevedra, Spain 
LiDSTER, Ralph, Langley Park Colliery, Durham ... 
LiSBOA, Miguel Arrojado Ribeiro, 426, Praia de Botafogo, 

Kio de Janeiro, Brazil, South America ... 
LiSHMAN, Tom Alfred, Horden Dene, Easington, Castle 

Eden, County Durham 

Lishman, William Ernest. 73, Osborne Road, New- 
castle-upon-Tyne 

Liveing, Edward H., Brookfield House, Long Stanton, 
Cambridge 



. A.M, 
M. 



LocKwooD, Alfred Andrew, 46, Marmora Road, Honor 

Oak, London, S.E 

Long, Ernest, Sterndale, Romiley, Stockport 
LoNGWOBTH, William, Ocean House, Moore Street, Sydney, 

New South Wales, Australia 
Louis, Henry, 4, Osboi'ue Terrace, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

(YiCK-FB.ESiDBt^T, Member of Council) 

LowDON, Thomas, Hamsteels, near Durham ... 

LuPTON, Arnold, 7, Victoria Street, Westminster, London, 

S.W _ 

Lyall, Edward, 19, Victoria Road, Darlington 
Lyall, William, 15, Bracken Road, Darlington 



Date. of Election 
and of Transfer. 



Feb. 1, 1873 

Nov. 24, 1894 

Dec. 12. 1914 
Aug. 5, 1911 

Aug. 5, 1893 

Feb. 11, 1905 

Feb. 10, 1912 
Feb. 9, 1901 
Oct. 14, 1911 
April 4, 1903 

Aug. 5, 1905 
Nov. 24, 1894 
Aug. 7, 1897 
April 13, 1901 

June 10, 1893 
Sept. 1, 1877 
Aug. 2, 1884 
Aug. 3, 1889 

June 12, 1897 
Aug. 4, 1906 

June 11, 1910 

Feb. 15, 1896 
Dec. 14, 1889 

Nov. 6, 1869 
Oct. 14, 1905 
Feb. 13, 1909 



4.38 McCarthy, Edward Thomas, 10 and 11, Austin Friars, 
London, P]. C. ... 

439 McCowAN, Robert David, Roseneath, near Whitehaven .. 

440 McGeachie, Duncan, West Wallsend, New South Wales, 

Australia 

441 McInerny, Augustin Joseph, 7, Rue de Hollande, Tunis 

442 Mackintosh, James, Mihijam, E,I.R. , Sonthal Pergunnahs, 

Bihar and Oiissa, India 

443 McLellan, Neil, Idsley House, Spennymoor 

444 McMuRTRiE, George Edwin James, Radstock, Bath 

445 McNeill, Bedford, 1, London Wall Buildings, London 

Wall, London, E.C 

446 McVee, Robert, Inspector of Mines, Jones Street, Collie, 

Western ' Australia ., 

447 Manderson, John Thomas, North Seaton Colliery, New- 

biggin-by-the-Sea, Northumberland 

448 Manning, Arthur Hope, P.O. Box 88, Heidelberg, Transvaal 
449*Markham, Gervase Edward, Acton House, Darlington ... 



A.M. 
M. 



S, 

A.M. 

M. 



450 Marks, Arthur Tristman, c/o The Nile Valley Gold-mining 

Company, Limited,- 15, Copthall Avenue, London, E.C. 

451 Marks, Herbert T., 57, Moorgate Street, London, E.C. ... 



Oct. 8, 
Aug. 3, 
Dec. 11, 

Nov. 24, 
Aug. 4, 

Oct. 12, 
Dec. 13, 

Aug. 2, 
Dec. 12, 

Dec. 11, 

June 1, 

Dec. 10, 
Dec. 11, 
Dec. 4, 

Aug. 7, 
June 8, 

June 12, 
Oct. 12, 



1887 
1889 
1909 

1894 
1906 

1895 
1902 
1884 
1891 

1897 

1912 

1910 
1897 
1875 
1880 
1889 

1909 
1901 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



XXXI 



452 



Marley, Frederic Thomas, Monkscroft, St. Bees, Cum- 
berland... 



453 Marr, James Heppell, Castlecomer, County Kilkenny 
454^ 



Marriott, Hugh Frederick, c'o The Central Mining and 
Investment Corporation, Limited, 1, London Wall 
Buildings, London Wall, London, E.C. ... 

455 Marsh, Thomas Aspixall, Leaders Buildings, Wigan 

456 Marshall, Alexander Gilchrist, IJenniston, Buller, 

New Zealand ... 

457 Martin, Henry Stuart, c o H. Eckstein and Company, 

P.O. Box 149, Johannesburg, Transvaal.. 

458 Martin, Tom Pattinson, Seaton Park, near Workington... 

459 Matsubayashi, Yasukuma, Daimyokoji, Karatsumachi, 

Sagaken, Japan 

460 Matthews, Frederick Berkley, Westerhall, Langholm A. 

461 Maurice, William, Star Works, Boston Street, Sheffield 

462 Mawson, Robert Bryham, Elm Bank, Wigan 

463 Mein, Henry Johnson, Carterthorne Colliery, Toft Hill, 

Bishop Auckland 

464 Mellon, Henry, Brook Lea, Askam, Lancashire ... 

465 Merivale, Charles Herman, Middleton Hall, near Leeds 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 

Oct. 8 

Aug. 5 

Dec. 14 

Feb. 13 

Dec. 12 



466 Merivale, John Herman, Togston Hall, Acklington, 

Northumberland (Secretary, Past-President, Mem- 
ber of Council) 

467 Merz, Charles Hesterman, .32, Victoria Street, West- 

minster, London, S.W. 

468 Mesurier, George James Brooke Le, Ballarpur, Chanda 

District, C. P., India 

469 Middleton, John Thomas, 28, Victoria Street, West- 

minster, London, S.W. 

470 Miller, J. P. K., H. C. Frick Coke Company, Scottdale, 

Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 

471 Mills, Frederick Peter, 854, Scotswood Road, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne 

472 Milne, Norman Boarer, Inspector of Mines Office, Boks- 

burg, Johannesburg, Transvaal 

473 Minns, Thojias Tate, Ouston House, Birtley, County 

Durham 

474 MiNTO, George William, Harraton CoUiiry, Chester-le- 

Street ... 

475 Montgomery, Alexander, Department of Mines, Perth, 

Western Australia ... 

476 Moore, Robert Thomas, 142, St. Vincent Street, Glasgow 

477 Moore, William, Westfield, Loftus, Yorkshire ... ...A. 

478 MoREiNG, Charles Algernon, 20, Copthall Avenue, 

London, HC. ... 

479 Morgan, Griffith Rees, 178, Commercial Street, Sen- 

ghenydd, Cardiff 

480 Morgan, John, Stanley Villa, Crook, County Durham 

481 Morgans, Godfrey Ewart, Repre, entative of the Ministry, 

National Projectile Factory, Birtley, County Durham ... 

482 MoRisoN, John, 14, ^aville Row, Newcastle-upon-Tyne A. 

483 MoRLAND-JoHNSON, Edwaru Thomas, The Limes, 6, Hart- 

ington Road, Chorltou-cum-Hardy, Manchester 

484 Morris, John, 15, Brynmill Crescent, Swansea ... ■ ... 



Dec. 12 
Oct. 10 

Dec. 10 

April 13 
April 4 

Feb. 12 
Dec. 9 
June 8, 
Dec. 14 
June 11 

Dec. 9 
April 25 
June 9 
. Aug. 6 
Dec. 14 



May 5 

June 10 

Aug. 1 

Dec. 10 

Dec. 14 

April 4 

Dec. 11 
April 10 
Aug. 1. 
Feb. 12 
. Oct. 10 
. Feb. 14 



Dec. 9 
Oct. 8 
Nov. 19 
Aug. 3 

Nov. 7 

Aug. 7 
Dec. 9 

Dec. 12 
Dec. 4 
Aug. 3 

April 10 
, April 4 
, Aug. 6 



1898 
1905 
1907 
1S97 
1903 



1896 
1908 

1910 

1907 
1903 

1916 

1882 
1S89 
1907 
1892 

1899 
1896 
1900 
1904 
1907 



1877 

1903 

1914 

1910 

1895 

1914 

1909 
1897 
1903 
1910 
1891 
1914 

1899 
1892 
1881 
1889 

1874 

1915 
1905 

1914 

1880 
1889 

1897 
1903 
1904 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



485 Morris, William, WaUlridge Colliery, Chester-le-Street ... 

486 Morse, Willard S., Seaford, Delaware, U.S. A 

487*MoRT, Arthur, Khost, N. VV. R. , Balucliistan, India 

488 Morton, Reginald Charles 

4S9 Morton, William Rostern, 37, Shortridge Terrace, New- 
castle-upon-Tj'iie 

490 Mountain, William Charles, 8, Sydenham Terrace, l^ew- 

cSiStle-nYion-Tyne {Meniher of CoKuril) 

491 MuNDLE, Arthur, Murton Chambers, 8, Grainger Street, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

492 Murray, William Cuthbert, Framwellgate Colliery, 

Durham 

493 Murray, William John, Victor American Fuel Company, 

311, E. and C. Building, Denver, Colorado, U.S.A. ... 

494 Mutch, Stanley Robert, East Lodge, Seaton, Workington 

495 Nagazumi, Junjiro, Kannonsaki, Shimonoseki, Japan 

496 Nelson, Charles Anthony, Battle Hill, Willington Quay, 

Northumberland 

497 Nelson, George Catron, Holly Garth, Brandon Colliery, 

County Durham 

498 Nesbtt, John Straker, Marley Hill Colliery, Swalwell, 

County Durham 

499 Newbery, Frederick, Throgmorton House, Copthall 

Avenue, London, E.C. ... ... ... 

600 Newbigin, Henry Thornton, 3, St. Nicholas' Buildings, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

501 Nicholas, Benjamin, Levant Mining Company, Levant 

Mine, Pendeen, Cornwall ... 

502 Nicholson, Arthur Darling, H.M. Divisional Inspector 

of Mines, Astley, Manchester 

503 Nicholson, John Hodijson, Cowpen Colliery Office, Blyth 



504 Nisbet, Norman, Haqjerley Hall, Tantobie, County Durham 



505 Noble, Ernest Edward, 30, Ashleigh Grove, Fulwell, 

Sunderland 

506 Noble, Thomas George, Sacriston Colliery, Durham 

507 NoMi, AlTARO, No. 2, 7 Chome, Kitamachi, Aoyama, 

Tokyo, Japan ... 

508 NoRRis, Robert Van Arsdale, 520-524, Second National 

Bank Building, Wilkes-Barr6, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. ... 

509 Northey, Arthur Ernest, Mina Dario, Muga de Sayago, 

Zamora, Spain 
510*Nobthumberlant>, His Grace the Duke of, Alnwick 
Castle, Northumberland 

511 Oates, Robert Joseph William, co Bank of New South 

Wales, Launceston, Cornwall, Tasmania 

512 Oliver, Ernest Hunter, Durham House, Murton Colliery, 

County Durham 

513 Oliver, Robert, Cold Knott Collieries, Crook, County 

Durham 

514 Olsen, Arnold Carl Louis, P.O. Box 2, Florida, 

Transvaal 

515 Ornsby, Robert Embleton, 7, Osborne Terrace, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne ... ... 





Date of Election 




and of Tni 


.iisfer. 




Oct. 8 


, 1892 




June 13, 


1896 




Dec. 9, 


1899 




Aug. 3, 


1907 




Aug. 7, 


1909 




April 9, 


1892 


s. 


June 5, 


1875 


M.' 


Aug. 4, 


1877 




June 10, 


1903 




June 13, 


1914 




April 10, 


1915 




Dec. 12, 


1908 




Dec. 14, 


1912 


A. 


, Feb. 8, 


1902 


M 


. Feb. 10, 


1912 


S. 


, Oct. 9, 


1897 


A. 


, Aug. 5, 


1905 


M. 


Oct. 12, 


1907 


A.M. 


April 2, 


1898 


M. 


Feb. 13, 


1904 




Oct. 13, 


1894 




Oct. 8, 


1910 


S. 


June 13, 


1885 


A. 


Aug. 4, 


1894 


M. 


Feb. 12, 


1898 


S. 


Oct. 1. 


1881 


A. 


Aug. 3. 


1889 


M. 


April 8. 


1893 


S. 


, Nov. 24, 


1894 


A. 


Aug. 3, 


1901 


M. 


Aug. 6, 


1904 




April 8, 


1916 


A. 


Feb. 13, 


1892 


M. 


June 8, 


1895 




Aug. 5, 


1899 




Feb. 13, 


1909 




June 10, 


1903 




Aug. 2, 


1913 


S. 


Feb. 10, 


1883 


A.M 


. Aug. 1, 


1891 


M. 


Dec. 12, 


1891 


S. 


Feb. 8, 


1902 


A. 


Aug. 1, 


1908 


M. 


Oct. 9, 


1909 




Dec. 11, 


1915 




Dec. 9, 


1905 




'"5^ 






June 11, 


1898 



LIST OF MEMBKRS. XXXlll 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 

516*0SHIMA, RoKURO, 121, Yoyogi, Toyotama-gun, Tokyo, 

Japan AprillO 

517 OuGHTOx, Ernest, 39, Wedderburn Road, Harrogate ... A. Deo. 11 

M. Aug. 5 

518 Owens, William David, Lehigh Valley Coal Company, 239, 

Philadelphia Avenue, Pittston, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Feb. 11 



519 Paley, George, Glebe House, Whitburn, Sunderland ... Oct. 12 

520 Palmer, Claude Bowes, Wardley llall, Pelaw, Newcastle- A.M. Nov. 5 

upon-Tyne M. June 8 

521 Palmer, Harry, 16, Fountain Street, Guisborough, York- 8. June 14^ 

shire A. Aug. 7 

M. Dec. 12 

522 Pamely, Caleb, 64, Cromwell Road, Bristol S. Sept. 5 

M. Aug. 5 

523 Pamplin, Eliah George, Cherry Hinton, Cambridge ... Aug. 1 

524 Parish, Charles Edward, 31, Hanger Lane, Ealing, 

London, \V Feb. 10 

525 Parrington, Henry Mason, Dene House, Castletown, S. Feb. 13 

Sunderland ... ... ... ... A. Aug. 3 

M. Aug. 7 

526 Parrington, Matthew William, Wearmouth Collierj-, Sun- 8. Dec. 1 

derland (Past-President, J/e??i/(£r o/C'oM?i«7) M.Aug. 6 

527 Parrington, Thomas Elliot, Carley Hill, Monkwear- S. Aug. 3 

mouth, Sunderland ... ... ... ... ... ... A. Aug. 1 

M. Oct. 12 

528 Parsons, Hon. Sir Charles Algernon, K.C.B., Heaton A.M. June 12 

Works, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... ... ... ... M. Aug. 3 

529 Pasquier, Arthur Edmund du. The British Westinghouse 

Electric and Manufacturing Company, Limited, Con- 
solidated Buildings, Johannesburg, Transvaal ... ... Dec. 11 

530 Peake, R. Cecil, Cumberland House, Redbourn, St. Albans S. Feb. 7 

A.M. Aug. 7 
M. Aug. 3 

531 Pearson, Reginald George, Paardekop, District 

Standerton, Transvaal ... ... ... ... ... Feb, 12 

532 Pedelty, Simon, 3, Tunstall Terrace, Ryhope Colliery, A. Dec. 10 

Sunderland ... ... .. ... ... ... ... M. Dec. 14, 

533 Peel. Robert. New Brancepeth Colliery, Durham Aug. 6, 1892 

534 Percy, Frank, Mining and Technical College, Wigan. 

Trunsactiovs sent to The Librarian, Wigan Free 

Library, Wigan Dec. 12, 1903 

5.35 Percy, Robert McLeod, Woodside, Poynton, Stockport Dec. 14, 1907 

536 Phillips, Henry Archibald Allen, Westmancote, 

Uplands Terrace, Swansea ... ... ... ... ... June 1, 1912 

537 Phillips, Pebcy Clement Campbell, Hall's Collieries, 

Limited, Swadlincote, Burton-upon-Trent ... ... June 10, 1903 

538 PocKSON, Melville John Hastings, Kenilworth, East 

Avenue, Benton, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... ... ... Oct. 8. 1910 

539 Pollitzer, Samuel Joseph, Terrys Chambers, 14, Castle- 

reagh Street, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia ... April 12, 1902 

540 Poole, Gordon George Thomas, Washington Steel and A.M. Oct. 11, 1913 

Iron Works, Washington Station, County Durham ... M. Dec. 12, 1914 

541 Poole, William, Julius and Poole, Culwalla Chambers, 

Castlereagh Street, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia Feb. 13, 1909 

542'PooRE, George Bentley, Ross, Marin County, California, A.M. Dec. 10, 1898 

U.S.A M. April 8, 1899 

543 Porter, John BoNSALji, McGill University, Montreal, 

Quebec, Canada Dec. 8, 1900 

5-14 Powell, Charles Henry, Mount Miller Mining Company, 

Limited, Beecher, Boyne Valley Line, via Gladstone, 

Queensland, Australia June 14, 1902 

545 Prest, John Joseph, Hardwick Hall, Castle Eden, County 

Durham Feb. 9, 1901 



1897 
1909 
1911 



1905 



1901 
1892 
1895 
1902 
1909 
1914 
1868 
1877 
1903 

1900 
1904 
1907 
1909 
1864 
1870 
1895 
1903 
1907 
1886 
1889 



1915 
1880 
1886 
1889 

1910 
1892 
1907 



XXXiv LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 

546 Price, Francis Holborrow Clynn, 7, I'icton Place, 

Swansea June 10, 1899 

547 Price, Frederick Jamks, Collie, Western Australia ... Oct. 11, 1913 

548 Price, vStephen PticHARO, Dilston House, Corbridge, S. >iov. '.i, 1877 

Northumberland A.M.Aug. 1,1885 

M. Aug. 3, 1889 

549 Price, Samuel Warren, The Wern, Peterston-super-Ely, 

Cardiff Aug. 3, 1895 

550 Pringle, John Archibald, Mysore Mine, Marrikuppam, 

Mysore, India ... Dec. 10, 1898 

551*Prior, Hon. Edward Gawler, Victoria, British Columbia. 
'rransactions sent to Thomas R. Stockett, ^Ve.stern 
Fuel Company, Nanaimo, British Columbia ... ... Feb. 7, 1880 

552 PoLLON, Joseph Thomas, Rowangarth, North Park Road, 

Roundhay, Leeds Feb. 11, 1905 

553 Rae, John Livington Campbell, Lisgar, 75, King Street, 

Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia Oct. 14,1899 

554 Raine, Frederick James, The New Copley Collieries, S. Feb. 15, 1896 

Limited, Cockfield, County Durham A.Aug. 6,1904 

M. Feb. 9, 1907 

555 Ramsay, John, Tursdale Colliery, Ferry Hill ... ... A. April 27, 1895 

M. Feb. 13, 1904 

556 Ramsay, William, Glen View, Midsomer Norton, Bath Feb. 12, 1910 

557 Rankin, Thomas Thomson, 81, Cannon Street, London, 

EC April 9,1904 

558 Raw, George, Haltwhistle, Northumberland June 13, 1914 

559 Redman, Sydney George, Collingwood Buildings, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne ... Feb. 10, 1906 

560 Redwood, Sir Boverton, Bart., The Cloisters, 18, Avenue 

Road, Ret^ent's Park, London, N.W June 21, 1894 

561 Reed, William Fenwick, 16, Princes Gardens, Monk- 

seaton, Whitley Bay, Northumberland April 8, 1916 

562 Rees, Robert Thomas, Glandare, Aberdare Aug. 7,1897 

563 Rees, William Thomas, Maesyffynon, Aberdare A.M. Oct. 9, 1897 

M. Feb. 12, 1898 

564 Rhodes, Charles Edward, The Bungalow, Lane End, 

Rotherham Aug. 4, 1883 

565 Richardson, Nicholas, CO Miss D. Richardson, 3, Summer- S. Dec. 12, 1896 

hill Grove, Newcastle-upon-Tyne A.Aug. 3,1901 

M. Dec. 14, 1901 

566 Riddle, James Edward, West Denton Colliery, Scotswood, 

Northumberland Oct. 11, 1913 

567 Ridge, Harry Mackenzie, 2, Great Winchester Street, 

London, E.G. Dec. 14, 1907 

568 Ridley, James Cartmell, Cathedral Buildings, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne Dec. 14, 1912 

569 Ridley, Norman Backhou.se, Union Chambers, 32,Grainger 

Street West, Newcastle-upon-Tyne June S, 1895 

570 RiDPATH, Thomas Rossiter, Blaydon Burn, Blaydon-upon- S. June 8, 1901 

Tyne, County Durham A. Aug. 4, 1906 

M. April 9, 1910 

571 Rigby, Thomas Henry, Leaders Buildings, King Street, 

Wigan Dec. 12, 1908 

572 Ritson, John Ridley, Burnhope Colliery, Lanchester, S. April 11, 1891 

Durham A.M.Aug. 3,1895 

M. Feb. 14, 1903 

573 Ritson, Utrick Alexander, Milburn House, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne Oct. 7, 1871 

574 Ritson, William Henry, V.D., Springwell Hall, Durham A.M. Dec. 11, 1915 

M. June 3, 1916 

575 Roberton, Edward Heton, Sibpur College, Calcutta, 

India ' Dec. 12, 1914 



LTST OF MEMBKRS. 



576 Roberts, James, Jun., Perran House, Perranporth, 

Cornwall 

577 Roberts, John, 41, Coram Street, Russell Square, London, 

W.C 

578 Roberts, William, Bella Vista, Perranporth, Cornwall ... 

579 Robertson, Daniel Alexander Wilberfokce, Metro- 

politan Colliery, Helensburgh, near Sydney, New 
South Wales, Australia 
580*Robertson, James Robert Millar, 38, Pitt Street, 
Sj^dney, New South Wales, Australia ... 

581 "Robins, Samuel Matthew, Netherleigh, Torrs Paik, Ilfra- 

combe. Tran-9ac/ioiis sent to Thomas R. Stockett, 
Western Fuel Companj', Nanaimo, British Columbia ... 

582 Robinson, Ueorge, Boldon Colliery, County Durham 

583 Robinson. Georce Henry, Jun., The Itabira Iron Ore 

Company, Limited, c/o Wilson, Sons and Company, 
Limited, Rio de -Janeiro. Brazil, South America 

584 Robinson, John Thomas, South Medomsley Colliery, 

Dipton, County Durham 

585 Robinson, John William, Bebside Colliery, Bebside, 

Northumberland 

586 Robinson, Stanley, Colliery Office, Bunker Hill, Fence 

Houses 

587 Rochester, William, Hightield, Beechwood Avenue, 

Ryton, County Durham 

588 Rogers, John, Tanfield Lea House, Tantobie, County 

Durham 

589 Ronaldson, James Henry, 4, London Wall Buildings, 

London Wall, London, K.C. 

590 Rosenplaenter, Carlos Bernard, c/o Henry S. King 

and Company, 65, Cornhill, London. E.C. 

591 RouTLEDGE, WiLLiAM Henry, Glanbaiden, Gilwern, 

Abergavenny ... ... ... ... ... ... ... A 

592 RowE, Joseph Seymour, Metropolitan Colliery, Helens- 

burgh, New South Wales, Australia 

593 Rowley, Walter, 20, Park Row, Leeds 

594 RuMBOLD, William Richard, Oruro, Bolivia, South 

America, via Buenos Aires i Tupiza 

595 Russell, Robert, Coltness Iron Works, Newmains, 

Lanarkshire ... 

596 Rutherford, Robert, The Lawn, Rhymney, Cardiff 

597*Saise, Walter, Stapleton, Bristol A. 

598 Sam, Thomas Birch Freeman, Domkodu, Cape Coast 

Castle, \Vest Africa ... 

599 Samborne, John Stukely Paj..mer, Timsbury House, 

Bath 

600 Sample, James Bertram, Coolbawn, Castlecomer, County 

Kilkenny 



601 
602 
fi03 
604 



605 



I 



Sampson, William, Kapar, Selangor, Federated Malay States 
'Sam WELL, Nicholas, P.O. Box 385, Rangoon, Burma, India 
Sandow, William John Josiah, Treswithian, Camborne 
Saner, Charles Benjamin, Luipaards Vlei Estate and 

Gold-mining Company, Limited, P.O. Box 53, Krugers- 

dorp, Transvaal 
^SAWYER, Arthur Robert, 826, Salisbury House, London 

Wall. London, E.C A, 





Data of Election 




and of Transfer. 




Dec. 14, 


1895 




Feb. 10, 


1912 




Aug. 4, 


1908 




Aug. 6, 


1892 




Aug. 2, 


1890 




Oct. 12, 


1895 




June 10, 


1899 


S. 


Dec. 9, 


1899 


M. 


April 8, 


1905 




Feb. 13, 


1892 


s. 


April 12, 


1902 


A. 


Aug. 5, 


1905 


M 


Feb. 14, 


1914 


s. 


Oct. 12, 


1901 


A. 


Aug. 1, 


1908 


M. 


Jime 1, 


1912 


A 


Dec. 10, 


1898 


M 


Deo. 12, 


1908 


S 


April 8, 


1899 


A 


Aug. 4, 


1906 


M 


. Feb. 11, 


1911 




Aug. 6, 


1892 




June 1, 


1912 


s 


Oct. 7, 


1876 


M. 


Aug. 1, 


1885 


M. 


June 8, 


1889 




Aug. 3, 


1907 




Aug. 5, 


1893 




June 14, 


1902 




Aug. 3, 


1878 




Oct. 11, 


1902 


M. 


Nov. 3, 


1877 


M. 


Aug. 3, 


1889 




Aug. 5. 


1893 




Aug. 1, 


1891 


S. 


Jan. 19, 


1895 


A. 


Aug. 4, 


1900 


M. 


Oct. 10, 


1903 




Oct. 9, 


1909 




April 13, 


1901 




Feb. 8, 


1908 


A. 


April 10 


1897 


M. 


June 10, 


1911 


S. 


Dec. 6, 


1873 


M 


Aug. 2, 


1879 


M 


June 8, 


1889 





Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 




April) 3, 1907 


s. 

M. 

A. 
M. 


April 8, 190d 
April 11, 1874 
Aug. 4, 1877 
April 9, 1892 
Oct. 8, 1892 
Feb. 11, 1899 




Oct. 11, 1902 
June 10, 1911 



XXXVi LIST OF MEMHEKS, 



606 ScHNABEL, Lebereciit FERDINAND RicHARD, Sun Buildings, 

Corner of Bourke and Queen Streets, Melbourne, 
Victoria, Australia ... 

607 Scott, Anthony, Netherton Colliery, Nedderton. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne ... ... 

608 Scott, Charles F. , Newbell, Consett, County Durham . . . 

609 Scott, Ernest, 42, Westgate Road, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

610 Scott, Edward Charlton, Woodside Cottage, Totley Rise, 

Slietfield 

611 Scott, Herbekt Kilburn, 46, Queen Victoria Street, 

London, E.C. ... 

612 Scott, William -AN(iUS, 102, St. Mary Street, Cardiff 

613 Scott, Walter Robert, The Limes, South Moor, Stanley, 

County Durham April 4,1914 

614 Sethna, Nanabhoy Rcstomji, c,'o Midland Coal, Coke and 

Iron Company, Limited, Apedale, Newcastle, Stafford- 
shire Oct. 10, 1914 

615 Severs, Joseph, North Walbottle, Newburn, Northumber- 

land June 8, 1901 

616 Severs, William, Beamish, County Durham A. Nov. 5, 1892 

M. Dec. 8, 1900 

617 Shanks, John, Nordegg, Alta, Canada Aug. 5, 1905 

618 Sheafer, Arthur Whitcomb, Pottsville, Pennsylvania, 

U.S.A Aug. 4,1894 

619 Shiel, Francis Robert Archibald, Rosebank, Burnopfield, 

County Durham June 10, 1911 

620 Simon, Frank, Rand Club, Johannesburg, Transvaal ... Dec. 14, 1895 

621 Simpson, Charles Liddell, 13, Montagu Place, Montagu 

Square, London, W. April 8, 1893 

622 Simpson, Francis L. G.i.Mohpani Coal-mines, Gadawarra, A.M. Dec. 13, 1884 

C.P., India M. Aug. 3, 1889 

623 Simpson, Frank Robert, Hedgefield House, Blaydon-upon- 

Tyne, County Durham (Vice-President, Member of 
Council) 

624 Simpson, John, FoUonsby, Hawthorn Gardens, Monkseaton, 

Whitley Bay, Northumberland (Vice-President, Mem- 
ber of Council) .. 

625 Simpson,' John Bell, Bradley Hall, Wylam, Northumber- 

land (Past-President, Member of Council) 

626 Simpson, Robert Rowell, Inspector of Mines, Dhanbaid, 

E.I.R. , Manbhum, Bihar and Orissa, India 

627 Simpson, Thomas Ventress, Throckley Colliery, Newburn, 

Northumberland ... ... 

628 Skertchley, Sydney A. R., c'o The Institution of Mining 

and Metallurgy, 1, Finsbury Circus, London, E.C. 

629 Sloan, Robert Patrick, Craiglea, Graham Park Road, 

Gosforth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... ... ... 

630 Smallwood, Percy Edmund, The Garth, Medomsley, 

County Durham 

631 Smart, Alexander, 4, Loudon Wall Buildings, London 

Wall, London, E.C ^ ••• 

632*Smith, Richard Clifford, Grovehurst, Tunbridge Wells 

633 Smith, Robert Fleming, Melwyn, Cleator Moor, Cumber- 

land 

634 Smith, William, P.O. Box 653, Johannesburg, Transvaal ... 

635 Smith, William Woodend, 1, Victoria Terrace, St. Bees, 

Cumberland ... 

636 Snodcrass, Benjamin Walter, Delagua, Colorado, U.S.A. 

637 Sopwith, Arthur, Wavertree, Handsworth, Staffordshire 

638 Southern, Edmund Octavius, North Seaton Hall, 

Newbiggin-by-the-Sea, Northumberland 



s. 

M. 


Aug. 
Aug. 


4, 
1, 


1883 
1891 


S, 


. Dec. 


6, 


1SG6 


M, 


• Aug. 


1, 


,1868 




Oct. 


4. 


1860 


S. 
A. 
M. 


Aug. 
Aug. 
Oct. 


3, 

2, 
11, 


1895 
1902 
1902 


S. 


Dec. 


14, 


1895 


A. 
M. 


Aug. 
Dec. 


2, 
13, 


1902 
1902 




April 


13, 


1901 




Oct. 


8, 


1910 


A 


. Oct. 


11, 


1902 


M 


. Oct. 


12, 


1907 




Feb. 


10, 


1894 




Dec. 


5, 


1874 




Aug. 
Oct. 


6, 
11, 


1904 
1902 




Aug. 6, 
June 13, 


1904 
1914 


S. 


Aug. 
Dec. 


6, 
5, 


1863 
1874 


A.M. 
M. 


Aug. 
June 


1, 

8, 


1885 
1889 



1 



LIST OK MKMBKRS. XXXVll 

Date of E;iectioii 
and of Transfer. 

639 Southern, R. W. A., 33, The Parade, Cardiff Aug. 3, 1865 

640 Southern, Stephen, Heworth Collierj-, Felling, Glateshead- S. Dec. 1-1, 1895 

upon-Tyne A. Aug. 3, 1901 

M. Dec. 1-2, 1914 

641 SouTHWooD, Reginald Thomas Enfield, Nether House, 

Spencer Road, Putnej', London, S.W Feb. 10,1906 

642 Spence, Robert Foster, Backworth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne S. Nov. 2, 1878 

(Member of Council) A.M.Aug. 2.1884 

M. Aug. 4, 1889 

643 Stanley, George Hardy, South African School of Mines and 

Technology, P.O. Box 1176, Johannesburg, Transvaal April 12, 1902 

644 Steavenson. Charles Herbert, Redheugh Colliery, Gates- 8. April 14, 1883 

head-upon-Tyne A. Aug. 1, 1891 

M. Aug. 3, 1895 

645 Steel, Robert, Wellington Colliery Office, Whitehaven ... Aug. 5, 1905 

646 Stephenson, Ralph, Fern Cottage, Poolstock Lane, Wigan Dec. 10, 1904 

647 Stew.art, William, Brodawel, Caerleon, Newport, 

Monmouthshire .. ... ... ... ... ... June 8, 1895 

648 Stobart, Frank, Selaby Hall, Gainford, Darlington ... S. Aug. 2, 1873 

A.M. Aug. 5, 1882 
M. June 8, 1889 

649 Stobart, Henry Temple, Wearmouth Colliery, Sunderland 8. Oct. 2, 1880 

A.M.Aug. 4, 1888 
M. Aug. 3, 1889 

650 Stobart, William Ryder, Colliery Office, Etherley, 

Bishop Auckland Oct. 11,1890 

651 Stoker, Arthur P., 52, Holywell Avenue, Monkseaton, S. Oct.. 6, 1877 

Whitley Bay, Northumberland A.M.Aug. 1,1885 

M. Aug. 3, 1889 

652 Stokoe, James, Herrington Lodge, West Herrington, via A. Nov. 24, 1894 

Sunderland M. Dec. 10, 1904 

653 Stokoe, John George, Woodside, Maltby, Rotherham ... A. Dec. 9, 1899 

M. Feb. 11, 1911 

654 Stone, Arthur, Heath Villas, Hindley, Wigan June 13, 1896 

655*Stonier, George Alfred, 726, Salisbury House, London, E.G. June 11, 1904 

656 Storey, William, [Jrpeth Villas, Beamish, County Durham April 12, 1902 

657 Stow, Audley Hart, Pocahontas, Virginia, U.S.A. ... Feb. 13, 1909 

658 Straker, J. H. , Howden Dene, Corbridge, Northum- 

berland Oct. 3, 1874 

659 Streatfeild, Hugh Sidney, Ryhope, Sunderland ... A.M. June 8, 1889 

M. Aug. 3, 1889 

660 Stuart, Donald McDonald Douglas, 25, Woodstock Road, 

Redland, Bristol June 8, 1895 

661 Suggett, Arthur, Ivy House, Witton-le-Wear, County 

Durham June 13, 1914 

662 Sum.merbell, Richard, Preston Colliery, North Shields ., A. Dec. 9, 1905 

M. Dec. 14, 1907 

663 Sutcliffe, Richard, Horbury, Wakefield •• June 14, 1902 

664 Sutton, William, Grosmont, 46, Palace Road, Streatham 

Hill, London, S.W 

665 Swallow, Frederick Charles, Amphion House, Don- 

caster ... 

666 Swallow, John, 2, Percy Gardens, Tynemouth, North 

Shields 

667 Swallow, Ralph Storey, Park House, Duffield Road, 

Derby ... 

668 Swallow, Wardle Asquith, Seaham Colliery, New Sea- 

ham, Seaham Harbour, County Durham ... 

669 Swinburne, Umfreville Percy, Chief Inspector of Mines, 

Union of South Africa, P.O. Box 1132, Johannesburg, A.M. Aug. 4, 1894 
Transvaal M. June 14, 1902 

670 Swindle, Jackson, North Bank, Beech Grove, Whickham, 

Swalwell, County Durham June 14, 1902 



April 


28, 


1900 


Dec. 


9, 


1911 


May 


2 


1874 


A. Dec. 


9! 


1899 


M. Dec. 


12, 


1903 


S. Dec. 


9, 


1893 


A. Aug. 


3, 


1901 


M. Aug. 


r> 


1902 



xxxvm 



LIST OF MKMli];RS. 



671 Symons, Francis, Ulverston 

672 Tali.is, John Fox, 84, High Street, Newport, Monmouth- 

shire 

673 Tate, Robert Simon, Tlie Old House, Trimdon Grange, 

County Durham 

674 Tate, Simon, Trimdon Grange Colliery, Comity Durham 

(Member of Council) ... 

675 Tate, Walker Oswald, Usworth Hall, Washington. 

Washington Station, County Durham (Member of 
Conned) 

676 Taylor, Thomas, Chipchase Castle, Wark, Northum- 

berland 

677 Teasdale, Thomas, 14, North Lodge Terrace, Darlington 

678 Templetox, John Clark, The Maikop Pipeline and Trans- 

port Company, Limited, Apsheronskaj-a, near Maikop, 
Kuban District, South Russia 

679 Tennant, John Thomas, Mitchell Street, Merewether, 

Newcastle District, New South Wales, Australia 

680 Terry, Arthur Michael, 1, Clifton Road, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 
6S1 Thom, Archibald, 25, Belle Isle Street, Workington 

682 Thomas, David Lewis, Glanyiafon, Slate Street, Morriston, 

Glamorgan ... ... .. ... ... ... 

683 Thomas, Ernest Henry, The Hollies, Trecynon, Aberdare 

684 Thomas, Iltyd Edward, Glanymor, Swansea 

685 Thomas, J. J., Hawthorn Villa, Kendal . . 

686 Thomas, Richard, Cambria Villa, Stockton, New South 

Wales, Australia 

687 Thomlinson, William, Seaton Carew, West Hartlepool ... 

688 Tho.mpson, John Willi a>'i, East Holywell Colliery, Shire- 

moor, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

689 Thompson, Robert Reginald, c o Strick, Scott andCom- 

panj% Limited, Mohammerah, Persia, ina Bombay and 
Per.sian Gulf ... 

690 Thomson, Thomas, Ngaruawahia, Auckland, New Zealand 

691 Thornton, Norman Mcschamp, 301, Tegler Building, 

Edmonton, Alberta, Canada ... 

692 Thornton, Thomas, Blackball Colliery, Castle Eden, 

County Durham 

693 Todd, John Thomas, Blackwell Collieries, Alfreton 



694*TowNSEND, Harry Poyser, Village Deep, Limited, 
P.O. Box 1064, Johannesburg, Transvaal 

695 Trelease, William Henwood, Chalet CoUombert, Aix- 

les-Bains, Savoie, France ... 

696 Trevor, Earle Wellington Jenks, c o Percy Tarbutt and 

Company, 18, St. Swithin's Lane, London, E.C 

697 Trewartha-James, William Henry, Manor Lodge, 

4, Grove End Road, St. John's Wood, London, N. W. 

698 Trotman, Henry Leigh, Capital and Counties Bank, 

Dawlish; Devon 

699 Tulip, Samuel, Bunker Hill, Feuce Houses ... 

700 Turnbull, James, The Willows, Seaton, Workington 

701 Turnbull, John James, 135, Osborne Road, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

702 Turnbull, John James, Jun., Asansol, E.I.R., Burdwan, 

Bengal, India ... 

703 Turnbull, Robert, Usworth Colliery, Washington, Wash- 

ington Station, Countv Durham ... 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 

Feb. 11, 1899 



Dec. 12, 1903 

S. Aug. 3, 1901 

A. Aug. 4, 1906 

M. Dec. 11, 1909 

Sept. 11, 1875 
S. Oct. 12, 1895 
A. Aug. 1, 1903 
M. Feb. 13, 1904 

July 2, 1872 
April 9, 1892 



Feb. 12, 1916 

Dec. 12, 1903 

Aug. 6, 1904 
Aug. 5, 1905 

Aug. 2, 1913 
Feb. 10, 1900 
Feb. 10, 1900 
June 21, 1894 

Feb. 11, 1899 

April 25, 1896 

A. June 10, 1893 

M. Feb. 10, 1900 



Dec. 10, 1910 

Feb. 8, 1908 

S. April 27, 1895 

A. Aug. 2, 1902 

M. June 10, 1903 

Feb. 10, 1912 

S. Nov. 4, 1876 

.M. Aug. 1, 1885 

M. June 8, 1889 

April 12, 1902 

April 8, 1893 

Aug. 2, 1902 

Dec. 12, 1S96 

Feb. 13, 1904 
June 12, 1897 
Dec. 13, 1913 

Feb. 12, 1898 

S. Feb. 8, 1908 

A. Dec. 9, 1911 

M. April 8, 1916 

Aug. 2, 1902 



LIST OF MEMBERS. XXXIX 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 



704*Tyers, John" Emanuel, Rewah State Collieries, Umaria, A.M. Dec. 10, 1877 

B.N.R., Central India M.Aug. 3, 18«9 

705 TvERS, John E.mascel, Jun., Rewah State Collieries, 

Umaria, B.X.R., Central India Aug. 2,1913 

706 Varty, Armstrong, Liverton Mines, Loftus, Yorkshire ... April 12, 1913 

707 Verky, Joseph Crosby, Apartado 1723, Mexico City, 

Mexico April 9, 1910 

708 Vekny, George, Pont d'Aubeuas, Ardeche, France ... Oct. 8, 1898 

709 Wauham, Walter Francis Ainslie, Millwood, Dalton-in- 

Furness, Lancashire ... ... ... ... ... Dec. 10, 1898 

710 Wales, Henry Thomas, Bank Chambers, Castle Square, 

Swansea Feb. 11, 1893 

711 Walker, Henry, H.M. Inspector of Mines, 2, West 

Coates, Edinburgh ... .. ... .. ... ... June 8, 1907 

712 Walker, .James Howard, Bank Chambers, Wigan ... Dec. 9, 1899 

713 Walker, Sydney Ferris, 85, Shakespeare Avenue, Alex- 

andra Park, Bath June 11, 1898 

714 Walker, Thomas A., Pagefield Iron Works. Wigan ... June 8, 1895 

715 Walker, William Edward, Lowther Street, Whitehaven Nov. 19, 1881 

716 Walsh, George Patun, 3, Sarphatikade, Amsterdam. 

Holland Xov. 24, 1894 

717 Walton, Arthur John, Rose Deep, P.O. Box 6, Gcrmiston, S.Feb. 12,1898 

Transvaal A. Aug. 1, 1903 

M. April 9, 1910 

718 Walton-Brown, Stanley, Seghill Park, Seghill, Dudley, S. June 20, 1908 

Northumberland ... . ... ... ... A. Aug. 3, 1912 

M. June 14, 1913 

719* Ward, Thomas Henry, Giridih, East Indian Railway, Bihar A. M. Aug. 5, 1882 

and Orissa, India M.Aug. 3,1889 

720 Ware, Francis Thomas, The Croft, Corbridge, Northum- 

berland June 11, 1910 

721 Watson, Claude Leslie. Dunkerton House, Tunley, Bath Dec. S, 1900 

722 Watson, John, Blackball, New Zealand Dec. 12, 1908 

723 W.\TSON, Thomas, Trimdon Collier}-, County Durham Oct. 11, 1890 

724 Watts, Jame^;, Morro Velho, Villa Nova de Lima, Minas, A.M. Feb. II, 1911 

Brazil, South America ... ... ... ... ... M. Aug. 1,1914 

725 Webster, Alfred Edw.\rd, Manton, Worksop ... ... June 12, J 897 

726 Wedderburn. Charles Maclagan, 8, East Fettes Avenue, 

Edinburgh Oct. 14, 1905 

727 Weeks, Richard James, Bedlington, Northumberland 

(Memher of Counrit) Oct. 8,1910 

728 Weeks, Richard Llewellyn, Willington, County Durham A.M. June 10, 1882 

(Vice-President, J/ewi^er o/(7oMnci7) .. M. Aug. 3, 1889 

729* Weinberg, Ernest Adolph, c o C. W. Moore, 5, London A.M. Feb. 12, 1898 

Wall Buildings, Finsbury Circus, London, E.C. ... M.Oct. 8,1898 

730 Welsh, Thomas, Maindee House, Upper Pontnewvdd, 

Monmouth.shire ' ... Feb. 14, 1903 

731 Welsh, Thomas, Holly Terrace, Stanley, County Durham Aug. 3, 1912 

732 Welton, WiLLiA-M Pitt, 9. Elm Road, Wembley, Middlesex Dec. 9,1905 

733 White, Chables Edward, Wellington Terrace, South Shields S. Nov. 4, 1876 

A.M. Aug. 1, 1885 

M. Aug. 3, 1889 

734 Whitehead, Harold Joshua, Abram Coal Company, 

Limited, Bickershaw, Wigan ... ... Dec. 9, 1911 

735 Whitehead, Percy Colin, c o Mrs. WoUcn, Glengariffe, 

Torfiuay .. ... Feb. 13,1915 

736 WiDDAS, Henry, Whitehaven Castle Estate, Somerset 

House, Whitehaven April 7, 1906 

737 Widdas, Percy, Oakwood, Cockfield, County Durham ... Aug. 6,1904 

738 Wight, Frederick William, 5, Bondicar Terrace, Blyth .. Aug. 5, 1905 

739 Wight, Robert Tennant. Deaf Hill TeiTace, Trimdon 

Colliery, County Durham Oct. 13,1900 



xl 



LIST Of MEMBERS, 



740 WxLBRAHAM, Artiidr (iEOR(iK IJooTi.E, 2, Lauience 

Pountney Hill, Cannon Street, London, E.G. 

741 Wild, Matthew Brown, 37, Arthur Road, Erdington, 

Birmingham ... 

742 Wilkinson, John Thom.^s, East Hetton Colliery, Coxlioe, 

County Durham 

743 WiLKixsoN, Maurice Hewson, Tung Hsing Mine, Men- 

Tou-Kou, via Peking, North China 
744*WiLKiNS0N, William Fischer, Hurstbourne Priors, 
Whitchurch, Hants. 

745 Willey, Joseph Leonard, P.O. Box 3, Brakpan, Transvaal 

746 Williams, Foster, Miniera di Libiola, Sestri Levante, 

Italy 

747 Williams, Griffith John, H.M. Inspector of Mines, Coed 

Menai, Bangor 

748 Williams, John, Dolavon, Llanrwst, Denbighshire 

749 Williams, Robert, Friars House, New Broad Street, 

London, E.C. ... 

750 Willis, Edward Turnley, 3, The Drive, Gosforth, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne 

751 Willoughby, Berent Conrad, 57, Fenchurch Street, 

London, E.C 

752 Wilson, Anthony, Brenthwaite, Keswick A 

753 Wilson, Frederick, 4, Brandling Terrace, Felling, Gates- 

head-upon-Tyne 

754 Wilson, James, Wellington House, Edmondsley, Durham 

755 Wilson, John Robert Robinson, H.M. Divisional In- 

spector of Mines, Greyfort, Westfield Drive, Gosforth, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne (J/£»i/<e?- o/ Co^/HciY) 

756 Wilson, John Reginald Straker, 3, St. Nicholas' Build- 

ings, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

757 Wilson, Joseph William, 118, Abington Avenue, North- 

ampton... ... ... ... ... ... ... .... 

758 Wilson, Peregrine Oliver, c/o F. F. Wilson, 5, South 

Street, Finsbury Pavement, London, E.C. 

759 Wilson, William Brumwell, 19, West Parade, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne 
760* Wilson, William Brumwell, Jun., Greenhead Terrace, 
Chopwell, Ebchester, County Durham ... 

761 Wilson, William Smith, 54, Queens Road, Jesmond, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne 

762 WiNCHELL, Horace Vaughan, 505, Palace Building, Min- 

neapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A. 

763 Wood, Ernest Seymour, Cornwall House, Murton, County 

Darhsiin (Member of Council) 

764 Wood, John, Coxhoe Hall, Coxhoe, County Durham 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 

S. Dec. 11, 1897 
M. Feb. 8, 1902 

Oct. 12, 1907 

Dec. 8, 1900 
A. Dec. 12, 1903 
M. Oct. 10, 1908 

Oct. 10, 1896 

Aug. 1, 1908 

A. April 13, 1907 

M. June 20, 1908 

Aug. 2, 1902 
Oct. 8, 1904 

June 13, 1896 

June 10, 1911 

S. April 8, 1905 

M. Aug. 3, 1907 

M. Feb. 10, 1900 

M. Dec. 13, 1902 

Dec. 12, 1908 
April 13, 1901 



765* Wood, Sir Lindsay, Bart., The Hermitage, Chester-le-Street 
(Past-President, J/e7H6e>- o/'Co?i?tc27) • 

766 Wood, Richard, Barley Brook Foundry, Wigan 

767 Wood, Robert, 8, Olympia Gardens, Morpeth 

768 Wood, Thomas, Rainton House, Fence Houses 

769 Wood, Thomas Outterson, Cramlington House, Cramling- 

ton, Northumberland (il/e??i&e/- o/Co?mci7) 

770 Wood, William Outterson, South Hetton, Sunderland 

(Past-President, il/e??)6er o/ Co?H!ci7) 

771 Woodburne, Thomas Jackson, Bultfontein Mine, De Beers 

Consolidated Mines, Limited, Kimberley, South Africa 

772 Wright, Abraham, East Indian Railway, Engineering 

Department, Giridih, Bihar and Orissa, India 



Dec. 11, 1915 

Dec. 13, 1913 

June 10, 1911 

Dec. 9, 1893 
S. Feb. 6, 1869 
M, Aug. 2, 1873 

Feb. 9, 1901 

Feb. 8, 1913 

Nov. 24, 1894 

Oct. 10, 1891 
S. June 8, 1889 
A. Aug. 4, 1894 
M. Aug. 3, 1895 

Oct. 1, 1857 

June 14, 1902 

April 13, 1907 

• S. Sept. 3, 1870 

M. Aug. 5, 1871 

Feb. 14, 1903 

Nov. 7, 1863 

Feb. 10, 1894 

Feb. 11, 1905 



List OF MEMBERS. xll 

Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 

773 Wrkjhtson, Sir Thomas, Bart. , 8tockton-upon-Tees ... Sept. 13, 1873 

774 Wrightson, Wilfrid Ingram, Ivy Cottage, Norton, A.M. Dec. 9, 1899 

Stockton-upon-Tees M. Feb. 8, 1908 

775 Wx-NNE, Frederick Horton, H.M. Inspector of Mines, 

2, Pimlico, Durham Oct. 11,1913 

776 YouLL, Gibson, Singleton, New South Wales, Australia ... Oct. 12, 1901 

777 Young, Andrew, Westview, Broomhill, Acklington, 

Northumberland ... ... ... ... ... ... Dec. 11, 1909 

778 Young, George Ellls, Beuwell Colliery, Newcastle- S. Aug. 3, 1901 

upon-Tyne A.Aug. 5,1905 

M. Feb. 14, 1914 

779 Young, John Andrew, Joseph Crawhall and Sons, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne. 7Va?^sach'or^s, etc., sent to 3, Fountain A.M. Dec. 10, 1887 
Avenue, Gateshead-upon-Tyne ... ... ... .. M. Aug. 3, 1889 

780 Young, John Huntley, Wearmouth Colliery, Sunderland June 21, 1894 



1892 



ASSOCIATE MEMBERS (Assoc. M.I. M.E.). 

,. , , , , , ^ ' Date of Election 

Marked * have paid life composition. and of Transfer. 

1 AiNswoRTH, George, The Hall, Consett, County Durham Dec. 9, 1905 

2 Armstrong, John Hdbart, 31, Mosley Street, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne Aug. 1, 1885 

3 ATKIN.SON, George Blaxland, Edinburgh Buildings, 

21, Mosley Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... ... Nov. 

4 Barrett, Sir William Scott, 11, Old Hall Street, Liver- 

pool 
5*Bell, Sir Hugh, Bart. , Middlesbrough 

6 Benson, Walter John, Collingwood Buildings, Colling- 

wood Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

7 Bowes, Alfred Strathmore, Valuation Department, 

Inland Revenue, 32, West Street, Gateshead-upon-Tyne 

8*Broadbent, Dknis Ripley, Royal Societies Club, St. James' 

Street, London, S.W. Transactions sent to The Library, 

Royal Societies Club, St. James' Street, London, S.W. 

9 Brutton, p. M., 17, Sandhill, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

10 Cackett, James Thoburn, Pilgrim House, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 

11*Carr, William Cochran, Ben well Colliery, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 

12*Chewings, Charles, Eton Street, Malvern, South 
Australia 

13 Chipper, Cecil, The Terrace, Ovingham, Northumberland 

14 Cochrane, William James, York Chambers, Fawcett 

Street, Sunderland ... 

15 Cook, Arthur Geoffrey Harold, Collingwood Buildings, 

Collingwood Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

16 Cooper, R. W., Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... 

17 Cope, William Henry, The University, Birmingham 

18 Coroner, Allan, Neville Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

(Assistant Secretary, J/e»i/.^er o/ C'oKJicjV) 

19 Cory, Sir Clifford John, Bart., c/o Cory Brothers and 

Company, Limited, Cardiff 

20 Dillon, Malcolm, Dene House, Seaham Harbour, County 

Durham 

21 Edwards, F. Henry, Bath Lane, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... 

22 Elcoate, John, 16, Marton Road, Middlesbrough 



Oct. 
Dec. 


1^. 
9, 


1899 

1882 


Feb. 


8, 


1913 


Feb. 


8, 


1913 


Oct. 
Oct. 


14, 
13, 


J 896 
1900 


Oct. 


10, 


1903 


Oct. 


11, 


1890 


Apri] 
April 


25, 
4, 


1896 
1914 


April 


3, 


1909 


Oct. 

Sept. 

Dec. 


9, 
4, 
9, 


1909 
1880 
1905 


June 


19, 


1915 


Dec. 


11, 


1897 


Dec. 


14, 


1912 


June 11, 
April 13, 


1887 
1912 



xlii 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Date of Election 
aDd of Transfer. 

23 Fairless, Joseph, Wensleyville, Holywell Avenue, Monk- 

seaton, Whitley Bay, Northumberland June 10, 1899 

24 Fenwick, Feathekstone, County Chambers, Westgate 

Road, Newcastle-upon-Tyne June 8, 1907 

25 Foster, T. J., Coal Exchange, Scranton, Pennsylvania, 

U.S.A. TraHsacHons, etc., sent to International Cor- 
respondence Schools, Scranton, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Dec. 12, 1891 

26 George, Edward James, Beech Grove, Consett, County 

Durham Dec. 9, 1905 

27 Gibson, George Ralph, Tyne Saw Mills, Hexham ... June 20, 1908 

28 Gibson, Thomas William, Bureau of Mines, Toronto, 

Ontario, Canada June 8, 1901 

29 Giddy, Thomas Grantham James, Kenilworth, Samdon 

Street, Hamilton, New South Wales, Australia ... April 8,1911 

SO^Gr-A-HAM, John, Findon Cottage, near Durham Oct. 9, 1897 

31 Graham, James Parmley, Sun Insurance Buildings, 

CoUingwood Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Dec. 8, 1906 

32 Gray, William Edwin, 17-19, Archer Street, Camden 

Town, London, N.W Oct. 11, 1913 

33 Grkenwell, Hubert, 30 and 31, Furnival Street, Holborn, 

London, E.C Feb. 14, 1914 

34 Gregson, George Arthur, 12, Hesketh Road, Southport Aug. 7, 1915 

35 GuNN, Scott, 27, Quayside, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Aug. 6, 1910 

36 Guthrie, Reginald, Neville Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

(Treasurer, ^Vem/>er q/ Co!m«7) Aug. 4,1888 

.37 Haggie, Arthur Jamieson, The Manor House, Long 

Benton, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... ... ... Feb. 8, 1908 

38 Haggie, Peter Norman Brocghton, c/o Haggie Brothers, 

Limited, Gateshead-upon-Tyne Oct. 10, 1908 

39 Heckels, Matthew Octavius, Pearl Buildings, Northum- 

berland Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Dec. 12,1914 

40 Heeley, George, East Avenue, Benton, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne . •■• Dec. 14, 1895 

41 Henzbll, Robert, Northern Oil Works, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne Aprilll, 1891 

42 Hesketh, Richard, Neville Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... Feb. 13, 1909 

43 Hopper, George William Nugent, The Ropery, 

Thornaby-upon-Tees, Stockton-upon-Tees Oct. 10, 1908 

44 Jeffrey, Joseph Andrew, c/o The Jeffrey Manufacturing 

Company, Columbus, Ohio, U.S. A Dec. 11,1897 

45 Jeffries, Joshua, Abermain Colliery, New South Wales, 

Australia Dec. 10,1898 

46*JoiCEY, James John, The Hill, Witley, Godalming ... Oct. 10,1891 

47 JoPLiNG, Ford Stafford, Jun., 8, Thornhill Terrace, 

Sunderland Feb. 12, I9I0 

48 Krohn, Herman Alexander, 103, Cannon Street, London, 

E.C ••• Oct. 14, 1893 

49 Lamb, Edmund George, Borden Wood, Liphook, Hants. Feb. 12, 1898 

50 Lambert, Cuthcert Alfred, North Eastern Railway 

Offices, Westgate Road, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... Dec. 12,1914 

51 Latimer, William, 3, St. Nicholas' Buildings, Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne Oct. 14, 1905 

52 Lawson, Henry Alfred, c o Robert Frazer and Sons, 

Limited, Milburn House, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... April 8, 1911 

53 Leake, Percy Collinson, c/o Deanbank Chemical Com- 

pany, Ferry Hill Aug. 3,1907 

54 LuMSDEN, Henry Cook, 48, Rothwell Road, Gosforth, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne Oct. 10, 1914 



List of mkmbers. 



xliii 



55 Major, Herbert, 11, Belle Vue, Mowbray Eoad, Sunder- 

land 

56 Marshall, Patrick, University School of Mines, Dunedin, 

Obago, New Zealand 

57 MoREiXG, ALCiERNox Henry, 62, London Wall, London, E.G. 
5S Morris, Percy Copeland, 79, Elm Park Gardens, Chelsea, 

London, S.W. 

59 Oliver, James Stcart, 21, Tankerville Terrace, Jesmond, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

60 Palmer, Sir Alfred Molyxeux, Bart., John Bowes and 

Partners, Limited, Milbum House, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne 

61 Pattersox, Robert Oliver, Thorneyholme, Wylam, North- 

umberland 
62*PiCKUP, Peter Wright Dixox, Rishton Colliery, Rishton, 

Blackburn ... ... 

63 Prior- Waxdesforde. Richard Hexrv, Castlecomer House, 

Castlecomer, County Kilkenny 
64*Proctor, Johx Hexry, 29, Side, Newcastle-upon-Tyne... 

65 PvAixe, ^VINFRED, Inglewild, Pity Me, Durham 

66 Ramsey, Johx Harry, 17, Victoria Road, Darlington ... 

67 Reid, Sidney, Printing Court Buildings, Newcastle-upon- 

Tj-ne 

68 Rogers, Isaac Bowman, l.S, Elmfield Road, Gosforth, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne 

69 RoGERsox, Johx Edwin, Oswald House, Durham 

70 Rcssell, James, Westgate Road, Newcastle-upon-Tyne .. 

71 Sadler, Basil, Craigmore, Lanchester, Durham 

72 Samuel, David, Arcade Chambers, Liunelly 

73 Saxders, Charles William Hexry, Fawmlees, Wolsing- 

ham, Countj' Durham 

74 Schumacher, Raymond William, c'o The Central Mining 

and Investment Corporation, Limited, 1, London Wall 
Buildings, London Wall, London, E.G. ... 

75 Smith, Arthur Herbert, Broad Street House, New Broad 

Street, London, E.C. 

76 Smith, Richard Tildex, 4-6, Copthall Avenue, London, 

E.C 

77 Steuart, Douglas Stuart-Spens, Royal Societies Club, St. 

James' Street, London, S.W. 

78 Strzelecki, Algerxox Percy Augustus de, 39, Victoria 

Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 

79 Todd, James, 20, Royal Arcade, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

80 Waley, Frederick George, The Bellambi Coal Company, 

Limited, 9, Bridge Street, Sydney, New South Wales, 
Australia 

81 Watson, John Robert, B Floor, Milburn House, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne 

82 Watts, John", Blytheswood North, Osborne Road, New- 

castle-upon-Tj-ne 

83 Welford, Thomas, Wallarah Collierj% Catherine Hill Bay, 

New South Wales, Australia 

84 Whitehead, Thomas, Brindle Lodge, Preston 
85*WiLLiAMS, Henry, Llwyngwern, Pontardulais, Glamorgan 
86 Wilson, Hugh Russell, 50, Langholm Crescent, Darlington 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 



June 1, 1912 

June 12, 1897 
Oct. 14. 1911 

Feb. 14, 1903 



Feb. 10, 1912 

Nov. 24, 1894 

Feb. 12, 1910 

Feb. 12, 1898 

Dec. 9, 1905 
June 8, 1889 

Dec. 13, 1913 
April 8, 1916 

Dec. 13, 1902 

April 13, 1912 
June 8, 1895 
Feb. 13, 1904 

Feb. 11, 1905 
Dec. 13, 1902 

Dec. 14, 1901 

April 9, 1904 
June 14, 1 902 
Oct. 14, 1911 
June 10, 1899 
Dec. 12, 1908 
Aug. 6, 1892 

Feb. 9, 1907 

April 9, 1910 

April 8, 1911 

June 10, 1903 
June 12, 1897 
Dec. 9, 1905 
Dec. 12, 1908 



xliv 



LTST OF MEMBERS. 



87*WoOD, Arthur Nicholas Lindsay, The Hermitage, Chester- 

le-Street 
8S Wood, Hugh Nicholas, Sun Buildings, Collingwood Street, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... ... 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 



July U, 1896 
Oct. 12, 1912 



ASSOCIATES (Assoc. I.M.E.). 

Marked * have paid life composition. 

1 Adam, Thomas Walter, Christ Church Vicarage, White- 

haven ... 

2 Aldis, Gerald 

3 Alexander, Arthur Cecil, Oaklea, Adderstoue Crescent, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

4 Allan, Herbert Durham, Rewah State Collieries, Umaria, 

Bengal Nagpur Railway, Central India ... 

5 Anderson, Coverdale Smith, Bilton Banks, Lesbury, 

Northumberland 

6 Archer, Matthew William, Grosvenor House, Manchester 

Road, Stocksbridge, Sheffield 

7 Armstrong, Henry, 29, William Street, New Seaham, 

Seaham Harbour, County Durham 

8 Askew, Alfred Hill, Boulby Grange, Easington, York- 

shire 

9 Atkinson, William Henry, Dans Castle, Tow Law, 

County Durham 

10 Barber, Norman Elsdale 

1 1 Barkes, Percy, Elenior* Colliery, Hetton-le-Hole, County 

Durham 

12 Bates, Johnson, 5, Grange Villa, County Durham ... 

13 Bates, Thomas, West Wylam Terrace, Prudhoe, Oving- 

ham, Northumberland 

14 Battey, Thomas, Station Road, Shiremoor, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne 

15 Bayfield, Henry, 41, Westcott Road, Tyne Dock, South 

Shields 

16 Bell, George William, Throckley Colliery, Newburn, 

Northumberland ... ... ... 

17 Bell, Harold Marmaduke Charles, High Hedgefield 

House, Blaydon-upon-Tj-ne, County Durham ... 

18 Bell, Marshall Blackett, 1, Cross Row, Felling, Gates- 

head-upon-Tyne 

19 Benson, Herbert Sydney, Seaton Burn Colliery, Seaton 

Burn, Dudley, Northumberland ... 

20 Berryman, Thomas, 64, Dolcoath Road, Camborne 

21 Bewley, Thomas, Stobswood Colliery, Acklington, North- 

umberland 

22 Blunden, Philip Sidney, Glencrag, Mainsforth Road, 

Ferry Hill 

23 Blythman, John, East View, High Heworth, Gateshead- 

upon-Tyne 

24 Booth, James Frederick 

25 Brandon, Geoffry 

26 Brooks, Douglas Roy, 5, Kensington Gardens, Monkseaton, 

Whitley Baj', Northumberland 

27 Brown, Thomas, H.M. Sub-Inspector of Mines, 186, 

Dilston Road, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

28 Brown, William, H.M. Sub-Inspector of Mines, 82, Sidney 

Grove, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... ... 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 

S. April 3, 1909 
A. Dec. 10, 1910 

S. Feb. 14, 1914 
A. Aug. 7, 1915 

S. June 10, 1911 
A. Aug, 3, 1912 

Feb. 10, 1906 

April 10, 1915 
S. June 8, 1895 
A. Aug. 4, 1900 

Dec. 12, 1903 



Feb. 9, 

S.Aug. 7, 
A. Aug. 5, 

S. June 20, 
A. Aug. 2, 

June 12, 
Feb. 11, 

April 13, 

Oct. 13, 

Feb. 12, 

Oct. 14, 

April 12, 

Dec. 14, 
S. Feb. 11, 
A. Aug. 5, 

Feb. 8, 

Aug. 5, 

June 8, 

Dec. 12, 

Dec. 11, 

S. Dec. 8, 

A. Aug. 3, 

S. Dec. 14, 

A. Aug. 3, 

Feb. 13, 

June 14, 



1907 
1909 
1916 

1908 
1913 

1909 
1905 

1907 

1894 

1916 

1911 

1913 

1912 
1905 
1905 
1913 

1905 

1907 

1914 
1909 
1900 
1907 
1907 
1912 

1915 

1913 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



xlv 



BtTRT, Thomas, Hill House, 
Station, County Durham 



Washington, Washington 



30 

31 

32 

33 

34 

35 

36 
37 

38 

39 

40 

41 
42 

43 
44 
45 

46 

47 

48 
49 
50 

51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 

57 

58 

59 
60 
61 
62 



I 



Calland, William, Hedley Hope Colliery, Tow Law, 
County Durham 

Cabroll, Johx, Spring Bank House, Newfield, Willington, 
County Durham 

Charlton, John Fleming, 16, Twelfth Street South, 
Easington Colliery, County Durham 

Cheesman, Edward Tavlor, Jun., Clara Vale Colliery, 
Ryton, County Durham 

Cheesman, Matthew Forster, Throckley Colliery, New- 
burn, Northumberland 

Chen. Pag Kin, c'o Kaotze, Chen and Company, 58, North 
Sooch'ow Road, Shanghai, Cliina .. 

Chicken, Ernest, Woodlea, Murton, County Durham ... 

Clark, Nathaniel J., Woodlands, Wallsend, New South 
Wales, Australia 

Clark, Thomas, Dipton Collierj', Lintz Green Station, 
County Durham 

Clement, John, High Street, Lingdale, Boosbeck, York- 
shire 

Clephan, Guy, 1, Otterburn Villas North, Jesmond, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Coade, Samuel, Steel Green, Millom, Cumberland... 

CocKBAiN, Tom Stewartson, Usworth Colliery, Washington 
Station, County Durham 

CocKBURN, John, Trimdon Grange Colliery, County Durham 

CouLSON, William Hall, Fishburn, Ferry Hill 

CoxoN, Samuel Bailey, 3, Percy Terrace, Gosforth, New- 
castle-upon-Tyne 

CoxoN, Samuel Geori;e, Hamsteels Collierj', Durham 

Croudaoe, Mortimer, c/o Mrs. R. Craggs, Tunstall 
Village, Sunderland ... 

Crowle, Percy, Mysore Mine, Marikuppam, Mysore, 
India ... 

Cruz y Diaz, Federico de la, Minas de Ribas, Provincia 
de Gerona, Spain 

CussoN, Charles Frederick, Greenfield House, Station 
Road, Washington Station, County Durham ... 

Dakers, Edgar Walton, Tudhoe Colliery, Spennymoor 

Dales, John Henry, 2, Derwent View, Burnoptield, County 

Durham 
Daniell, Henry Edmund Blackburne, 7, Wallace Terrace, 

Ryton, County Durham 
Davies, Daniel John, go E. Davie.*, The Pines, Corrimal, 

New South Wales, Australia 
D.vvis, James E., South Medomsley Colliery, Dipton, 

County Durham ... ... .. 

Davison, Francis, Ash Grove House, Hedley Hill Colliery, 

near Waterhouses, Durham 
Devenport, Christopher, 112, Talbot Road, South Shields 
Dick-Cleland, Archib.-vld Felce, 75, York Mansions, 

Battersea Park, London, S.W. 
Dixon, Matthew, 59.3, Welbeck Road, Walker, Newcastle- 

upon-TjTie ... "... 
DouGL.AS, Albert Edward, 5, Arthur Street, Marsden, 

South Shields ... ... ... ... ... ... 

Dunnett, Samuel, West View House, Coomassie Road, 

Waterloo, Blyth 

DwAVE, Francis Cecil, Ballarpur, Chanda District, Central 

Provinces, India 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 



April 4, 1909 

Aug. 2, 1913 
Feb. 12, 1898 
June 13, 1914 

Dec. 10, 1910 
S. Dec. 13, 1902 
A. Aug. 5, 1905 
S. Dec. 11, 1915 
A. Aug. 5, 1916 

Oct. 8, 1910 
8. April 13, 1901 
A. Aug. 1, 1903 

Oct. 11, 1890 

Feb. 12, 1916 

Dec. 10, 1910 
Dec. 10, 1904 

Dec, 8, 1906 
April 9, 1904 
Dec. 14, 1912 
S. Oct. 12, 1907 
A. Aug. 7, 1915 
Feb. 9, 1901 

Dec. 13, 1913 

Feb. 11, 1905 

Oct. 11, 1913 

Oct. 10, 1914 

S. Dec. 14, 1907 
A. Aug. 7, 1915 

April 4, 1914 
S. Aug. 3, 1907 
A. Aug. 6, 1910 

Oct. 12, 1907 

Feb. 12, 1898 

Feb. 12, 1898 
Feb. 12, 1916 

Dec. 8, 1906 

Dec. 11, 1915 
S. Aug. 1, 1903 
A. Aug. 3, 1912 

June 8, 1895 

Aug. 2, 1913 



xlvi 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



63 Eadie, John Allan, Jun., Eller Bank, Harrington, 

Cumberland ... 

64 Elder, Moses, Haford House, North Side, Workington ... 

65 Elliot, Arthur, 40, West Kensington Mansions, West 

Kensington, London, W. 

66 Elliott, George, Oakwood, Catchgate, Annfield Plain, 

County Durham 

67 English, Henry Edward, 5, St. George's Terrace, Roker, 

Sunderland 
6S English, Thomas Weddle, 3, Oakwood Villas, Hexham ... 

69 Flint, Frederic John, 48, Beaconsfield Street, Blyth 

70 Ford, Ekic Loufvvis, Park Villa, Witton Gilbert, Durham 

71 Ford, Leo Dorey, E.I.R. and B.N.R. Joint Colliery, 

Bokaro, Gumujau P.O., Hazaribagh, Bihar and Orissa, 
India 

72 Ford, Thomas, Blaydon Burn Colliery, Blaydon-upon-Tyne, 

County Durham 

73 Forster, Edward Baty, Ingleside, Ryton, County Durham 

74 Fowler, Albert Ernest 

75 Fowler, Robert Norman, Whorlton Terrace, North Wal- 

bottle, Newburn, Northumberland 

76 Gallon, Joseph, 71, Seventh Row, Ashington, North- 

umberland 

77 Gallwey, John Pay'NE, 12, Ashley Mansions, Victoria, 

London, S.W. .. ... 

78 Gilchrist, George Atkinson, South Pelaw Colliery, 

Chester-le-Street 

79 Gould, George Donald, c o Mrs. John Gould, 58, Ebers 

Road, Nottingham ... 

80 Grace, William Grace, Eston Mines, Estou, Yorkshire .. 

81 Graham, Robert, 1, Park Street, W^illington, County 

Durham 

82 Graham, W^illiam, Jun., 6, Victoria Road, Whitehaven 

83 Guthrie, Kenneth Malcolm, South View, Gainford, 

Darlington 

84 Hanlox, Henry Charles Hubert, 7, Mark Lane, White- 

haven ... ... ... .. ..... 

85 Hann, Thomas Cummins, 6, East View Terrace, High 

Heworth, Gateshead-upon-Tyne ... 

86 Hare, Alfred Bessell, Howlish Hall, Bishop Auckland ... 

87 Hawes, George Arthur, 2, Sandringham Terrace, Lee- 

holme, Bishop Auckland 

88 H.4WKINS, John Bridges Bailey, Staganhoe Park, 

Welwyn ... ... 

89 Hedley. George William, Kimblesworth House, Chester- 

le-Street 

90 Hedley, Rowland Frank Hutton, Percy Villa, Salisbury 

Place, South Shields 

91 Henderson, Christopher Gregory, Shoreswood, Ash- 

ington, Northumberland 

92 Herdman, Fred. G., Main Street, Haltwhistle, Northumber- 

land 

93 Herriotts, Joseph George, 6, Station Road, Easington 

Colliery, County Durham .. 

94 Heslop, George, The Vereeniging Estates, Limited, Cor- 

nelia Colliery, Viljoen's Drift, Orange Free State, 
South Africa 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 

S. Oct. 10, 1903 

A. Aug. 5, 1905 

June 10, 1911 

S. Dec. 13, 1902 
A. Aug. 1, 1908 

June 8, 1907 

S. Aug. 7, 1909 

A. Feb. 11, 1911 

Feb. 11, 1905 

Aug. 7, 1909 
S. April 11, 1908 
A. Feb. 8, 1913 



Feb. 8, 1913 

Aug. 2, 1902 
April 7, 1906 
S. Oct. 12, 1907 
A. Aug. 3, 1912 
S. Aug. 2, 1902 
A. Aug. 3, 1907 

S. Oct. 9, 1909 

A. Aug. 1, 1914 

S. Oct, 11, 1913 

A. Aug. 5, 1916 

S. Dec. 14, 1901 

A. Aug. 1, 1908 

April 8, 1916 
S. Feb. 9, 1907 
A. Aug. 1, 1914 

Oct. 12, 1907 
S. Oct. 13, 1906 

A. Aug. 3, 1912 
S. Aug. 5, 1911 

A. Dec. 13, 1913 



April 8, 1916 

April 10, 1915 
Dec. 14, 1912 

Dec. 12, 1903 
S. Dec. 13, 1902 
A. Aug. 6, 1910 

Dec. 13, 1902 
S. April 4, 1903 
A. Aug. 7, 1909 

June I, 1912 
S. Dec. 14, 1907 
A. Aug. 6, 1910 

April 28, 1900 



Oct. 9, 1909 



LIST OF MKMKKRS. 



xlvii 



95 Heslop, James, Stobswood Colliery, Acklington, North- 
umberland 

9G Heslop, William, Rose Cottage, Burnopfield, County 
Durham 

97 HiNDMARSH, Georgi: Mason-, Railway Street, Corrimal, 

New South Wales, Australia 

98 HoLLiDAY, Albert Edward David, Duuelm, Ashington, 

Northumberland 

99 Hudson, Mark, Albion House, Cockton Hill, Bishop 

Auckland 

100 Hl'mble, William Henry, Waldridge Colliery, Chester- 

le-Street 

101 HrNTER. Andrew, 3, Westcott Avenue, South Shields ... 

102 HcTTON, Allan Robinson Bowes, Daw Wood, Bentlej-, 

Doncaster 

103 Hyde, George Alfred, 1, Albert Street, Victoria Gares- 

field, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

104 Hysd, Thomas, Metcalfe Street, Wallsend, New South 

Wales, Australia 



105 Jacobs, George 

106 

107 

108 



Jeffery, Albert John, Hedworth House, Barn Hill, 

Stanley, County Durham ... 
Jobling, John Swanstone, Wellington Terrace, Edmond- 

sley, Durham .. 
Jones, Walter, East Moor House, Trimdon Collier}-, 

Countv Durham 



109 KiRKLEY, Aidan, Clcadon Park, Cleadon, Sunderland 

110 KiRKUP, Ernest Hodgson, Eighton Lodge, Low Fell, 

Gateshead-upon-Tyne 

111 Lawson, John, Fair View, Burnopfield, County Durham .. 

112 Leebetter, William, Edith Avenue, Usworth Colliery, 

Washington Station, County Durham ... 

113 Leyboitrne, Elliot Angus, Birchholme, Gateshead-upon- 

Tyne 

ll-t LiGHTLEY, John. New Br«,ncepeth Colliery, Durham 

115 Li.sTER, John Alfred, The Anchorage, Hinderwell, York- 

shire 

116 Logan, Reginald Samuel Moncrieff, 33. Boj'd Terrace, 

Blucher Pit, Xewburn, Northumberland 

117 LoNGRiDGE, John, The Bungalow, Ginteen, Castlecomer, 

County Kilkenny 

118 LouDON, George, 1, Othce Buildings, Harton Collierj-, 

South Shields ... 

119 LowRY, Joseph Thompson, Oak Lea, Cramlington, North- 

umberland 

120 MacGregor, Donald, Bentley Colliery, Doncaster... 

121 McKensey, Stanley, Hebburn Colliery, Weston, New 

South Wales, Australia 

122 McKiE, Thomas, Ashington Colliery, Ashington, Northum- 

berland 

123 McLaren, Ronald Henry, Offerton Hall, Sunderland 

124 Magee, Charlie Sharpe, Manor House, St. Helen's 

Auckland, Bishop Auckland 

125 Magee, Stanley Sharpe, Dunston Colliery, Dunston, 

Gateshead-upon-Tyne 

126 Martin, Tom Pattinson, Jun., Seaton Park, near Work- 

ington .. ... ... ... . . 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 



Dec. 12, 1£08 

Oct. 8, 1893 

Aug. 1, 1914 

April 12, 1913 

Dec. 9, 1905 

Dec. 14, 1907 
Feb. 13, 1897 
S. April S, 1905 
A. Aug. 3, 1912 
S. Feb. 13, 1909 
A. Aug. 5, 1911 

April 12, 1913 



s. 


Dec. 


11. 


1909 


A. 


Aug. 


1, 


1914 




April 


128, 


1900 




Oct. 


12, 


1907 


s. 


Feb. 


9, 


1901 


A. 


Aug. 


1, 


1908 




June 


11, 


1910 


s. 


April 


[ 13. 


, 1907 


A. 


Aug. 


3, 


1912 




Oct. 


10, 


1908 




Dec. 


9, 


1911 


s. 


April 


112, 


1913 


A. 


Aug. 


7, 


1915 




April 


25, 


1896 


s. 


Dec. 


8, 


1906 


A. 


Aug. 


fi. 


1910 


S. 


Feb. 


9, 


1901 


A. 


Aug. 


1, 


1903 



Feb. 11. 1905 
Feb. 12, 1916 
April 3, 1909 

S. Feb. 9, 1901 

A. Aug. 1, 1908 

S. Oct. 14, 1911 

A. Aug. 7, 1915 

Oct. 9, 1909 
S. Feb. 10, 1912 

A. Aug. 7, 1915 
S. Aug. 7, 1909 

A. Aug. 2, 1913 

April 13. 1912 
S. June 13, 1914 
A. Aug. 5, 1916 



xlviii 



LTST OF MEMllKRS. 



127 Merivale, Vernon, Togston Hall, Acklington, Northum- 

berland... 

128 MiLBURN, Edwin Walter, 3, Haven View, NevvbiggLn-by- 

the-Sea, Nortlmiiiberland ... 

129 MiLBURN, William, Hill House, Ouston, Birtley, County 

Durham 

130 MiLLNE, David, 41, Shiney Row, Bedlington, North- 

umberland 

131 MiRZA, Khurshid, Hyderabad, Deccan, India 

132*MiTCHELL- Withers, William Charle.s 

133 MusGROVE, William, Heddon Colliery, Wylam, North- 

umberland 

134 Mycock, William, Front Street, Shotton Colliery, Castle 

Eden, County Durham 

135 Nichols, Henry Herbert, Kibblesworth, Gateshead-upon- 

Tyne 

136 Nicholson, George Thompson, Dene House, Scotswood, 

Northumberland 

137 Oliver, William, 4 Quality Row, Harton Colliery, South 

Shields 

138 Oswald, George Robert, Sritarmarat, Nakon, Siam 

139 Owen, Arthur Lewis Scott 

140 Owens, George, Westerton Village, Bishop Auckland 

141 Paddon, NEViiiLE Blackmore, c/o B. L. Brodhurst, South 

Brancepeth, Spennymoor ... 

142 Parker, Joseph William, Cornelia Colliery, Viljoen's 

Drift, Orange Free State, South Africa 

143 Parrington, Matthew Lilburn, Hill House, Monkwear- 

mouth, Sunderland ... 

144 Pattinson, Charles Werner, Medomsley, County Durham 

145 Pattison, Charles Arthur, Evenwood, Bishop Auckland 

146 Pearson, John Charlton, Butt Bank House, Fourstones, 

Northumbei'land 

147 Peel, George, Jun., 27, Langley Street, Langley Park, 

Durham ... ... -. ••• ■ ■ 

148 Penney, Isaac, Deaf Hill Colliery, Trimdon Grange, 

County Durham 

149 PoRTREY, James, West Thornley, Tow Law, County 

Durham 

150 Pratt, George Ross, Springwell Colliery, Gateshead-upon- 

Tyne 

151 Pumphrey, Charles Ernest ... 



152 Ramsay, John Gladstone. Oaklea, Bowburn, Coxhoe, 

County l)urham 

153 Reed, John Thomas, 2, Ivy Terrace, South Moor, Stanley, 

County Durham 

154 Richardson, Frank, Ravensworth, Duckmanton, Chester- 

field 

155 Richardson, Henry, Clara Vale Colliery, Ryton, County 

Durham 

156 Ridley, George Dinning, Linton Colliery, Morpeth 

157 Ridley, Henry Anderson, Burnbrae, Blaydon Burn, 

Blaydon-upon-Tyne, County Durham -• 



Date of Klection 
and of Transfer. 

S. Oct. 8, 1910 

A. Aug. 5, 1916 

S. Feb. 10, 1900 

A. Aug. 5, 1905 

June 8, 1895 

Aug. 3, 1907 
S. June 13, 1914 

A. Aug. 7, 1915 
S. April 28, 1900 

A. Aug. 2, 1902 
S. June 8, 1895 

A. Aug. 1, 1903 

Oct. 10, 1908 



Aug. 3, 1907 
S. Dec. 10, 1904 
A. Aug. 5, 1911 



April 8, 1916 
S. June 9, 1900 
A. Aug. 3, 1907 
S. June 12, 1909 
A. Aug. 6, 1910 
Oct. 9, 1909 



Dec. 14, 1907 

June 11, 1910 
S. Oct. 9, 1909 
A. Aug. 5, 1916 
June 12, 1909 
S. April 13, 1901 
A. Aug. 5, 1905 

Feb. 14, 1903 

April 4, 1903 

Dec. 9, 1911 

Oct. 12, 1912 

June S, 1895 
S. Dec. 10, 1904 
A. Aug. 4, 1906 

Dec. 10, 1892 

April 4, 1914 
S. Oct. 12, 1901 
A. Aug. 1, 1908 

Dec. 8, 1906 
Feb. 8, 1890 

Dec. 14, 1907 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



xlix 



158 Ridley, Willia:^!, 10, Railway Street, Tow Law, County 

Durham 

159 Ridley, William, Jun. , Lime Cottages, Waldridge Colliery, 

Cbester-le-Street 

160 Rivers, John, The Villas, Thornley, County Durham 

161 Robinson, Thomas Lee, Office House, Newton Cap Colliery, 

near Bishoj) Auckland 

162 Rodway, William, South Row, Bedlington, Northumberland 

163 RooERS, Joseph Nelson Octavius, c/o Austin Kirkup, 

Manor House, Pensbaw, Fence Houses 

164 RoosE, Hubert Francis Gardner, 14, Sunderland Terrace, 

Bayswater, London, W. 

165 Rutherford, Hooper, y Llanerch, Rhymney, Cardiff 

166 Rutherford, Robert Archibald, Wellington Terrace, 

Edmondsley, Durham 

167 Rutherford, Thomas Easton, New Brancepeth Colliery, 

Durham 

168 Saint, Thomas Arthur, c/o — Thomas, Hughesoffka, 

Gywddon Road, Abercarn, Newport, Monmouthshire 

169 ScoBiE, Isaac, Woonona, near Sydney, New South Wales, 

Australia 

170 ScoTT, John Linton, Fast View, Seaton Delaval, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

171 Scott, Thomas Amour, Sea View, Newburgh Colliery, 

Acklington, Northumberland 

172 Severs, Jonathan, Hebburn House, Hebburn, County 

Durham 

173 Simpson, Joseph, Wheatley Hill Colliery OiEce, Thornley, 

County Durham 

174 Slater, Thomas Edward, Ystradgynlais, Breconshire ... 

175 Snaith, Joseph, Fell House, Burnhope, Durham 

176 Snowdon, Thomas, Jun., Oakwood, Cockfield, County 

Durham 

177 Southern, Charles, Radstock, Bath 

178 Southern, John, 9, Egremont Drive, Sheriff Hill, Gates- 

head-upon-Tyne 

179 Stewart, Roland, Thorn Cottage, Whickham, Swalwell, 

County Durham 

180 Stobart, Thomas Carlton, Ushaw Moor Colliery, 

Durham 

181 Stoker, Nicholas, South Pelaw Colliery, Chester-le-Street 

182 Strong, George Adamson, Kibblesworth Hall, Gateshead- 

upon-Tyne 

183 Strong, John William, 7, Earls Drive, Low Fell, Gates- 

head-upon-Tyne 

184 SuGGETT, Ernest Hughes, School House, Leamside, Fence 

Houses, County Durham 

185 SuMMERsiDE, Edvvard, Glyn Derwen, Wylam, Northum- 

berland 

186 Swan, William Edward, 2.T, Tower Street West, Hendon, 

Sunderland 

187 SwANN, Joseph Todd, 1, Tyne View, Throckley, Newburn, 

Northumberland 

188 Thirlwell, Thomas Albert, Benwell Old House, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne 

189 Thomas, Robert Clark, North Biddick Colliery, Wash- 

ington Station, County Durham ... 

190 Thornton, Frank, South Durham Cottages, Bishop 

Auckland 



Date of Election 
and of Transfer. 

S. Aug. 1, 1908 
A. Aug. 7, 1915 



Dec. 

Feb. 



8, 1906 

9, 1895 



April 12, 1913 
June 14, 1913 

April 4, 1914 
S. Dec. 9, 1899 
A. Aug. 3. 1907 
S. Dec. 11, 1909 
A. Aug. 2, 1913 

Dec. 14, 1907 
S. June 10, 1899^ 
A. Aug. 4, 1906 

S. Aug. 3, 1912 
A. Aug. 5, 1916 





Oct. 


13, 


1906 


S. 


, Dec. 


12, 


1908 


A. 


Aug. 


3, 


1912 




Oct. 


9, 


1909 


S. 


June 


8, 


1895 


A. 


Aug. 


4, 


1900 


S. 


June 


10, 


1905 


A, 


. Aug. 


2, 


1913 


S. 


April 


13, 


1907 


A. 


Aug. 


2, 


1913 




Oct. 


12, 


1907 


S. 


June 


12, 


1897 


A. 


Aug. 


3, 


1901 


S. 


June 


10, 


1903 


A. 


Aug. 


7, 


1909 




Dec. 


14, 


1889 




Aug. 


6, 


1910 




Aug. 


2 


1902 




Feb. 


13, 


19C4 


S. 


Aug. 


2, 


1902 


A. 


Aug. 


1, 


1908 


S. 


Oct. 


9, 


1909 



A. Aug. 7, 1915 
Oct. 9, 1915. 



Dec. 11, 1909 



s. 


April 
Dec. 


9, 
13, 


1904 
1902 


A. 


Aug. 


4, 


1906 


S. 


Dec. 


13, 


1902 


A. 

S. 


Aug. 
Aug. 


7, 
3, 


1909 
1907 


A, 

S. 


, Aug. 
Feb. 


6. 

8, 


1910 
1902 


A. 


Aug. 


7, 


1909' 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



191 TuRNBULL, William, West Holywell, Backworth Colliery, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

102 Varvill, Wilfred Walter 



193 Wainwright, William, H.M. Sub-Inspector of Mines, 

West View, Fieldhouse Lane, Western Hill, Durham ... 

194 Walkkr, Arthur, 4, Fatfield Road, Washington, Wash- 

ington Station, County Durham ... 

195 Walton, Isaac, 3, West Street, Tanfield Lea, Tantobie, 

County Durham 

196 Watson, Thomas, Jun., Rosebank, Darlington 

197 Watts, Hubert, Blytheswco.i North, Osborne Road, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
19S Weeks, Francis M.a.th\vin, Craghead and Holmside 
Collieries, Craghead, County Durham 

199 Welch, William Hall, Willington Colliery Offices 

Willington, County Durham 

200 Welsh, Arthur, Tunstall Terrace, Ryhope, County 

Durham 

201 WiPDAS, Frank, Thrislington Hall, West Cornforth, 

Count J' Durham 

202 Wild, Robert Powley, Ariel Lodge, Hewlett Road, Chel- 

tenham... 

203 Wood, George, South Farm, Cramlington, Northumber- 

l:md 

204 Wraith, Charles Osbobn, Leeuwpoort, ria Warmbaths, 

Transvaal 

205 Young, Charles, Laburnum House, Rowlands Gill, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne 





Date of El 


eittion 




iind of Transfer. 




Oct. S, 


1904 


S. 


Dec. 12, 


190S 


A. 


Aug. 2, 


1913 




April 2, 


1898 




April 10, 


1915 




Dec. 14, 


1907 


S. 


June 8, 


1907 


A. 


Aug. 5, 


1911 


S. 


June 8, 


1907 


A. 


Aug. 1, 


1914 


S. 


Feb. 10, 


1906 


A. 


Aug. 2, 


1913 


S. 


Feb. 10, 


1903 


A. 


Aug. 2, 


1913 


S. 


Aug. 1, 


1896 


A. 


Aug. 1, 


1903 



Dec. 8, 1900 
S. Dec. 8, 1906 
A. Aug. 1, 1908 

April 13, 1907 
S. June 10, 1905 
A. Aug. 5, 1911 



Dec. 10, 1910 



STUDENTS (Stud.I.M.E.). 

Date of Election. 

1 Anderson, Robert Wvlie, Highfield, "Wallsend, North- 

umberland Feb. 14, 1914 

2 Blackett, Geoffrey Elliot, Acorn Close, Sacriston, Durham Aug. 1, 1914 

3 Bootiman, Frank Cecil, Woodside, Westoe, South Shields ... Feb. 10, 1912 

4 Browell, Jasper Geoffrey, Low Trewhitt, Rothburv, North- 

umberland ' Oct. 8, 1910 

5 Brown, John Cecil, 9, East View, South Shields Feb. 10, 1912 

6 Charlton, George Fenwick Hedley, School House, Seaton 

Delaval, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Feb. 10,1912 

7 CoRBETT, Vincent William, Seaham Colliery, New Seaham, 

Seaham Harbour, County Durham ... ... ... ... Oct. 10, 1914 

8 Crawh.\ll, John Stanhope, Westcroft, Stanhope, County 

Durham Feb. 14, 1914 

9 Dawson, Arthur Kenneth, Holme House, West Auckland, 

Bishop Auckland Dec. 11,1915 

10 Dillon, Norman ]SlARr;RAVE, Dene House, Seaham Harbour, 

County Durham .. Oct. 10,1914 

11 Dixon, Norman, Shilbottle Colliery, Lesbury, Northumberland April 10, 1915 

12 Gibson, John Fenwick, Bentinck House, Ashington, Northum- 

berland Aug. 1, 1914 

13 Hall, Rowley, Station House, South Hylton, Sunderland ... Dec. 14, 1912 



LIST OF MEMBERS. ll 

Date of Election. 

14 Hare, Ralph Victor, Howlish Hall, Bishop Auckland Dec. 10, 1910 

15 HEATHEEiy<;TON, Arnold, Ouston House, Pelton, County 

Durham Dec. 9, 1911 

16 Inmax, William Si. John, Torrington, West Clifle Road, 

Roker, Sunderland Feb. 11, 1911 

17 Kent, George Herbert Stanton, The Lodge, Uxbridge ... June 14, 1913 

18 KiRKUP, Philip, Jun., Leafield House, Birtley, County 

Durham Dec. 9, 1911 

19 Mutch, Edward Roderick, 3S9, Luton Road, Chatham ... April 10, 1915 

20 Ranken, Charles Thompson, Coanwood, Roker, Sunderland ... Aug. 5, 1911 

21 Scott, Charlks Weatheritt, 6, Evelyn Terrace, Gateshead- 

upon-Tyne Dec. 9, 1911 

22 Shapley, Cecil Edward William, Santry, Chelston Road, 

Torquay ... Aug. 7,1915 

23 Simpson, Claude Frank Bell, Hedgefield House, Blaydon-upon- 

Tyne, County Durham ... ... ... ... ... ... Aug. 5, 1911 

24 THOjrpsoN, John Ballantyne, 166, Westoe Road, South Shields Feb. 10, 1912 

25 Welch, Joun Walter, 1, Milne Terrace, Durham Road, 

Gatesliead-upon-Tyne ... ... ... ... ... ... June 13, 1914 

26 WiGHAM, John Shiells, 50, Durham Road, Birtley, County 

Durham June 13, 1914 



SUBSCRIBERS. 

1 The Ashington Coal Company, Limited, Milburn House, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne. 

2 The Birtley Iron Company (3), Birtley, County Durham. 

3 The British Tho.mson-Houston Company, Limited, Collingwood Buildings, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

4 The Broken Hill Proprielary Co.mpany, Limited, 3, Great Winchester 

Street, London, E.G. 

5 Brunnkr, Mono and Company, Limited, Northwich. 

6 The Most Honourable the Marquess of Bute. Bute Estate Offices, Aberdare. 

7 The Charlaw and Sacriston Collieries Company, Limited, 34, Grey 

Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

8 M. CouLSON and Company, Limited, Merrington Lane Iron Works, Spennymoor. 

9 The Cowpen Co.al Company, Limited ('2), F, King Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

10 Crompton and Co.mpany, Llmited, Pearl Buildings, Northumberland Street, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

11 Dominion Coal Co.mpany, Limited, Glace Bay, Nova Scotia. 

12 The Right Honourable the E.\rl of Durham (2), Lambton Offices, Fence 

Houses. 

13 The Right Honourable the Earl of Ellesmebe (2), Bridgewater Offices, 

Walkden, Manchester. Transactions sent to Charles Hardy, Bridge- 
water Offices, Walkden, Manchester. 

14 The Elswick Coal Company, Limited, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

15 Gent and Company, Limited, Faraday Works, Leicester. 

16 D. H. AND G. Haggie, Wearmouth Patent Rope Works, Sunderland. 

17 The Hardy Patent Pick Company, Limited, Heeley, Sheffield. Transactions, 

etc., sent to C. I'ennett, 6, Lawson Terrace, Durham. 

18 The Harton Coal Company, Limited (3), Harton Collieries, South Shields. 

19 James Joicey and Company, Limited (2), Xewcastle-upon-Tj'ne. 

20 KiRKPATRiCK and Bark, Maritime Buildings, King Street, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne. Transactions, etc., sent to J. A. Donkin, 12, Ashgrove Terrace, 
Gateshead-upon-Tyne. 

21 The Lambton and Hetton Collieries, Limited (5), Cathedral Buildings, Dean 

Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



Ill 



LIST OK MKMliKKS. 



22 Joseph Laycock and Company, Seghill, Dudle\-, Noithumberlaiul. 

23 The Most Honourable the Marqi'ess of Londondekry (4), c/o Vincent Charles 

Stuart Wortley Corbett, Londonderry Oflices, Seahain Harbour, County 
Durham. 

24 Mavor and Coulson, Limited, 47, Broad Street, Mile-End, Glasgow. 

25 The North Brancepeth Coal Company, Limited, Crown Street Chambers. 

Darlington. 

26 OSBECK and Company, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

27 The Pkiestman Collieries, Limited, Victoria (iaresfield Colliery, Rowlanda 

Gill, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Travfactions sent to H. Peile, The Priestman 
Collieries, Limited, Milburn House, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

28 The Rvhope Coal Company, Limited (2), Ryhope CoUiety. Sunderland. 

29 Siemens Brothers and Company, Limited, 39, CoUingwood Buildings, New- 

castle-upon-Tyne. 

30 Wasteneys Smith and Sons, 57 to 60, Sandhill, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

31 The .South Hetton Coal Company, Limited (2), 50, John Street, Sunderland. 

32 The Stella Coal Company, Limited, Hedgefield, Blaydon-upon-Tyne, County 

Durham. 

33 The Sterling Telephone and Electric Company, Limited, 42, Westgate 

Road, Newcastle-upon-Tj'ne. 

34 The Throckley Coal Company', Limited, Milburn House, Newcastle-upon- 

Tyne. 

35 The We.\rmouth Coal Company, Limited (2), Sunderland. 

36 Westport Coal Company, Limited (2), Dunedin, Otago, >."ew Zealand. 



ENUMERATION. 



Honorary Members 
Members ... 
Associate Members 
Associates 
Students 
Subscribers 



August 5, 1S)16. 

25 
7 SO 

88 
205 

26 

36 



Total 



1,160 



Members are desired to communicate all changes of address, or any corrections or 
omissions in the list of names, to the Assistant Secretary. 



\ 



INDEX. 



INDEX TO VOL. LXVI. 



Explanations. 

The — at the beginning of a line denotes the repetition of a word ; and in the 
ease of Names, it includes both the Christian Name and the Surname ; or, in the 
case of the name of any Firm, Association or Institution, the full name of such 
Firm, etc. 

Discussions are printed in italics. 

" Aba." signifies Abstracts of Foreign Papers at the end of the Proceedings. 

" App." signifies Annual Report of the Council, etc., at the end of the Volume. 



A. 



Accounts, 1914-191.5, 7. 

— , 1915-1916, app. iii., ix. 

.Addition of lime to briquettes to 
lodvice sulphur jiercentage, abs. 16. 

Address, presidential, .38. 

Air and methane, limits of inflam- 
mability of, abs. 12. 

American coal-mining methods, 
modern, with some comparison.s, 53, 
106, 149, 206, 252. 

Analj'sis of natural gas and illumin- 
ating-gii-s by fractional di.stillation 
at low temperatures and pressure.s, 
abs. 15. 

Annual general meeting, 1. 

— report of council, 1914-1915, 2. 

,1915-1916, aj)p. iii., v. 

finance committee, 1914-1915, 6. 

,1915-1916, app. iii., viii. 

Apparatus, mine-rescue, alas. 10. 



Aechbald, Hugh, modern Americav 
coal-milling methods, with some 
cotnparisons, 124. 

Ardlethan tinfield, abs. 8. 

Arrangements for reversing ventil- 
ation in mines, abs. 20. 

Artificial and natural ventilation, 
abs. 21. 

AsHWORTH, James, logic of trams, 221 . 

— , modern American coal-mining 
methods, with some comparisons, 
136. 

Associate members, election, 1.1. 103, 
205. 

J list, app. iii., xli. 

As.sociates, election, 33, 103, 149, 205, 
252. 

— , list, app. iii., .xliv. 

Au.stralia, We.~tern, mining fields, 
abs. 5. 



Barvik, — , dimensioning of coal- 
mines, abs. 31. 

Battery signalling bell, new, 19. 

Bedsox, p. Phillips, influence of in- 
combustible substances on coal-dust 
explosions , 243. 

Bell, new battery signalling, 19. 

Black Mountain, prospecting for gold 
in metalliferous .strata, abs. 1. 

Bla.sting in coal-mines, use of liquid 
air, abs. 19. 

— materials, modern, destructive force 
and .sjaeed of explosions, rfbs. 19. 

Blatchford, a. S., influence of incom- 
bu.stible sub.stances on coal-dust 
explosions, 235.— Discussion, 243, 
267. 



Blum, T., difficulties in firing explo- 
sives, either electrically or by hand, 
abs. 18. 

Bohemia, north-we.st, irruptions of 
quicksand in brown-coal measures, 
abs. 22. 

— , working and concentration of out- 
put of coalfield, abs. 8. 

Boogardie, geological observations 
and remarks on present state of 
mining, abs. 6. 

Bou vat-Martin, J., some considera- 
tions in regard to internal resistance 
of ventilators, abs. 21. 

— ■, .study of mine ventilation; combi- 
nation of natural and artificial ven- 
tilation, abs. 21. 



.vi)i:x. 



Bowles, Oliver, safpty in stone- 
(|ii;iiryinof, ;ib.s. 31. 

BKAf'KETT, (Jeorge S., modern Ameri- 
can ciHtl-mining meUiods, with some. 
comixirisoiiK, I'M . 

Brindley, John, modern American 
cuul-mininy melhoils, irith some com- 
parisons, 07. 

British Columbia, coalfield.s, abs. 2. 

Brown, E. O. Forster, modern 
American coal-mining methods, vilh 
some comparisons , 1G8. 

Brown, J. Coggin, mining in Banna, 
14. 

Brown, Myles, logic of trams, 233. 

Browu-Loal diist, utilization, abs. 
17. 



Brown-coal measures of north-west 
Bohemia, irruptions of quicksand, abs. 
22. 

or lignite, utilization, abs. 16. 

BuL.MAN, H. F., logic oj trams, 231. 

Burma, mining, 14, 104. 

BiTRRELL, G. A., and G. G. Oberfell, 
limits of inflammability of mixtures 
of methane and air, abs. 12. 

Burrell, (!. A., Frank M. Seibert, and 
G. (J. Oberfell, condensation of 
gasoline from natural gas, abs. 9. 

Burrell, (i. A., Frank M. Seibert, 
and I. W. KoBERTSON, analysis of 
natural gas and illuminating-gas hy 
fractional distillation at low tem- 
j:)eratures and pressure.s, abs. 15. 



Canadian mineral occurrences, list, 
abs. 2. 

Characteristics of coal-deposits in 
limestone strata (Germany), abs. 4. 

-fossil coal, abs. 4. 

Chater, C. W., mining in Burma. — 
Discussion, 14, 104. 

China, Kebao, coalfields, abs. 3. 

Cleveland-Clii!s Iron Company, electri- 
fication of, abs. 25. 

Clive, Robert, Greenwell medal pre- 
sented to, 2. 

Clothier, H. W., new battery signal- 
ling bell, 29. 

Coal, coking, at low temperatures, 
abs. 23. 

— , fossil, characteristics, abs. 4. 

— , gas in, abs. 12. 

Coal-deposits in limestone strata, 
characteristics, abs. 4. 

Coal-dust explosions, influence of 
incombustible substances. 235, 267. 

or firedamj), fatal and non-fatal 

explosions for 1915, abs. 32. 

Coalfield, Bohemia, working and con- 
centration of output, abs. 8. 

Coalfields, British Columbia, abs. 2. 

— , domain of Kebao, China, abs. 3. 

Coal-mine near Neurode, Prussian 
Silesia, explosion, abs. 14. 

Coal-mines, dimensioning, abs. 31. 

, use of Ii(|uid air for blasting, 

abs. 19. 



Coal-mining, Penn.sylvania, U.S.A., 

13. 
methods, modern American, with 

some comparisons, 53, 106, 149, 206, 

252. 
Coal resources of Western Australia. 

abs. 6. 
Coking of coal at low temperatures, 

with special reference to properties 

and composition of products, abs. 23. 
Committees, 1916-1917, app. iii., xiv. 
Concentration and working of output 

of coalfield in Bohemia, abs. 8. 
Condensation of gasoline from natural 

gas, abs. 9. 
Considerations in regard to internal 

resistance of ventilators, abs. 21. 
Constantina, employment of mechani- 
cal drills in mines, abs. 25. 
Council, annual report, 1914-1915, 2. 
— , ,1915-1916, app. iii., v. 

-of The Institution of Mining 

Engineers, representatives on, 1915- 

1916, election, 13. 
, ,1916-1917, list, 

app. iii., xiv. 
Coxe, Edward H., modern American 

coal-mining methods, with some 

comparisons, 110. 
Cbawshaw, Samuel, mining in Burma, 

15. 
Cuba, Mayari, iron-ore deposits, abs. 

8. 



D. 



Darton, N. H., occurrence of explo- 
sive gases in coal-mines, abs. 11. 

Dean, Samuel, coal-mining in .state of 
Pennsylvania, U.S.A. — Discussion, 
13. 

— , logic of trams, 220. 

— , modern American coal-mining 
methods, with some comparisons. 
53.— Discussion, 85, 106, 149, 206, 
252. 



Destructive force and speed of explo- 
sions of modern blasting materials, 
abs. 19. 

Difficulties in firing explosives, either 
electrically or by hand, abs. 18. 

Dimensioning of coal-mines, abs. 31. 

Divis, J., exjieriments on wire ropes, 
abs. 24. 

DoBSON, Charles L., memoir of the 
late George May, 269. 



INDEX. 



Domain of Kcbao, China, coalfii'lds, 
ab.s. 3. 

UoNATH, E., addition of linu' to 
bri<(Uottc's to icdncc sulphur pci- 
c'fntage, ahs. Ki. 

DoNATH, E., and A. Rzehak, character- 
istics of coal-dojjosits in limestone 
strata. (Germany), aljs. 4. 



DowLiNG, D. B., coalfields of British 

Columbia, al)s. 2. 
Drawing pillars in jtitching' seams, 

methods, abs. !). 
Drills, mechanical, in mines, Constan- 

tina, abs. 25. 
DussERT, 1)., application of Elmore 

api>aratus at (iuerrouma mines, abs. 22. 



Economy of winding-ropes, IG. 

Election of meml>ers, 1.'^ :«, 103, 149, 
205, 252. 

officers, 1915-191G, 1. 

representatives on council of The 

Institution of Mining Engineers, 
101.5-1916, 13. 

Electric lamp, portable, 175, 216, 254. 

Electrical means, loading of mine 
cages by, abs. 26. 

Electrically-driven ventilators in 
mines, modern, abs. 26. 

Electrification of mines of Cleveland- 
Cliffs Iron Company, abs. 25. 

Elmore apj)aratus at Guerrouma 
mines, abs. 22. 

Emerson, Harrington, modern Ameri- 
can coal-mining methods, with some 
comparisons, 111. 



Employment of mechanical drills in 
mines, Constantina, abs. 25. 

EsPARSEiL, H., prosjjecting for gold in 
metalliferous strata of Black Moun- 
tain, abs. 1. 

Europe, use of low-grade fuel, abs. 17. 

Ex]jeriments on wire roj)es, abs. 24. 

Explosion in coal-mine near Neurode, 
Prussian Silesia, abs. 14. 

Explosions of firedamp or coal-dust for 
1915, fatal and non-fatal, abs. 32. 

modern blasting materials, 

destructive force and speed, abs. 19. 

Explosive gases in coal-mines, occur- 
rence, abs. 11. 

— mixture.s, studies and investiga- 
tions, abs. 11. 

Explosive.s, difficulties in firing, either 
electrically or by hand, abs. 18. 



F. 



Factors of safety and economy of 
winding-ropes, 16. 

Fatal and non-fatal explf>sions of 
firedamj) or coal-dust for 1915, 
abs. 32. 

Fennald, H. H., notes on use of low- 
grade fuel in Eurof>e, abs. 17. 

Finance committee, annual report, 
1914-1915, 6. 

, ,1915-1916, a[)p. iii., viii. 

Firedamp or coal-du.st, fatal and non- 
fatal explosions for 1915, abs. 32. 



Firing explosives, difficulties, either 

electrically or by hand, abs. 18. 
FoRTiER, — , emjdoyment of mechanical 

drills in mines of Constantina, abs. 

25. 
Fossil coal, characteristics, abs. 4. 
Fuel, low-grade, u.se, in Europe, abs. 

17. 
FuTERS, T. Campbell, winding-drums 

of practice and of theory ; with notes 

on factors of safety and economy of 

winding-ropes, 16. 



Gas, natural, condensation of gasoline 
from, abs. 9. 

— in coal, abs. 12. 

Gases, explosive, occurrence in coal- 
mines, abs. 11. 

Gasoline from natural gas, condensa- 
tion, abs. 9. 

'General meetings, 1, 33, 103, 149, 205, 
252. 

(geological oVj.servations and remarks 
on pre.sent .state of mining in dis- 
tricts of Mount Magnet, Lennon- 
ville, and Boogardie, Murchison 
goldfield, abs. 6. 

Geology, mining, Yerilla, north 
Coolgardie goldfield, abs. 5. 

Germany, characteristics of coal- 
deposits in lime.stone strata, abs. 4. 

Gibson, John, logic of trams, 186. — 
Discussion, 198, 216, 254. 



Gibson, John, modern American coal- 
mining methods, with some compari- 
sons, 87. 

Godfrey, J. E., report upon Ardlethan 
tinfield, abs. 8. 

Gold in metalliferous strata of Black 
Mountain, prospecting, abs. 1. 

Goldfield, Kurnalpi, north-east 

Coolgardie, abs. 7. 

— , Yalgoo, mining centres, abs. 7. 

Graham, Charles, mine-rescue appara- 
tus, abs. 10. 

Greener, T. Y., influence of incom- 
bustible substances on coal-dust 
explosions, 248. 

— ,modern American conl-mining 
methods, with some comparisons, 
173, 215. 

— , new battery signalling bell, 31. 

— , presidential address, 38. 



INDEX. 



Greenwell iiu'dal, j)r<\soiit;iti()ii of, 2. 

Gregory, T. W. D., influence of in- 
combustible substancex on coal-dust 
explosions, 243. 



Ciiit'i rouiiia iiiiiio.s, jijjplicatioi] of 
Elmort' iij)|)aratu.s, abs. 22. 

GuisELiN, A., petroleum and the war, 
ab.s. 28. 



H. 



Halbaum, n. W. G., uifxicrn A)nerican 
coal-mining mcflnxls, irith some 
conipatisons, 1)0. 

— , vviuding-dnuiis of praftici' and of 
theory; with note.s on factor.s of 
safety and economy of winding- 
roj>e.s. — Discii.ssion, 16. 

Hare, Samuel, modern American coal- 
mining methods, ivith some com- 
parisons, 170, 212. 

Hayden, H. H., mineral production of 
India during 1913 and 1914, ab.s. 29. 



Herburg, ^, utilization of brow)i- 

coal dust. abs. 17. 
HiR.scH, Hiram H., Hirseh portable 

electric lamp, 175. — Discus.sion, 210, 

254. 
Honoraiy memljer.s, list, a|)|). iii., 

xvi. 
Hoy, Austin Y., modern American 

coal-mining metliods, with some 

comparisons, 95. 
HuEBERS, J., utilization of lignite or 

brown coal, ab.s. 16. 



Incombustible substances ou coal-dust 

exjjlosions, influence, 235, 267. 
India, mineral production, 1913 and 

1914, abs. 29. 
Inflammability of mi.xtures of methane 

and air, limits, abs. 12. 
Influence of incombustible substances 

on coal-dust explosions, 235, 267. 
Illuminating-gas, analysis, fractional 

distillation at low temperatures and 

pressures, abs. 15. 
Institution of Mining Engineers, 

rejn-eseutatives on council of, 1915- 



1916, election, 13. 

Institution of Mining Engineers, 
representations on council of 1910- 

1917, list, app. iii., xiv. 

Internal resistance of ventilators, abs. 

Investigation of certain phenomena 

accompanying a mining (air-blast) 

accident, abs. 14. 
Iron-ore deposits, Mayari, abs. 8. 
Irruptions of quicksand in brown-coal 

measures of north-west Bohemia, 

abs. 22. 



Johnston, A. A., list of Canadian 
mineral occurrences, abs. 2. 

Jutson, J. T. , geological observations 
and remarks on present state of 
mining in districts of Mount 
Magnet, Lennonville, and Boogardie, 



Murchisou goldfie)d, abs. 0. 
Jutson, J. T., Kurnalpi, north-east 

Coolgardie goldfield, abs. 7. 
— , mining geology of Yerilla, North 

Coolgardie goldfield, abs. 5. 



Kast, — , destructive force and speed 
of explosions of modern blasting 
materials, abs. 19. 

Kebao, China, coalfields, abs. 3. 

Keely, Josiah, modern American coal- 
mining methods, luith some conipuri- 
sons, 122. 

Kemp, J. F., Mayari iron-ore deposits, 
Cuba, abs. 8. 

Kempe, H. K., neiv buttery signalling 
bell, 20. 

Keppen, a. de, movements of man- 



ganese ore, abs. 28. 

Keppen, A. de, su])i)ly of mineral fuel 
to Paris Ijefore the war : imjjortance 
of port of Rouen for sujiply of Paris 
abs. 30. 

Kii.patrick, William M., logic of 
trams, 198. 

Kirschner, L., working and concen- 
tration of output of coalfield in 
Bohemia, abs. 8. 

Kuinalpi, noith-east Coolgardie gold- 
field, abs. 7. 



L. 



Lamp, portable electric, 175, 216, 

•254. 
Lantz, George N., modern A7nerican 

coal-mining methods, with some 

comparisons, 146. 



Lavoie, G. a., some remarks on gas 

in coal, abs. 12. 
Lennonville, geological observations 

and remarks on present state of 

minins', abs. 6. 



INDEX. 



Lignite or brown coal, utilization, ahs. 16. 
Ijime. addition, to bri<|tK'tt<'s to 

rt'duce sulphur jK-rceutage, abs. 16. 
Limestone strata, characteristics of 

coal-deposits, abs. 4. 
Limits of inflammability of mixtures 

of methane and air, abs. 12. 
Liquid air for blasting in coal-mines, 

abs. 19. 



Maitland, a. (J IBB, mining fields of 
western Au.stralia, abs. 5. 

Manganese ore, movements, abs. 28. 

May, George, memoir, 269. 

Mavari iron-ore dejiosits, Cuba, ab.s. 
8. 

Maylk, Ealph W., logic of trams, 224. 

— ,modern American coal-rnining 
methods, irith .some comparisons, 
133. 

Mechanical drills in mines, Constan- 
tina, abs. 25. 

Members, election, 13, 33. 103, 149, 
205, 252. 

— , list, ap]). iii., xvii. 

Memoir of the late George May, 269. 

Merivale, .John H., new battery 
signalling hell, 28. 

Metalliferous .strata of Black Moun- 
tain, prospectihg for gold, abs. 1. 

Methane and air. limits of inflamma- 
bility of, abs. 12. 

Methods of drawing pillars in pitch- 
ing seams, abs. 9. 

Mine cages, loading, by electrical 
means, abs. 26. 

— rescue apparatus, abs. 10. 

— ventilation ; combination of natui'al 
and artificial ventilation, abs. 21. 

Minei-al fuel to Paris before the war, 
supply, abs. 30. 

— occurrences, Canadian, list, abs. 2. 

— production of India, 1913 and 1914, 
abs. 29. 

Miners' safety-lamp, presentation of 
portraits of inventors, 33. 



Loading of mine cages by electrical 
means, abs. 26. 

Logic of trams, 186, 216, 254. 

Louis, Henry, influence of incom- 
bustible substances on coal-dust 
explosions, 247. 

Low-grade fuel in Europe, use of, abs. 
17. 

Ltjpton, Arnold, logic of trams, 216. 



M. 



Miners' wash-and-change houses, abs. 30. 

Mines, Constantina, employment of 
mechanical drills, abs. 25. 

— , electrification of, abs. 25. 

— , modern electrically-driven venti- 
lators, abs. 26. 

— .reversing ventilation, abs. 20. 

— , solenoid cables with induction-coils 
for telephoning, abs. 27. 

Mining, Burma, 14, 104. 

— accident, investigation of certain 
phenomena accompanying, abs. 14. 

— centres at south end of Yalgoo 
goldfield, abs. 7. 

— fields of western Australia, abs. 5. 

— geology of Yerilla, north Coolgardie 
goldfield, abs. 5. 

Modern American coal-mining 

methods, with .some comparisons, 53. 
106, 149, 206, 252. 

— blasting materials, destructive force 
and speed of explosions, abs. 19. 

— electrically-driven ventilators in 
mines, abs. 26. 

Morgan, J. D., influence of incom- 
bustible substances on coal-dust 
explosions, 246. 

Mount Magnet, geological observa- 
tions and remarks on present state 
of mining, abs. 6. 

Mountain, W. C, new battery signal- 
ling bell, 28. 

Movements of manganese ore, abs. 28. 

Mrvik, F., investigation of certain 
phenomena accompanying a mining 
(air-blast) accident, abs. 14. 



N. 



Natural and artificial ventilation, abs. 21. 
— gas, analysis, fractional distillation 

at low temiieratui-es and pressures, 

abs. 15. 
, condensation of ga.soline from, 

abs. 9. 



Neurode, Prussian Silesia, explosion in 
coal-mine, abs. 14. 

New battery signalling bell, 19. 

Nitrate of ammonia, abs. 11. 

Non-fatal and fatal explosions of fire- 
damp or coal-dust for 1915, abs. 32. 



Oberfell, G. G., and G. A. Burrell, 
limits of inflammability of mixtures 
of methane and air, abs. 12. 

Oberfell, G. G., G. A. B'urrell, and 
Frank M. .^eibert, condensation of 
gasoline from natural gas, abs. 9. 

Occurrence of explosive gases in coal- 
mines, abs. 11. 



Officers, 1915-1916, election, 1. 

— , 1916-1917, list. app. iii.. xv. 

Olin, H. L., and S. W. Parr, coking 
of coal at low temjwratures, with 
special reference to properties and 
composition of products, abs. 23. 

Output of coalfield in Bohemia, work- 
ing and concentration, abs. 8. 



INDEX. 



P. 



Padour, a., irruptions of (juicksand in 
brown-coal measures of north-west 
Bohemia, abs. 22. 

Parfitt, I. C, modern American coal- 
mining methods, with some com- 
parisons, 113. 

Paris, snpj)ly of mineral fuel before the 
war, abs. 30. 

Parker, Edward W., modern Ameri- 
can coal-mining methods, with some 
comparisons, 106. 

Parr, S. W., and H. L. Olin, coking 
of coal at low temj)eratures, with 
special reference to properties and 
comj)osition of products, abs. 23. 

Patrons, list, ajjj). iii., xvi. 

Peck, W. R., logic of trams, 218. 

— , modern American coal-mining 
methods, with some comparisons , 
127. 



I'ennsylvania, U.S.A., coal-mining, 13. 
I'etroleum and the war, ab.s. 28. 
Pillars, drawing, pitching seams, abs. 

9. 
Pitching .seams, methods of drawing 

pillars, abs. 9. 
Portable electric lamp, 175, 216, 254. 
Portraits of inventors of miners' 

safety-lamj), jjresentation, 33. 
Presentation of G. C. Greenwell medal, 

2. 
portraits of inventors of miners' 

safety-lamp, 33. 
Presidential address, 38. 
Prospecting for gold in metalliferoii.s 

strata of Black Mountain, abs. 1. 
Prussian Silesia, explosion in coal- 
mine near Neurode, abs. 14. 
pRZYBORSKi, M., use of liquid air for 

blasting in coal-mines, abs. 19. 



Quicksand in brown-coal measures of 
north-west Bohemia, irruptions, 
abs. 22. 



JuiGLEY, J. SoMERViLLE, methods of 
drawing pillars in pitching seams, 
abs. 9. 



Eameau, Louis, coalfields of domain of 

Kebao, China, abs. 3. 
Eepresentatives on council of The 

Institution of Mining Engineers, 

1915-1916, election, 13. 
- — ,1916-1917, list, 

app. iii., xiv. 
Resistance of ventilators, internal, abs. 21. 
Reversing ventilation in mines, abs. 20. 
Roj^es, wire, experiments, abs. 24. 
Rotating ventilation-doors for upcast 

shafts, abs. 20. 
Rouen, importance of, for supply of 

Paris, abs. 30. 



RouTLEDGE, W. H., logic of trams, 
199. 

— , modern American coal-mining 
methods, with some comparisons, 85. 

RucKERT, R., and — Wendrineh, 
modern electrically-di'iven ventila- 
tors in mines, abs. 26. 

Ryba, G., arrangements for reversing 
ventilation in mines, abs. 20. 

— , rotating ventilation-doors for up- 
cast shafts, abs. 20. 

RzEHAK, A., and E. Donath, character- 
istics of ooal-deposits in limestone 
strata (Germany), abs. 4. 



Safety in stone-quarrying, abs. 31. 

Safety-lamp, miners', pre.sentation of 
portraits of inventors, 33. 

ScHMERBER, H., studics and investiga- 
tions relating to various explosive 
mixtures, with nitrate of ammonia as 
the ba.se, abs. 11. 

ScHOLZ, Carl, modern American coal- 
mining methods, with some com- 
parisons, 143. 

Seams, pitching, methods of drawing 
pillars, abs. 9.' 

Seibert, Frank M., G. G. Oberfell, 
and G. A. Burrell, condensation of 
gasoline from natural gas, abs. 9. 

Seibert, Frank M., I. W. Robertson, 
and G. A. Burrell, analysis of 
natural gas and illuminating-gas by 
fractional distillation at low tem- 
peratures and pressures, abs. 15. 



Severs, William, influence of incom- 
bustible substances on coal-dust 
explosions, 248. 

Shafts, upcast, rotating ventilation- 
doors, abs. 20. 

Shubart, Benedict, modern Atnerican 
coal-7nining methods, with some 
comparisons, 140. 

SiEPRAWSKi, W., solenoid cables with 
induction-coils for telephoning in 
mines, abs. 27. 

Signalling Ijell, new battery, 19. 

Simpson, John Bell, presentation of 
portraits of inventors of miners" 
safety-lamp, 33. 

Smith, William, logic of trams, 202. 

Solenoid cables with induction-coils for 
telephoning in mines, abs. 27. 

Speed and destructive force of explosions 
of modern blasting materials, abs. 19. 



INDEX. 



Stanford, F. C. electrification of 
mines of Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Com- 
pany, abs. 25. 

Stone-quarrying, safety in, abs. 31. 

Stow, A. H., modern American coal- 
mining methdd.s, with some com- 
parisons, 148. 

Strzelecki, Percy, list of fatal and 
non-fatal explosions of firedanijj or 
coal-dust for the year 1915, abs. 32. 



Students, election, 13, 103. 

— , list, app. iii., 1. 

Stiidies and investigations relating to 
various explosive mixtures, with 
nitrate of ammonia as the base, abs. 1 1 . 

Subscribers, election, 252 

— , list, app. iii., li. 

Supply of mineral fuel to Paris before 
the war : importance of port of 
Rouen for siipply of Paris, abs. 30. 



T. 



Tate, Simon, modern American coal- 
mining methods, with some com- 
parisons, 158, 173. 

Telephoning in mines, solenoid cables 
with induction-coils, abs. 27. 

Thornton, W. M., new battery signal- 



ling bell, 19. — Discission, 26. 
Tinfield, Ardlethan, abs. 8. 
ToNGE, Alfred J., modern American 

coal-mining methods, with some 

comparisons, 131. 
Trams, logic of, 186, 216, 254. 



U. 

tfnited States of America, coal-mining mines, abs. 19. 

in state of Pennsylvania, 13. T'se of low-grade fuel in Eurojx>, 

Upcast shafts, rotating ventilation- abs. 17. 

doors, abs. 20. Utilization of brown-coal dust, abs. 17. 

Use of lirjuid air for blasting in coal- -lignite or brown coal, abs; 16. 



Ventilation, mice : combination of Ventilation in mines, reversing, abs. 20. 

natural and artificial ventilation. Ventilators, internal resistance, abs. 

abs. 21. 21. 

— doors for upcast shafts, rotating, — in mines, modern electricallv- 

abs. 20 driven, abs. 26. 



W 



Wales, Henry T., modern American 
coal-mining methods, with some 
comparisons, 89. 

Walker, G. Blake, modern American 
coal-mining methods, u-ith some com- 
parisons, 100. 

War and petroleum, abs. 28. 

Warne, — , explosion in coal-mine near 
Neurode, Prussian Silesia, abs. 14. 

Wash-and-change hou.ses, miners', abs. 
30. 

Watson, John, logic of trams, 200. 

Weithofer, K., characteristics of 
fossil coal, abs 4. 

Wendriner, — , and R. Ruckert, 
modern electrically-driven venti- 
lators in mines, abs. 26. 

Western Australia, coal resources, abs. 6. 

, mining fields, abs. 5. 

Wheeler, R. V., new battery signal- 
ling bell, 27. 

White, Joseph H., miners' wash-and- 
change houses, abs. 30. 



Wilson, Eugene B., coal-mining in 
state of Pennsyh^ania, U.S.A., 13. 

Wilson, W. R., modern .American 
coal-mining methods, irith some 
comparisons, 108. 

Winding-drums of jjractice and of 
theory ; with notes on factors of 
safety and economy of winding- 
ropes, 16. 

Winding-ropes, factors of safety and 
economy, 16. 

WiNTERMEY'ER, — , loading of mine 
cages by electrical means, abs. 26. 

Wire ropes, experiments, abs. 24. 

Wood, Percy L., Hirsch portable 
electric lamp, 216. 

Woodward, H. P., certain mining 
centres at south end of Yalgoo gold- 
field, abs. 7. 

— , coal resources of western 
Australia, abs. 6. 

Working and concentration of output 
of coalfield in Bohemia, abs. 8. 



Y. 



Yalgoo goldfield, mining centres at 

south end, abs. 7. 
Yerilla, mining geology, abs. 5. 



YoTJNG, George J., modern American 
coal-mining methods, vnth some 
comparisons, 148. 






THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE OF 
MINING AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 

[Founded 1852.— Incorporated by Royal Charter, 1876.] 



TRANSACTIONS. 



VOL. LXVII. 



1916-1917. 



EDITED BY THE AS.SISTANT SECRETARY 






NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE : PUBLISHED BY THE INSTITUTE. 



Printed by Andrew Reid & Co., Limited, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

1917. 
[All rights o/ publication or translation are reserved.] 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



The Institute is not, as a body, responsible for the statements and opinions 
advanc«d in the papers which may be read, nor in the discussions which may 
take place at the meetings of the Institute. 



CONTENTS. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. LXVII. 



Advertisement ... ... ... ii 

Contents ... ... .. ... iii 



GENERAL MEETINGS. 



1916. PAGE. 

Aug. 5. — Annual General Meeting (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) 1 

Death of Mr. John George Weeks ... 

Election of Officers, 1916-1917 

Dec. 9. — General Meeting (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) 

Death of Mr. John Herman Merivale 
1917. 

Feb. 9. — General Meeting (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) ... ... 4 

Discussion of Mr. F. F. Mairet's pajjer on " The Economical 

Production and Utilization of Power at Collieries" ... 4 

"Further Notes on Safety-lamps." By Simon Tate ... ... 6 

Discussion ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 16 

April 14. — General Meeting (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) ... ... ... 22 

Discussion of Mr. F. F. Mairet's paper on " The Economical 

Production and Utilization of Power at Collieries" ... 22 
Discussion of Mr. Simon Tate's " Further Notes on the Safety- 
lamp " ... ... ... ... ... 25 

" Some Practical Notes on the Economical Use of Timber in 

Coal-mines." By F. C. Lee 32 

Discussion ... ... ... ... ... ... 44 

"The Horsley and Nicholson Automatic Compound Syphon." 

By George E. Nicholson ... ... ... .. .. ... 45 

Discussion ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 49 

June 9. — General Meeting (Newca.stle-upon-Tyne) ... ... ... ... 54 

Discussion of Mr. F. F. Maii-et's paper on " The Economical 

Production and Utilization of Power at Collieries" ... 54 

Discussion of Mr. George R. Nicholson's paper on " The 

Horsley and Nicholson Automatic Compound Syphon" ... 55 

Discussion of Mr. F. C. Lee's paper on " Some Practical Notes 

on the Economical Use of Timber in Coal-mines" ... 57 



APPENDICES. 

-Notes of Papers on the Woi'king of Mines, Metallurgy, etc., from 
the Transactions of Colonial and Foreign Societies and Colonial 
and Foreign Publications ... ... ... ... ... ... 1-14 

" Hydraulic Packing at Ballarpur Colliery, Central Provinces, 

India." By R. S. Davies 1 



3 TRANSACTIONS-THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITITK. [Vol. Ixvii. 

Mr. W. C. Blackett seconded the vote of condolence, which 

was passed in silence, the memhers standing. 



ELECTION OF OFFICERS, 1916-191T. 

Mr. Frank Coulson (the newly-elected President), in thank- 
ino- the members for electing- him President, said that with 
the assistance of the Council he would endeavour to 
cany out the duties in the best interests of the Institute. He 
trusted that notwithstanding the war and the absence of many 
members on service they might have many interesting and useful 
papers and discussions; there was very much good to be derived 
from these discussions. A great deal was said about the trade 
war after this war, and he trusted that they would be in 
a better position to undertake such a trade campaign than they 
were to undertake the conduct of the war itself. He had no 
doubt the numerous committees appointed, with the aid of the 
eminent men who were on them, would help the country a great 
deal, but they were a long way behind in this matter. In 
Germany every group of collieries had a number of research 
chemists, men who could not only tell them that there was so 
much sulphur and ash in coal, but who could discover things in 
coal that we in England never thought of. It was very desirable 
that this practice should be carried out in England. The colliery 
manager had enough to do in his own j)ortion of the business, and 
he was not a chemist; the men required to do this work should be 
qualified chemists, and he was sure that we had in Great Britain 
chemists as good as, if not better than, they had in Germany. 

In this country there was a certain amount of coal, free from 
sulphur and ash, which was very useful in the manufacture of 
high-class steel. This coal should not be allowed to leave the 
country, but should be utilized here. 

In conclusion, he would remind them that the first President 
of the Institute had stated in his Address that " we should each 
act as if we were individually responsible for the success of the 
Institution," and he (Mr. Coulson) thought that there had been 
DO better Presidential Address. 



1916-1917.] DKVTli OF MR. .7()II>' HERM.iN MERIVAI.E. 



THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE OF MINING AND 
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



GENERAL MEETING, 

Held is the Wood Memorial Hall, Newcastlk-upon-Tyne, 

December 9th, 1916. 



Mr. frank COULSON, President, i.v the Chair. 



DEATH OF MR. JOHN HERMAN MERIVALE. 

The President (Mr. Frank CouUon) .said that by the death 
of their Secretary they had last their pilot. What that meant 
to their Institute, to The Institution of Mining Engineers, and to 
the mining- community of Great Britain was very difficult to 
estimate, as tlie loss was so great. Mr. Merivale had been a 
member of the Institute for 40 years, he had sat on the Council 
for 'iO years, was President for the years 190^J-1907 and 1907- 
1908, and had acted as Honorary Secretary and then Secretary 
for tlie past S years. He possessed a very intimate knowledge of 
the requirements of the Institute, and took the greatest possible 
interest in all matters relating thereto. He had devoted a large 
amount of time and thought to the promotion of the wellbeing 
of tlie Institute, and had tlius contribiited in no small measure 
to its usefulness and success. He (Mr. Coulson) moved that the 
Acting Secretary be instructed to convey to Mrs. Merivale and 
her family tlie sincere sympatlu' of the members with tlieni in 
their bereavement, and to express how greatly Mr. Merivale'e 
invaluable services were appreciated. 

Mr. C. C. Leach (Seghill) .said that no one could have been 
more useful to the Institute, and to everybody round him, than 
their late Secretary. He was always so cheery, even in very 
adverse circumstances, and no one was more helpful to others. 
He would be very greatly missed by those who knew him, for he 
was always regarded as one of the best. 

The resolution was passed in silence, the members standing. 



Best's Gauzeless miners" safety-lamp was exhibite<l, 
described, and demonstrated by Mr. W. Best. 



4 IRANSACTIOXS TIIK NOUTII OK K\(;LANI) IXS'IiriTK. [Vol. Ixvii. 

THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE OF MINING AND 
MECHANICAL ENGINEEIIS. 



GENERAL MEETING, 

Held in the Wood Memorial Hall, Newcastle-ufon-Tyne, 

February 10th, 1917. 



Mr. frank GOULSON, President, in the Chair. 



DISCrSSlON OF MK. F. F. MAIRFTS PAPFK ON " THE 
ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION (JF 
POWER AT COLLIERIES."* 

The President (Mr. Frank Coulson) said that the trend of 
the discussion had been as to tiie best way of using inferior coal. 
The question arose whether it was better to feed coal into tlie 
furnaces in the dirty state in which it came out of the mine or 
to wash it. From a perusal of the discussion he gathered tliat 
the general opinion was that it was better to wash the coal and 
to use clean coal for firing the boilers than to u.se unwashed coal. 

Mr. Simon Tate (Tiinulon Grange) said that it was not 
always practicable to adopt that course, as at a number of 
collieries the bottom coal was used for boiler-firing, and was 
tipped into the fireholes as it came out of the pit. As it 
amounted to only an occasional tub or two, it would be impossible 
to keep a washing plant and the necessary attendants to deal 
with such coal. It seemed to him that it was purely a question 
of expense, and the method suitable at one colliery might not 
be suitable at another. Many of the collieries in the county of 
Durham were now trying to utilize their waste gases for their 
supply of power. 

The President agreed with Mr. Tate, but was of opinion that 
much useful material was tipped over the heaps that might be 
crushed and washed, and so effect a saving. 

Mr. R. J. Weeks (Bedlington) said that in a great many 
collieries in Northumberland the " band " coal was being used 
to the greatest possible extent, and it came out of the fires in as 
large pieces as when it went in. He thought that there was no 
room for improvement in that direction. 

Mr. C. C. Leach (Seghill) stated that many engineers over- 
looked the fact that they had an extra boiler to keep going; this 
not only required an extra fireman, but the boiler absorbed an 
enormous amount of heat, and gave them no return. 

The President (Mr. Frank Coulson) said that one question 
arising out of the paper was whether it was cheaper to generate 

* Truns. InsI, M, E., 1916-1917, vol. lii., pages 71, 127, apd 239, 



1916-1917.] niSCUSSlOX PRODICTION" AND UTILIZATION" OF POWER. 5 

electricity or to buy it. It appeared to liiiu that wliere a colliery 
had coke-oveus adjacent, electric power and light could be 
generated very cheaply; but that where tbere was no .surplus 
heat from coke-ovens, it would be cheaper to buy Hum to generate 
such power. If only a snudl unit was rei[uired, and they had 
to keep a big generator running to produce the power, it could 
be bought more cheaply. 

Mr. M. AV. Parrington (Wcarmouth Colliery) said that the 
question wa.s whether it was cheaper to buy electricity than to 
generate it with a separate plant where no waste heat or exhaust- 
steam was available. The whole of the plant of a power company 
was concentrated. 

Mr. Simon Tate said that he differed from the President, as 
the electric power companies had to purchase their coal. The 
plant could not be better concentrated than at a colliery where 
they had the coal. 

Mr. Reginald Guthrie (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) asked 
whether it was not largely a question of the amount of power 
required; if it was not a large quantity, he thought that it could 
not be produced nearly so cheaply as it could be bought 

Mr. C. ('. Leach said tluit at a fairly large colliery with hand- 
fired boilers electricity could be generated at jd. per unit; it 
could not be bought for that amount, although the companies 
generated it for |d. per unit. 

Prof. Henry Louis (Armstrong College, Newcasile-upon- 
Tyne) said that he could quite imagine that a colliery producing 
much " band " or dirty coal, which, if gasified in a low- 
temperature gas-producer would produce a large quantity of 
bye-products, would obtain its electricity for practically nothing; 
that would be the maximum of economy in the production of 
electricity on a small scale ; whereas another colliery producing 
nothing but a good class of vendable coal, would not find it 
profitable to generate its own electricity. It all depended on the 
circumstances, very largely on the class of coal produced, and 
I hat was the only answer that could be given to the question. 

Mr. Mark Ford (Washington) tiiought it depended very 
much on the colliery and how the pits were laid out. Tiiere was 
a further point to be considered, namely, the position of a colliery 
was always changing. The requirements at present might be 
'-J00 kilowatts, and to-morrow 500. That might mean the 
scrapping of the existing plant and its replacement in order to 
meet the larger supply required. For ordinary-sized collieries 
he thought that it was cheaper to buy electricity than to generate 
it. 



TUA.NSACTIONS TllK NUKTll Ol' KN(.LAM> I.NMITITK. [Vol. Ixvii. 



Kl'lM'llKK NOTES ()}i SAFKTV-LAMl'S. 



By SIMON TATE. 



Inlfoditction. — A few months ago the writer prepared some 
notes on tlie subject of safety-himps ; but having learnt that 
Profs, llardwick and O'Sliea had written a paper on the subject, 
he awaited its publication before submitting- his views. Having 
now liad an opportunity of reading their paper,* he oifers to these 
gentlemen his hearty congratulations on a very full and careful 
compilation of dates and particulars relating to the history of 
safety-lamps. 

The subject, however, is one of particular — the writer might 
almost say personal — interest to the members of The North of 
England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers, and he 
is of opinion that all has not yet been said upon it that might and 
ought to be said. The Institute is still privileged to have 
amongst its members a few who, he believes, could supply some 
interesting and instructive facts relating to the early local history 
of this very important subject, and more especially when it is 
considered that it was in Newcastle-upon-Tyne that the battle of 
the lamps was fought, a controversy in which the greatest mining 
engineers of their day bore an active part, and which continued 
from 1815 onwards for many years. He has no doubt that the 
present fathers of mining in the North of England — Sir Lindsay 
Wood, Bart., Mr. Thomas Douglas, Dr. J. B. Simpson, and 
possibly a few others — could add considerably to our knowledge 
of past events on this subject. 

In the early years of the nineteenth century several serious 
colliery explosions occurred, which resulted in the loss of many 
lives, the most serious being that at Felling Colliery in 1812, 
when 92 lives were lost. This explosion was probably due 
primarily to the ignition of firedamp; at any rate, this was the 
cause assigned for it at the time, although there is always the 
possibility that some of these early explosions might have been 
caused by the presence of coal-dust. 

The ventilation of coal-mines at that date was very crude and 
meagre, and even where there was some pretension to adequacy- of 
air-supply, its quantity was very much restricted by the practice 
then followed of having one continuous current passing from the 
downcast to the upcast shaft, the result being that the air was 
small in volume and impure in quality. 

It is not easy to imagine or realize what would be the condi- 
tion of such an air-current after passing round all the ramifica- 

*" Notes on the History of the Safetv-Uniip," by Prof, F. W. Hardwiek 
and Prof. L. T. O'Shea, Trans. Inst. M.E., 1915-1916, vol. li., page 548. 



1916-1917.] TATE FURTHER NOTES ON SAFETY-LAMPS. 7 

tions ot one of the deeper collieries, where the air was said to 
travel a distance of 30 miles or more; nor need one be surprised 
at the numl)er of ex])l()si()ns tliat occurred, Juiving- rejicard first to 
the state of the veiilila t ion. and second to the universal use of 
naked liohts. Probably many of the explosions which at that 
time occurred would luive been even more serious if the ventilat- 
ing air-current had been less contaminated. It was not until 
the year 1815 that " splitting- of the air " was first introduced. 

Towards the close of the eighteenth century and tlie beginning 
of the nineteenth great developments in colliery properties took 
place, due to the advent of the steam-engine, which enabled coal 
to be won from depths hitherto impracticable, but which were 
now rendered workable by the substitution of steam for animal 
power. With the increase of depths came the increased menace 
of firedamp, as up to the year 1815 naked lights were the only 
means used for ordinary lighting. At some collieries exceptional 
circumstances necessitated the occasional use of the steel-mill, 
which was invented betAveen the years 1730 and 1750, and intro- 
duced into northern collieries about the year 1760; but this, 
altliough called an improvement, was apparently only a shade 
safer than the naked light. 

Two terrible explosions of firedamp, with serious loss of life, 
having occurred, one at Tarrow and the other at Felling, the 
public became alarmed; excitement ran high, and public men of 
all grades demanded that a remedy should be provided. Rewards 
were offered for the best means of working collieries where fire- 
damp existed; the aid of the Government was invoked; and 
eminent scientists voluntarily gave their services in seeking to 
provide a safe means of lighting which, whilst enabling the miner 
to follow his employment, would not ignite firedamp. 

From the time when firedamp became prevalent in dangerous 
quantities in mining for coal, the question of providing a safe 
light to work by had occupied the attention of the brightest intel- 
lects that graced the mining profession, and the occurrence of the 
explosions stimulated still further the efforts of such men as 
Nicholas Wood, John Buddie, George .Stephenson, Sir Humphry 
Davy, Dr. Clanny, and many others, with the result that in 1814 
Dr. Clanny invented a lamp that burned in an explosive mixture 
without igniting the surrounding inflammable atmosphere. This 
lamp, however, although considered scientifically safe, was so 
complicated and cumbersome that it was found to be imprac- 
ticable for use as an ordinary means of lighting for underground 
work, and it was not until about 20 years later, probably about 
the year 1837, that the " Clanny " lamp, so well known to all 
mining men, was produced. 

In 1815 George Stephenson, at that time the colliery engineer 
at Killingworth Colliery, invented a lamp, and in the same year, 



8 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTH OF KN(iLANI) IN ST IT I IK. [Vol. Ixvii. 

practically at the same time, Sir Hum}>liry Davy also produced 
one. After many preliminary trials and partial failures we are 
informed that both inventors succeeded, independently of each 
other's efforts, in producino- a safety-lamp, and both lamps were 
found to be safe when burning in an explosive atmosphere. 

Both George Stephenson's " Geordy " and Sir Humphry 
Davy's "Davy" depended on the same principle for their safety, 
namely, small apertures in a metal plate, or the meshes of a 
closely-woven wire gauze, which enclosed the flame of a lamp. 
These, whilst admitting the passage of an inflammable mixture, 
did not allow the flame to pass from the inside to the outside 
atmosphere, and consequently it did not ignite the surrounding 
firedamp. This was the governing principle of safety-lamps, 
and from that time onwards miners have always had the means 
of having a safe light when they encountered firedamp. 

These three inventions led io important developments in the 
output from fiery collieries, and a change immediately took place 
in the working of gaseous coal-seams. Where previously it had 
been found too risky to extract the coal-pillars (and in many deep 
pits large tracts of small pillars have been left and manj^ of them 
lost for ever), immediately the safety-lamp was adopted efforts 
were made to work off pillars, and millions of tons of coal have 
been extracted which but for the safety-lamp would probably 
have been irrecoverably lost. 

In 1815 and for some time afterwards it was evidenth* the pre- 
vailing idea that it was quite safe to use the safety-lamp con- 
tinuously for lighting purposes in atmospheres charged with fire- 
damp, thus enabling the colliers to follow their usual work even 
in the presence of considerable percentages of firedamp; in fact, 
the idea was prevalent that the safety-lamp had been invented 
for the express purpose of working in explosive atmospheres. 

From information handed down it appears that the fullest 
advantage was taken of this property of the safety-lamp, and at 
some collieries it was deliberately and habitually used in 
atmospheres charged with firedamp. Even under such trying 
conditions implicit trust continued to be placed in the efficiency 
and security of the lamps; in fact, they were often used under 
such conditions that the gauzes of the lamps became red hot, and 
the lamps had to be taken out into the fresh air to be cooled. At 
some collieries boys were employed for the purpose of changing 
the lamps when they became too hot to handle. 

An interesting paragraph occurs in Sykes' Local Records, as 
follows : — 

" 1825, October 5th. — An explosion took place in Hebburn colliery, by 
which four men were suffocated by the after-damp. The carburetted 
hydrogen gas took fire at a steel mill, which was emploj^ed while the Davy 
lamps were cooling." 



1916-1917.] TAtE — ITRThKR NOTES ON SAF£TY-I.AM PS. 9 

Sir Humphry ])avv. in writing to Dr. Gray on New Year's 
Day, 1816. made the following statement : — 

" I have made very simple and economical lanterns, and candle guards, 
which are not only absolutely safe, but which give light by means of the 
fire-damp, and which, while they disarm this destructive agent, make it useful 
to the miner."* 

" That there has been no instance of an explosion occurring in conse- 
quence of the use of the Davy lamp where it has been properly used, i.e. 
neither inadvertently opened, the meshes of the wire disturbed, so as to widen 
some of the apertures, nor the tissue too long kept at a red heat."t 

" But that the miners sometimes actualh' work with the cage at a red 
heat for hours together. "J 

That thi.s was not an isolated case is borne out b}- the remark.? 
in the Inaugural Address delivered by Mr. Nicholas Wood, the 
first President of the Institute, at the meeting held on September 
3rd, 1852. when he .said that— 

" The subject of safety-lamps will, therefore, no doubt form the subject 
of your early and anxious investigation, and no part of the subject will 

require more serious or careful attention and the fact that thousands 

of those lamps are daily iised in an inflammable atmosphere, render this an 
inquiry of vital importauce to the safety of the miner. "§ 

This statement points to the possibility that of the three, types 
of lamps at this time extant the " Davy " must have been the 
one most generally used, as neither the " Geordj" " nor the 
" Clanuy " would have continued to burn under the conditions 
mentioned b\- Mr. Wood. 

TJie Clanny Lamp. — From information that the writer has 
been able to gather he thinks that the " Clanny," with the adop- 
tion of the " Davy " gauze fixed above the glass cylinder, only 
became a practical miner's lamp some time between the years 
1837 and 1843; certainly in the year 1853 it was the lamp regu- 
larly used at Wearmouth Collieiy, then the deepest pit in this 
country, for we find that at a meeting of the Institute held that 
year Mr. George Elliot (afterwards Sir George Elliot), who at 
the time Avas the viewer of Wearmouth Colliery, stated — 

"I am, perhaps, unduly partial to the Clanny lamp; but, at the same 
time, as the subject is before the meeting, I think it but fair to state that I 
have worked with it for several years — six or eight years. I have employed 
several hundreds of them; and in no case have I been made acquainted with 
a single instance where the safety of the miner has been imj>erilled by any 
accident to the glass. We have a large increase of light from it."l| 

As Mr. Elliot stated that he had worked with this lamp for 
eight years, this meant that it had been used at that colliery from 
about 1845. When one considers the probable condition of the 
colliery at this early period of its history, when the very deepest 
coal-working of virgin seams of coal was practicalh" just com- 

* The History ami Dh^rription of Fo<sil Fuel, the Collieries, and Coal Trade of 
Crtat Britain, by John Holland, second edition, 1841, page 274. 

t Ibid., page 284. + Ibid. , page 285. 

§ Trans. N. E. Inst., 1852-1853, vol. i., second edition, page 24. 

II Ibid., page 190. 



lU TKA.\>AC 110N> TllK NOKTll OK KM. LAND INsllllTi;. [Vol. Ixvii. 

menciuy, it is almost certain that the manager of this colliery 
would not have adopted the lamp so generally if he had not pre- 
viously satisfied himself of its absolute safety for such couditions 
as would exist at his pit. The writer believes that its use was 
continued at this colliery down to within (|uite recent years. 

It may tlierefore with confidence he assumed that the period 
suggested (1837 to 1843) is more or less correct as the date of 
the invention of the "■ Clauuy " lamp as we know it. namely, the 
lamp with the single glass cylinder and with the '' Davy " gauze 
above it. 

In its early days this lamp, owing to its having only a single 
glass surrounding the flame, was looked upon by many colliery 
viewers with great trepidation, and even in the writer's time at 
many collieries it was onl\- allowed to be used on the wagonways 
and in the mIioIc mine-workings, its use in the luoken mine being 
strictly prohibited. In fact, it was looked upon by many officials 
at the fiery pits as occupying a position midway between a safety- 
lamp and a stable lantern, and in their opinion was not to be com- 
pared with the " Davy " and the '' Geordy " lamps as a safe light 
for working in the parts of a mine where firedamp was likely to be 
present. Yet, notwithstanding all the obloquy cast upon it, the 
" Clanny " possesses two important advantages — it gives a much 
better light than either the " Davy " or the *' Geordy " lamp, 
and it has the property of becoming extingui>hed much more 
quickly than the '" D-avy '" lamp in an explosive mixture or 
firedamp, a very import-iint factor when the lamp is used In- 
inexperienced persons. 

The late Mr. Stephen C. Crone, in his " Observations on 
Pillar Working in Xorthumberland and Durham Collieries," 
when speaking of the use of safety-lamps, mentioned only the 
" Davy "' and the '* Geordy " lamps, and never even hinted at 
the use of the " Clanny " lamp. The following is an extract 

from his paper: — 

" It is the invariable custom in the North of England always to use the 
Davy-lamp where the least danger is to be apinehended in pillar work- 
ing. It is used in the least dangerous parts of Killiugworth Colliery; but in 
the dij) and most dangerous parts, no other but the " Geordy,' or Stephenson'.s 
safetv-lamp, is allowed to be iised, as l)eing the most improved, and affording 
greater protection from danger than the Davy. The Davy safety-lamp is 
undoubtedly safe under all ordinary circumstances of danger; biit on extra- 
ordinary occasions, where danger is constantly to be apprehended, I prefer 
the 'Geordy.' I mention this from having observed, in jjersons unaccustomed 
to the use of the ' Geordy,' a species of objection, almost amounting to a 
prejudice, against this safety-lamp, difficult to account for, unless they are 
ignorant of the principles and action of the lamp. As the ' Geordy ' is not so 
geuerallv known and extensively used as the Davy, I may here give a 
brief explanation of its action, and why I prefer it as above stated. When 
introduced into an explosive atmosphere, the light gently flames up, and is 
immediatelv extinguished. The reason of this is. the flame absorbs all the 
oxygen inside the glass cylinder placed within the gauze, and the air cells 
at 'the bottom, to admit air for the support of the flame, l^eiug too small to 



I 



19lf5-1917.] TATE — nTRtllEU NOTHS ON SAFETY-I.AM PS. U 

allow a sufficient quantity of oxygen to pass througii for supporting a large 
flame, it is necessarily and immediately extinguished, the heated air passing 
upward preventing a supply from the holed cap on the top. This is not the 
case with the Davy safety-lamp. Every orifice of the gauz<> Ix'ing open 

for the admission of oxygen from the surrounding air, a sufficient tiuantity 
is admitted to support a large flame; and when introduced into an explosive 
atmosphere, it flames up, and continues burning with a large volume of 
fiame as long as any oxygen remains, so as to render the gauze red hot, if 
the lamp is continued in such an atmosj)here. In flu- oidinary course of 
working it is not, howevei , allowed to remain in such ;iii atmosphere until it 
becomes red hot, the workmen iicing ordered to remove it. I mei-ely state 
this, contrasting the value of the two lamps in an explosive atmos])here, the 
utter inability of the workman to i-emain at work, in //ic ddik, under such 
circumstances, with a ' Geordy ' lamp, wliicli he iniLrlit 1h' feinjit<'(l to do 
with a Davy."* 

The writer coiisidci's thai ilic Mut'stMer, Marsaiit. and other 
glfiss laiup.s of simihtr coiislniction are only luoditication.s of, 
and some of them improvements on, the " (Manny " lamp. 

One of the restriction.s im])o.s«Ml by the (ioNcnmient in the 
Coal Mines Act of 1911 was the fixinp- of a standard of liprhtinp;- 
power for safety-lamps; in consecinence of this the " Davy " and 
" Geordy "' lamps have been jjract ically alidlished, and the jirin- 
riple enunciated in the quotation : " The stone which the huilder.s 
rejected has become the chief corner-stone," is veiy n])i\\ i)or- 
trayed in the past and present jxjsitioii held by ihc Clanny tyi)e 
of himp, and in its adoption by the (lovt^rnnient. 

The " Georchj " Lanip. — At the first introduction of the 
safety-himp this lamj) un(h)ubtedly was theoretically the safest 
of the three clas.ses of himps, becau.se, owinjr to the piiiiciple of 
it.s construction, it was exf injjruished on coming' into contact with 
an explosive mixture. U nfortunately , however, it o-ave out the 
least efficient lipht of the three, and tor this reason its use has 
g-radually become less and less o-eneral. The proi)erty possessed 
by the lamp of ceasinj? to ])urn in p-as, althouo;h very pc'"*! when 
the lamp is in the hands of an ordinary workman, is nevertheless 
very inconvenient for officials. This extreme sensitivene.ss and 
its poor lig-htinor qualities no doubt caused it to sink into com- 
parative disuse even before it was tabooed by Parliament. 

The iJary Lamp. — From 1815 down to l!)ll this lamp 
undoubtedly occui)ied the premier position of usaoe over all other 
.safety-lamps, and the writer thinks deservedly so. for of all oil- 
burning- safety-lamps it was and is the most con\eni(Mit and 
dependable. He has used the Davy lamj) for over fifty 
years, and for the latter tiiirty years a tin-can Davy lamj), and 
probably his experience has been as varied as it well could be, 
for he has at times required a lam]) to be used under as tiymg con- 
ditions as any to which safety-lami)s can well be i)ut in practice, 

* Trans. N. E. luil., 18601861, vol. ix., page 20. 



12 TRANSACTIONS — THE NOHTII OV ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol. Ixvii. 

iiud ill all circuni.siaiR'e.s aiid ai all times it has proved reliable. 
With it ho has always fell iliat lie had all instrument or imple- 
ment — he may l)e alh)\ved lo call it a Irnsted friend — tliat will 
never w-ith fair treatment play him false. He considers the pro- 
hibition of the u.se of the protected ])avy lamp a serious blunder. 

It is a somewhat curious incident that it w^as at Monkwear- 
mouth Colliery that the first authentic failure of the Davy 
lamp was adjudged by a coroner's jury to have been the cause of 
an explosion resulting in the death of a miner, the verdict being 
as follows : — 

" That the air inside of the lamp fired, and by a sudden jerking the flame 
came through the gauze, fired the gas, and so caused the deceased's death."* 

This decision caused considerable discussion at the time, and 
a committee of the Institute was ai)pointed to investigate the 
matter, but the writer has failed to find any report of its findings. 

It is a remarkable fact in the history of safety-lamps that the 
J)avy lamp, which for nearly 100 years has held the premier 
position in the opinion of miners and mining engineers as being 
the best practical lamp for dangerous and important work, should 
be .suddenly prohibited, notwithstanding that probably most 
mining engineers, if called upon to explore dangerous workings 
where noxious gas might be met with, would, if permitted, prefer 
a protected Davy lamp to any other oil-burning safety-lamp. 

AVhile the glass lamp of the Clanny type undoubtedly gives 
out a higher candle-power than either the Davy or the " Geordy," 
and has, when used by the ordinary workman, the excellent pro- 
perty of becoming extinguished in an explcsive mixture, yet. 
on the other hand, it pos.sesses certain inherent weaknes.ses which 
renders it unsuitable for officials, such as, for example, the 
following : — 

(1) It too readily becomes extinguislied in the presence of 
firedamp or blackdamp. Even when testing for firedamp the 
examiner may easily lose his light if he finds the gas in greater 
proportions or " quicker " than he anticipated. 

(2) It is too readily extinguished by the slightest shock ; even 
a false step is sufficient to extinguish the light. 

(3) Having only a single glass between the flame and the out- 
side atmosphere, its security is ended if the glass becomes broken. 
It is therefore unsuitable when creeping through or over falls, 
and in such l^ke dangerous positions. 

(4) It is too heavy to carry for persons who travel all their 
shift in low places, such as drivers, deputies, and officials, all of 
whom are greatly inconvenienced by its weight and cumber- 
someness. 

The weakness of the unprotected Davy lamp was well known 
and appreciated by the late Mr. Nicholas Wood, Mr. John Wales. 

* Trans. X. E. In-il., 1860-1861, vol. ix., page 250. 



J 



1916-1917] TATE FURTHER NOTES ON SAFETY-LAMPS. 13 

Mr. .lohn l);ig'li,sli, and ntlior miiiiiio" engineers long liefore the 
Hetton experiments. 'I'lic Avriicr nMuenibers, when lie first weiit 
as a boy into the pits, wliiih were at Ihat time under the direct 
superintendence of Mr. Daglisli, that many of the Davy lamps 
had their shields fastened down with solder, and in order to 
avoid the necessit}* of raising the shield some of the lamps had 
transparent shields made of either mica or horn, so as not to 
obscure the light. The idea of protecting the lamp by means of a 
transparent shield seems to have been first publicly mentioned 
by one of the members of the Select Committee of the House of 
Tjords appointed to " Inquire into the best Means of preventing 
the Uccurrence of Dangerous Accidents in Coal Mines." AVhen 
the witness (Sir H. T. De La Beche) was speaking of the possi- 
bility of a current of firedamp causing the flame of the lamp to 
be communicated to the outside atmosphere, he was asked : 
" Might not that be obviated by something transparent being put 
in front of it? "* 

The vulnerability of the Davy lamp in its unprotected form 
when exposed to currents of explosive mixture travelling at 
high velocities was definitely demonstrated liy the committee 
appointed by the Institute. The committee made a series of 
experiments at the Iletton Coal Company's collieries during the 
period 1857 to 1870, and the writer well remembers hearing the 
expressions of consternation from the mining officials at the 
failure of the trusted Davy lamp, and also the recovery of their 
confidence when it was found that with the addition of the tin-can 
case the Davy was found to be perfectlv safe for all practical 
purposes. One experiment was quoted with great gusto, to the 
effect that whereas without the shield the explosive current blew 
through the gauze and exploded the outside explosive atmosjihere, 
with the addition of the tin-can case an even higher current 
failed to explode it. The current was increased until it forced 
the lamp out of the box altogether ; it was still alight, and had not 
exploded the surrounding atmosphere. 

Testing for Gas. — In the olden days testing for gas with the 
naked candle was, perhaps, one of the most delicate and nerve- 
trying operations in the duties of a miner, and is described in 
Profs. Hardwick and O'Shea's paper. 

Various restrictions and prohibitions have from time to time 
been placed on the continued use of the safety-lamp in gaseous 
mixtures, and in the Coal Mines Act of 1911 it has been fixed that 
where the atmosphere of a working-place contains for a period of 
time more than 21 per cent, of firedamp, that place is deemed 
unfit for working therein. This enactment has undoubtedly led 
to an endeavour to have a more exact ascertainment of the definite 

• 1849, page 20, 



14 TRANSACTIONS — THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE. [Vol, Ixvii. 

percentages of firedamp existing in our coal-mines; explanatory 
diagrams have been issued by the Government illustrating the 
appearance of gas on the flame of the oil-burning safety-lamp, 
and these show that certain lengths of blue " cap " on the flame 
are indicative that the atmosphere thus tested contains certain 
l)er(^entages of firedamp. 

In order to ascertain the actual percentages of firedamp, a 
number of ingenious and scientific apparatus have been invented 
and tried, but up to the present time none has come into general 
use. 

For many years the writer has been accustomed to make 
frequent tests for firedamp, and when using a Davy lamp he can 
do this with a certain amount of confidence that with ordinary 




Fig. 1. — Improved Lamp-pricker in Position in Oil-vessel. 



care the examination will generally be made without losing his 
light ; but now that he has to use a glass lamp, whenever he has to 
make a test he is always afraid of losing his light, and he often 
has lost it. 

This extreme sensitiveness and uncertainty in the behaviour 
of the light when testing for gas has been increased in late years 
by the adoption of flat wicks; previously round wicks were com- 
monly used, and generally the ordinary pricker could effectively 
cover the flame without the wick having to be drawn down unduly 
so as to obscure the white flame. With the flat broad wick now 
used, the ordinary pricker is of very little use for obscuring the 
white flame when the examiner is testing for firedamp; if he 
de&ires to obliterate the white flame, he is compelled to draw down 



1916-1917.] 



TATE FURTHER .VOTES ON SAI'ETY-LAMRS . 



15 



the wick to .sucli an extent tliat the flame is reduced to its 
minimum size. In this condition the heat of the flame is reduced 
and the slip-litest movement extinguishes the licht. 




Fig. 2. — Another View of Improved Lamp- 
pricker IN Position in Oil-vessel. 



Fig. 3. — Complete Lamp fitted 
WITH Improved Lamp-pricker. 



It has repeatedly come to the writer's knowledge that ditter- 
ences of opinion have arisen lietween responsible parties as to the 
correct a.scertainment and recording- of the presence of small per- 

cejitages of firedamp; 
and although some 
allowances have to be 
made for the circum- 
stances influencing the 
parties, he is of the 
opinion that the prin- 
cipal cause of these 
differences is the manner 
of testing rather than 
inability, inaccuracy, or 
carelessness. 

It is common know- 
ledge that ordinarily 
the operation of test- 
ing for minute percentages of firedamp with a glass lamp is 
fraught with some difficulty, for it is necessary when making an 
accurate test to do so with a greatly reduced flame, so as not to 
have any white flame visible, and in this condition the light is 
very precarious and readily extinguished. 





Fig. 4. — Improved 
Lamp-pricker. 



Fig. 5. — Old form of 
Lamp-pbtcker. 



16 TRANSACTIONS THE NORTTT OF ENGLAND INSTTTT^TE. [Vol. Ixvii. 

'IMiis lial)iliiy naturally iiiflueiiees the examiner, and probably 
encourages him to resort to the old-fashioned method of testing by 
simply observing whether the flame of the lamp " swells " or 
" pulls," and, if it does not do so, to accept the place as clean 
and to certify it as free from gas, although the atmosphere of the 
place may contain a gaseous mixture approaching 2^ per cent, of 
firedamp. In such cases, if a more careful examination is made 
afterwards, one need not be surprised at a difference in the 
estimates. 

Improved Pricher. — When making an examination for gas 
with an ordinary safety-lamp, it is advisable, for convenience and 
to safeguard the light, to retain the wick of the lamp as near to 
its normal height as possible, but at the same time to have no 
white light visible on the wick. This can only be done by ob- 
scuring the flame, and for this purpose the writer has contrived 
an alteration of the shape of the pricker or snuffer by making it 
of sufficient length or width to cover the whole of the light and 
thus effectually efface the white flame. In order to do this, it is 
necessary that the arm of the pricker should be in alignment with 
the top of the wick-tube, as shown in Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4. Fig. 5 
shows an ordinary pricker, and it will be seen that it does not 
cover the wick, and therefore does not obliterate the white light. 
To obliterate the white light with the old pricker, it is necessary 
to lower the wick into the wick-tube much further than is re- 
quired when using the' improved pricker. 

The writer has had the improved pricker tried by his officials, 
deputies, and shot-firers for over twelve months, and it has given 
general satisfaction. 



Mr. A. M. Hedley (Eston, Yorkshire) wrote that an article 
appearing in an undated newspaper cutting found ar^jongst the 
papers of the late Mr. Michael Henry Rankin, who practised as a 
solicitor in Newcastle-upon-Tyne about the middle of last 
century, made an amusingly adverse reference to the Davy lamp. 
It was obvious that the author cherished feelings of keen animos- 
ity towards Mr. John Buddie, the well-known mining engineer: 
but although he expressed himself so forcibly, he did not show 
clearly in what respect the Davy lamp was found to be at fault. 
The cutting was as follows: — 

"Wn,LrUL MURDEE. 
" The Philosopher's remarks on the Wallsend Jury. 

" In the first Place the Foreman of this senseless Jnry is a crony of 
John Buddie the Murderer, Andrew Mill's worse for he has frequently been 
seen in the carriage along with him; and secondly he has got the neighbouring 
people around him that is afraid of him as this monster in human form is 
like the King of the place, so they dare say nothing against him, for fear that 
he may injure them^ and there is one man that I know is on the Jury, that is 



1 



1916-1917] DISCUSSION FURTHER NOTES OX SAFETY-I-AMPS . 17 

the man that says Anieu after the Priest, that I know is bordering upon 
Idiotisni, and I know all the rest are very little Ijetter, but let them do as they 
will, I will prove it Willful Murder, when my lamps was proved completely 
safe and a good light by the Willington Wastemen, and Mr. Johnson the 
Viewer, Sir H. Davy's Lamps were proved not safe a few weeks after they 
gave him the Reward, by several men in Scotland losing their lives by them. 
And after that again at Wallsend, when the same Pit fired in 1818, and after 
the 4 i^eople lo.st their lives, I saw a man come uj) the Pit and dam'd the 
Lamps why do they call them safe lamps, I saw the Lamp fire in the lad's 
hand, and she knocked her self out before she got to me, and the Lamp was 
found without blemish, so that proved they fire at a certain degree of heat, 
but that poor man was obliged to hold his peace for fear of his bread, as 
John Buddie had passed a thing that was not safe, but that poor man is lost 
now; so when my lamps was proved safe from the first, and forcing men to 
work with Murder Lam])s and knowing it and proved that 18 years. So I 
am robbed, the Men murdered willfully by this monster in human Form, and [ 
defy all the Juries in the world to prove it any thing else if they do 
Justice." 

"William Martin, X.P." 

He (Mr. Hedley) might meutioii that in Messr.s. Hardwick 
and O'Shea'.s paper reference had been made to William Martin's 
lamp as having failed to gain the approval of the Sonth SliiekLs 
Committee in 1843. 

Mr. F. C. Lek (Asljington) wrote that the original pricker 
.siipplied by Mr. Tate wa.s found to be too short to cover up all 
the white light, and another was made with which the tests for 
gas were performed. The pricker was put on to an official's 
lamp and its position over tlie flame adjusted. Another lamp 
with lowered wick was also employed alongside the first. The 
test was performed in an Oldham gas-tester. When the lamps 
were pat in position, gas and air were admitted in such pro- 
portions as to make the percentage of gas about T. A small 
explosion took place, and the lights both went out. After re- 
lighting the lamps, 2 per cent, of gas was tried, and while over 
tlie flame of the lowered wick a distinct " cap " was visible, there 
was nothing to be seen over the flame with the pricker. The 
same result was recorded with 2-^ per cent, of gas. At '■) per 
cent., there was just a slight indication of the blue flame below 
the pricker to gradually rise over the side of the pricker, but 
still no " cap "' was shown. Wlien the " cap "' over the lowered 
flame showed about ol pei- cent, (soon after the 4-per-cent. '' cap 
Avas put on), tlie flame imdei- tlie pricker gave a sudden leap over 
the top of the pricker and showed a '' cap " of over 2 inches. 
The test was repeated several times, and each time it was found 
that with tlie pricker over the flame it did not give any indication 
below at least 3A pe^r cent, of gas. Over 3i and at 4 per cent, 
it gave a " cap " of abnormal size (over 2 incdies). He 
wondered whether there was a certain knack in the placing of 
the pricker that he was not acquainted with, or whether the 
pricker made at Ashington that caused the failure of the test 



VOL. LXVII — I9I6 ipr 



2 K 



18 TUAXSACTIOXS TIIK XOIMH OF E.\(.LA\I) INSTrnTK. [Vol. Ixvii. 

was at fault in not sliowing- a percentage of gas less than -i^ per 
cent., as Mr. Tate had stated that the pricker had been tried 
for over 12 months and liad been found to be satisfactory. Since 
'2h per cent, of gas was considered " dangerous " for working 
])urposes, how could the test be eft'ected as to make it show 
that iierceutage or under? 

The Presidext (Mr. Frank Coulson) said that it was interest- 
ing to hear these references to the Davy lamp 100 years after the 
invention, and to learn that some people had confidence in it at 
the present time. He imagined that under existing conditions 
in deep pits the Davy lamp would not be of much use. At the 
time when it was invented the use of the naked light had reached 
its limit, and it was absolutely necessary' to have something 
resembling Davy's invention to render it safe for men to work in 
coal-mines. It seemed to him there were three essential require- 
ments in a safety-lamp, namely: (1) it should give a good light; 
(2) it should become extinguished when introduced into an 
explosive mixture; and (3) there should be no contrivance by 
which the workmen could relight it in the workings. He would 
like to ask Mr. Tate what would be the result if a Davy lamp be- 
came unduly hot in the presence of a large amount of coal-dust, 
and that dust settled on the gauze. He did not mean the tin-can 
Davy, but even with that lamp the dust could get in. Would 
there be any chance of the ignition of the dust or of any other 
material that came into contact with the red-hot gauze? "Would 
there not be a chance of a flame being produced which would 
render the lamp dangerous? Or, supposing that a man was test- 
ing for gas iu-bye, that the gas came very freely — more quickly 
than he could get away from it — and burnt inside the gauze, and 
the lamp became red hot : what would be the result? He remem- 
bered that in his early days the Davy lamp was used to a very 
great extent when shot-firing where there was gas present by 
inserting a piece of wire through the gauze to make it red hot for 
ligliting the shots. It was probably tlie only safety-lamp at that 
time by which a shot could be lighted. 

Prof. Hex'ry Lons (Armstrong College, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne) said that he had an impression that something similar to 
Mr. Tate's pricker had been put before the Institute by Mr. 
W. C. Blackett in the form of a contrivance for screening off the 
white light of the safety-lamp. All of these inventions for 
obscuring the white light and for using a light comparatively 
large were liable to a danger which was not sufficiently ap- 
preciated, and which was that the cap thus produced no longer 
corresponded to the cap obtained with the flame turned down. 
He admitted that the mistake, if any. was on the right side : it 
wns apt to mnke the proportions of gas appear larger than it 



11)16-1917] DISCUSSION FURTHER NOTES ON SAFETV-LAMPS . 19 

otherwise would. The cap on a safety-lamp was, of course, caused 
by the particles of methane burnino- above the flame, and the size 
of the cap was aifected by the rate at which these particles 
ig-nited within the range of the flame. Obviously, therefore, the 
size of the caj) could be increased by either one of two factors — 
either by the increase of the number of methane particles in the 
air or by an increase of whatever it was that ignited the methane. 
This was especially marked in the case of methane — it was pro- 
bably true of all gases — on account of its slow rate of inflamma- 
tion. So that if they worked with the flame turned down until it 
showed no white light, they were working under different condi- 
tions from those under which they would be working with the 
flame not turned down so far as to obscure the white light. 
Unless, therefore, one was very careful to set a new scale or stan- 
dard under such conditions with an obscured white light, they 
would have misreadings. This was a point to which he wished to 
draw Mr. Tate's attention, and he would like to know whether he 
(Mr. Tate) had worked out the problem from that point of view. 

Mr. Mark Ford (Washington) said that Mr. Tate had 
referred in his paper to the historical part of the subject. He 
(Mr. Ford) thought that the different safety-lamps used in the 
various collieries was accounted for by the likes and dislikes of 
the controlling viewers. The principal lamp in use at Washington 
Colliery in the year 1879 was the unprotected Clanny with 
one gauze and a gauze-cap. It gave a good light. The boys used 
unprotected Davy lamps except in a certain district where gas 
was given off, and here the Davy lamp was used inside a tin-can, 
although the hewers and others used the Clanny. The wastemen 
used " Geordy " lamps until the 1887 Act came into force, when 
the bonneted Davy was substituted. Mr. Tate seemed to regret 
the disuse of these lamps, but he (Mr. Ford) thought nobody else 
did — ^neither men, boys, nor ponies — and their passing was 
viewed with great satisfaction. 

Mr. M. W. Parrington (Wearmouth Colliery) said that they 
must not lose sight of the fact that the same old principle that 
was adopted by Davy was still in force in every oil-burning 
lamp. The provision of the bonnet of the lamp had been 
necessitated by the huge increase in the air-currents. He per- 
sonally would not like to use a Davy lamp in such currents of air 
as they now had in their mines. Mr. Tate had referred to an 
inquest at Wearmouth Colliery. When he (Mr. Parrington) went 
to Wearmouth 44 years ago a very old report book came into his 
hands in which the reports were entered phonetically in the broad 
local dialect. One entry was: " Jack Johnson got hisself brunt 
in the stow bord." That might be the same accident to which 
Mr. Tate referred, but he wished to point out that if such an 



20 IRAXSAITIONS TIIK XOK'I'II OK K.\( .I.A \I) 1 NS'I'l'lirK . | Vol. Ixvii. 

accident occurred now, the explosion would not be confined to 
the limited area of the stow bord ; therefore, where it was safe to 
use a Davy lamp in the old days, with practically no current of 
air it mig-ht be very unsafe to use it now. 

Mr. C. C. Leach (Seghill) remarked that even if anybody 
was burnt in the stow bord, it was not necessary that this would 
cause a general explosion if the pit was stone-dusted. He thought 
that all the old explosions were carried on by dust and not by 
gas. 

Mr. Parrington agreed, and said that they now had currents 
of aij- loaded with dust, and that every set of tubs caused a cloud 
of dust. 

Mr. Leach said that when this question first came up the 
dust at a colliery with which he was connected was analysed 
at the worst places they could get for evidence in view of the 
forthcoming legislation. Some years afterwards the same places 
were again analysed, and the excess of coal-dust was (within 1 or 
2 per cent.) found to be exactly the same, but it was now mixed 
with stone-dust, being automatically stone-dusted by the horses 
and men going in and out. 

Mr. Simon Tate (East Hetton), in reply, said that there was 
no doubt that the Clanny lamp for the ordinary workman pro- 
vided a much better light than the Davy. That fact he did not 
dispute; indeed, he considered it a better light for all ordinary 
purposes. Under certain conditions, liowever, he thought that 
every official who travelled a place with a tin-can Davy had a 
very useful lamp, which should not have been prohibited. If 
they wanted a better light, they would use the ordinary Clanny 
lamp. No one would travel pits such as Mr. Eord's without 
now and again coming across gas unexpectedly, and if he were 
using a Clanny lamp he would lose his light, but with the tin- 
can Davy there would be no fear of that. 

With regard to the gauze becoming red hot, nothing would 
take place unless it became extremely hot and there was a strong 
current of air; but he thought that no one would stop in the 
place until it was as hot as that, but would get out and pull 
his light down. It had been repeatedly proved that lamps had 
been used without accident when the gauze was red hot. but none 
of them would care to run that risk now. 

Prof. Louis had mentioned Mr. Blackett's invention, but that 
device did not interfere with the light but obscured it: it was a 
sort of screen put in front of the light, and was not in contact 
with it. 

Prof. Henry Louis said that his remarks had been based on a 
misunderstanding of Mr. Tate's improved pricker. 



I 



1916-1917.] DISCUSSION FUimiEll NOTES ON SAFETY-LAMPS. 



21 



Mr. Tatk said that the (|iu'stiou of testing for gas liad been 
brought before liim very prominently during the last two or 
three years. He had experienced innuinera1)le instances in which 
■deputies had gone into jjjaces and passed them as free from gas, 
wliile the Inspectors had followed and discovered up to 2h per 
cent. No deputy could examine for gas with convenience and 
■comfort if lie could not obscure his light. If he examined with 
60 small a light as that which he (Mv. Tate) had shown in the 
experiment, it would go out; he would not get liis flat examined, 
and the men would not get into their places. They must put into 
tlie hands of the deputies an instrument with which they could 
examine with safety. They all knew that there were many 
instances where the Inspectors asserted there was gas while the 
deputies reported there was none, and they as managers had to 
face that difference of opinion. What was the reason? Because 
the deputy was not able to examine the places properly, and if 
his (Mr. Tate's) device would make it comfortable and convenient 
for the men to test for gas without losing their lights, he would 
be very pleased indeed. He invited managers and agents to ex- 
periment with it. It was not a patent, and he did not intend to 
patent it. Dr. Clanny and Sir Humphry Davy did not patent 
their lamps, as a safety-lamp was an appliance for the safety 
of the workmen. He hoped that they would try the pricker on 
iheir lamps before the date of the next meeting and let the 
members know what they had accomplished with it. 



3 E 



22 TKAXS.UriONS TllK .NOUTIL OF K.\(;LAXJ) IXSTlTrTK. [Vol. Ixvii. 



THE NORTH OF ENGLAND INSTITUTE OE MINING AND 
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



GENERAL MEETING, 

Hkt.d in the Wood Memorial Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tvne, 

Ai'RiL 14th, 1917. 



Prof. HENRY LOUIS, M.A. , Vice-President, in the Chair. 



DISCUSSION OF MR. F. F. MAIRET'S PAPER ON " THE 
ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION OF 
POWER AT COLLIERIES."* 

Mr. Maek Hallid.a.y (Durham) said that the paper contained 
.some very interesting figures on power costs and many valuable 
suggestions for effecting economies in power production and 
utilization ; the ground covered was extensive, and therefore 
afforded mucli scope for comment. On reading the paper and the 
discussion he was surj^rised to find such a variety of opinion re- 
garding the cheapest method of producing energy. It appeared 
to him that tlie reason for this was the absence of an agreed unit 
or units as a basis of comparison. 

Costs of generating power on the basis of the output of the 
mine and also on the basis of the kilowatt-hour or horsepower- 
hour had been referred to, and although those figures were ex- 
tremely useful and necessary, each one in itself was insufficient to 
indicate the working conditions of the power plant. It occurred 
to him that if the number of kilowatt-hours per ton of mineral 
raised, and also the cost per ton raised, were ascertained in each 
case, a valuable standard of comparison would be obtained. From 
tliese figures the cost of producing power per kilowatt-hour could 
be derived. 

Another figure which it was desirable to obtain was the cost of 
power per kilowatt-year on the maximum demand over any half- 
hour, which in conjunction with the previous figure would give 
an indication of the load-factor, the importance of which could 
not be overestimated. The reason for tliis combination of figures 
was obvious when one considered the variety of conditions pre- 
vailing at collieries. 

He was aware that serious objections might be raised to re- 
gistering power on these lines. It was an easy matter to obtain 

* Travs. Imt. M. E., 1916-1917, vol. lii., pages 71, 127, and 239 ; and voL 
liii. , page 58. 



1 



1916-1917.] DISCUSSION PKODrCTIOX AND ITI l.I /.ATION OK I'OW KK. 23 

fuel consumption and labour costs, but units of power could not 
be so readily measured. \i a colliery worked exclusively by 
electrical cner<>y obtained from a supply company, the power 
cousum])tion was easily recorded on an integ'rating' kilowatt-liour 
meter, and therefore presented no difficulty. To obtain the re- 
-ult at a steani-driven colliery presented a rather more difficult 
Itroblem, and reqiiired a fairly considerable amount of time and 
skilled labour. It could, however, be arrived at fairly accurately 
by the use of the continuous indicator for winding- and haulao'c- 
eno-iues and ordinary indicator-diag'iams for engines on steady 
loads. \ complete record of the Avork done during a wind, or by 
an engine bringing out a set, could be indicated on the continu- 
ous diagram, and the results rapidly calculated by measuring the 
areas of the diagrams with a planimeter. The whole of the work 
done could be thus recorded over a given period, and a fairly 
average set of conditions obtained, ■which would serve as a useful 
basis for comparison. 

He would advocate the adoption of recording apparatus on 
any power plant wherever possible if the engineer wished to 
obtain the best results. All feed-water should be measured by 
such instruments as the Lea recorder, which would give a check 
on the evaporative capacity of the boilers. It might safely be 
said that most of the progress that had already been made wavS 
due to the adoption of measuring instrunients, which invariably 
exposed defects and waste. Further, in allocating the costs of 
utilizing power, it would be better for the sake of comparison for 
such costs as winding to calculate on the basis of a ton raised 
1,000 feet, and not simply on the depth of the mine where the 
tests might liappeii to be carried out. A com^enient basis for 
haulage costs was the ton-mile. 

With regard to the production of energy, undoubtedly the 
central electrical power station linked up with waste-heat stations 
was by far the most eco